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authorBalbir Singh <balbir@linux.vnet.ibm.com>2008-09-26 11:56:34 +0000
committerBalbir Singh <balbir@linux.vnet.ibm.com>2008-09-26 11:56:34 +0000
commit35d2e11a0458a79c89816a2f0be6fb957f91873e (patch)
treed3aa75330e12baf3208cc1513094fa07bd16eddd /README_daemon
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Merge the cgruleseng daemon from Steve Olivieri
Signed-off-by: Steve Olivieri <sjo@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Balbir Singh <balbir@linux.vnet.ibm.com> git-svn-id: https://libcg.svn.sourceforge.net/svnroot/libcg/trunk@190 4f4bb910-9a46-0410-90c8-c897d4f1cd53
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+DESCRIPTION
+===========
+The CGroup Rules Engine Daemon is a tool that will automatically place tasks
+into the correct cgroup based on UID/GID events from the kernel. It will not
+automatically classify tasks that are already running, but it will classify
+any new tasks, and any tasks which change their UID/GID. Note that we use
+the euid and egid, not the ruid and rgid.
+
+Unlike other tools, cgrulesengd caches the rules configuration in a data
+structure (it's actually just a FIFO linked list) so that it doesn't need to
+parse the configuration file more than once. This should be much faster than
+parsing the rules for each UID/GID event. Eventually, this caching logic
+should be part of libcgroup, so that any other program can take advantage of it
+(and so that all programs are using the same table). The configuration can
+be reloaded without stopping the daemon (more information below).
+
+WHY A DAEMON?
+=============
+A daemon is easy to use, and allows an administrator to ensure that all tasks
+are classified into the correct cgroups without constantly monitoring the
+system. The daemon is transparent to the users, and does not require any
+modifications to existing userspace programs. Finally, the daemon can be
+started and stopped at any time, including at boot time with other services.
+Thus, sytem administrators can decide not to use the daemon if they choose.
+
+Most importantly, some programs create new users and/or run scripts,
+threads, etc. as those users using suexec(). This call does not go through
+PAM, so these scripts would continue running in the same cgroup as the parent
+program. This behavior is likely not ideal, and the daemon would solve this
+problem.
+
+Apache does this. Apache creates a user called 'apache' and uses setuid() to
+launch tasks as that user. This does not go through PAM, so without a daemon,
+these tasks would continue to run in the 'root' cgroup rather than in the
+'apache' or 'webserver' cgroup. The daemon fixes this problem by catching the
+setuid() call and moving the tasks into the correct cgroup.
+
+We would ask Apache to modify their software to interface with libcgroup, but
+this solution is less than optimal because a lot of userspace software would
+have to be changed, and some authors might intentionally not interact with
+libcgroup, which could create an exploit. The daemon is a simple, transparent
+solution.
+
+USING THE DAEMON
+================
+The daemon can be used as a service with the cgred script, which is shipped
+as scripts/init.d/cgred. This script should be installed as /etc/init.d/cgred
+and used like any other service. To start the daemon,
+ /etc/init.d/cgred start
+To stop it,
+ /etc/init.d/cgred stop
+The restart (stop,start), condrestart (same as restart, but only if the daemon
+was already started), and status (print whether the daemon is started or
+stopped) commands are also supported. An additional command, "flash", allows
+you to reload the configuration file without stopping the daemon.
+ /etc/init.d/cgred flash
+The cgred script automatically loads configuration from /etc/cgred.d/cgred.conf,
+which is shipped as samples/cgred.conf. See that file for more information.
+
+If you choose not to run the daemon as a service, the following options are
+currently supported:
+ --nodaemon Do not run as a daemon
+ --nolog Write log output to stdout instead of a log file
+ --config [FILE] Read rules configuration from FILE instead of
+ /etc/cgrules.conf
+
+You can ask the daemon to reload the configuration by sending it SIGUSR2. The
+easiest way to do this is with the 'kill' command:
+ kill -s SIGUSR2 [PID]
+
+TESTING
+=======
+The program setuid (found in tests/setuid.c) can help you test the daemon. By
+default, this program attempts to change its UID to root and then idles until
+you kill it. You can change the default behavior to use a different UID, or
+you can uncomment the second block of code to instead attempt to change the
+GID.
+
+In order to make sure that everything works, I used the following rules:
+ sjo cpu default
+ cgtest cpu cgtest
+ % memory default
+ @cgroup cpu,memory cgtest
+ peter cpu test1
+ % memory test2
+ @root * default
+ * * default
+
+The users 'sjo' and 'cgtest' were normal users. 'peter' is not a user on the
+system. The group 'cgroup' is a group containing sjo,root,cgtest as members,
+and the group 'root' contains only root. The cgroups 'default' and 'cgtest'
+exist, while 'test1' and 'test2' do not. Currently, the daemon does not check
+for the existance of 'test1', though this would be easier to do once the
+parsing and caching logic is moved into libcgroup.
+
+I ran the following tests, all of which were successful:
+ - set UID to sjo (should move cpu controller into default)
+ - set UID to root (should move cpu,memory controllers into cgtest)
+ - set UID to cgtest (should move cpu controller into cgtest, memory
+ controller into default)
+ - set GID to root (should move all controllers into default)
+ - set GID to cgroup (should move cpu, memory into cgtest)
+ - set GID to users (should move all controllers into default)
+
+The parsing logic will skip the 'peter' rule as well as its multi-line
+components (in this case "% memory test2"), because the user does not exist.
+This should work for group rules, too. Attempting to setuid() or setgid() to a
+user/group that doesn't exist will just return an error and not generate a
+kernel event of the PROC_EVENT_UID or PROC_EVENT_GID type, so the daemon won't
+do anything for it.
+
+CONCERNS/ISSUES
+===============
+ - Netlink can be unreliable, and the daemon might miss an event if the buffer
+ is full. One possible solution is to have one or two files that the kernel
+ can queue UID/GID changes in, and have the daemon read those files whenever
+ they are updated. From testing, this does not actually appear to be a real
+ problem, but it could become one with faster machines.
+ - The daemon does not care for namespaces at all, which can cause conflicts
+ with containers. If a user places his tasks into exec-based cgroups (such
+ as 'network' and 'development'), the daemon will not realize this and will
+ simply place them into the user's cgroup (so, sjo/ instead of sjo/network/).
+
+CHANGELOG
+=========
+V9:
+ - Updated documentation, because it was very old and incorrect.
+ - Reverted the changes to cgexec and cgclassify.
+ - New API function: cgroup_change_cgroup_uid_gid_flags().
+ - Deprecated cgroup_change_cgroup_uid_gid().
+ - Rewrote some of the rule matching and execution logic in api.c to be
+ faster, and easier to read.
+ - Changes all negative return values to positive values. As a side effect,
+ cgroup_parse_rules() now returns -1 when we get a match and we are using
+ non-cached rules.
+ - Changes CGROUP_FUSECACHE to CGFLAG_USECACHE.
+ - Flags are now enumerated (cgflags), instead of #defines.
+
+V8:
+ - Moved the event-handling logic back into the daemon, where it should be.
+ - Changed cgroup_parse_rules() to work with cached rules or non-cached rules.
+ The other parsing function is no longer needed, and should be deprecated.
+ - Non-cached rules now work with the same structs as cached rules.
+ - Modified cgroup_change_cgroup_uid_gid() with a new 'flags' parameter.
+ Currently, the only flag is "CGROUP_FUSECACHE" to use the cached rules logic
+ (or not).
+ - Added cgroup_rules_loaded() boolean, to check whether the cached rules have
+ been loaded yet, and cgroup_init_rules_cache() to load them.
+ - Modified cgexec and cgclassify to work with the new
+ cgroup_change_cgroup_uid_gid().
+
+V7:
+ - Moved parsing and caching logic into libcgroup.
+ - Added locking mechanisms around the list of rules.
+ - Cleaned up #includes in cgrulesegnd.[h,c].
+ - Added notification if netlink receive queue overflows.
+ - Added logic to catch SIGINT in addition to SIGTERM.
+ - New API functions:
+ - cgroup_free_rule(struct cgroup_rule*)
+ - cgroup_free_rule_list(struct cgroup_rule_list*)
+ - cgroup_parse_rules(void)
+ - cgroup_print_rules_config(FILE*)
+ - cgroup_reload_cached_rules(void)
+ - cgroup_change_cgroup_event(struct proc_event*, int, FILE*)
+
+V6:
+ - Wrote new parsing logic, which is cleaner and simpler.
+ - Added cgred script to enable using the daemon as a service.
+ - Wrote caching logic to cache rules table.
+ - Added the ability to force a reload of the rules table with SIGUSR2 signal.
+ - Added two structures to libcgroup: cgre_rule and cgre_rules_list
+ - New API function: cgroup_reload_cached_rules, which reloads the rules table.
+ - Added logging capabilities (default log is /root/cgrulesengd.conf)
+
+TODO
+====
+ - Find a way to replace Netlink, or at least clean up that code.
+ - Find a solution to the namespace problem.