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-<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
-<?oxygen RNGSchema="http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/5.0/rng/docbookxi.rng" type="xml"?>
-
-<chapter xmlns="http://docbook.org/ns/docbook" xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" version="5.0" xml:id="basics">
- <title>Spice basics</title>
- <section xml:id="definitions">
- <title>Basic Definitions</title>
- <section xml:id="host">
- <title>Host</title>
- <para>Host is a machine running an instance of qemu-kvm.</para>
- </section>
-
- <section xml:id="guest">
- <title>Guest</title>
- <para>
- Guest is a virtual machine hosted on the <link linkend="host">host</link>
- which will be accessed with a spice client.
- </para>
- </section>
-
- <section xml:id="client">
- <title>Client</title>
- <para>
- Client is referring to a system running the spice client
- (the recommended one is virt-viewer).
- </para>
- </section>
- </section>
-
- <section xml:id="qemu_basics">
- <title>Launching qemu</title>
- <para>I'll use qemu-kvm as a name for the executable. If you're using a manually built qemu or
- a qemu without kvm then just replace qemu-kvm with your own binary. I'll use host# client#
- guest# shell prompt notations to distinguish where the command should be the command. See
- section <link xlink:href="definitions">Basic Definitions</link> to be sure that you know
- difference between the host, client and guest. You can ignore the difference between guest, client
- and host if they are all running on the same machine.</para>
-
- <para>
- <emphasis role="bold">The first important thing to do is to create a guest
- image.</emphasis> You can use any raw device such as a clean logical volume, or an iSCSI
- lun. You may also use a file as the disk image for the guest. I'll use a file created by qemu-img as a demonstration.
- </para>
-
- <para>
- The following command will allocate a 10GB file. See qemu-img man page for further information.
- </para>
-
- <screen>host# qemu-img create /path/to/xp.img 10G</screen>
-
- <para>
- Now that we created an image, we can now start with image population. I assume that you have
- a locally stored ISO of your favourite operating system so you can use it for installation.
- </para>
-
- <screen>host# sudo qemu-kvm -boot order=dc -vga qxl \
- -spice port=3001,disable-ticketing -soundhw ac97 \
- -device virtio-serial -chardev spicevmc,id=vdagent,debug=0,name=vdagent \
- -device virtserialport,chardev=vdagent,name=com.redhat.spice.0 \
- -cdrom /path/to/your.iso /path/to/your.img</screen>
-
- <para>
- Let's take a brief look at the qemu options that were used. The option -boot order=dc specifies that the guest system
- should try to boot from the first cdrom and then fallback to the first disk, -vga qxl specifies that qemu should
- emulate the qxl device adapter.
- </para>
- <para> The Spice port option defines what port will be used for communication with the client. The Spice
- option disable-ticketing is telling us that ticketing <emphasis role="italic">(simple
- authentication method)</emphasis> is not used. The virtio and chardev devices are
- required by <link xlink:href="SpiceUserManual-Introduction.xml#vdagent">the guest
- agent</link>.
- </para>
- </section>
-
- <section xml:id="qemu_spice">
- <title>Adding Spice support to an existing virtual machine</title>
- <para>
- This section will assume that you already have a running QEMU virtual machine,
- and that you are running it either through virt-manager, libvirt or through
- direct QEMU use, and that you want to enable Spice support for this virtual
- machine.
- </para>
-
- <section>
- <title>Using virt-manager</title>
- <para>
- Double-click on the virtual machine you are interested in, go to View/Details.
- If the left pane has a "Display Spice" entry, then the virtual machine already
- has Spice support, and you can check the connection details (port number)
- by clicking on it. If it has no Spice entry, click on "Add
- Hardware", and add a "Graphics" element of type "Spice server".
- If the host and the client are not the same machine, you should check
- the "Listen on all public network interfaces" checkbox, otherwise you
- don't need to make any changes.
- </para>
- <para>
- You should also add a QXL video device. It can be done by double-clicking
- on a virtual machine, then by going to View/Details, and by clicking
- on "Add Hardware" if the virtual machine does not have a "Video QXL" item
- in its left pane. From the "Add hardware" dialog, you should then create
- a "Video" device whose model is "QXL".
- </para>
- <para>
- After stopping and restarting the virtual machine, it should be
- accessible with a Spice client.
- </para>
- <para>
- You can remove non-Spice display entries and non-QXL video entries from
- the virtual machine configuration.
- </para>
- <para>
- If you go to Edit/Preferences/VM Details in the main virt-manager window,
- you can set Spice graphics type as the default setting for new virtual
- machines.
- </para>
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>Using libvirt</title>
- <para>
- All libvirt examples will assume that the virtual machine to modify
- is $vmname and that virsh is using the correct
- <link xlink:href="http://libvirt.org/uri.html">libvirt connection</link>
- by default.
- </para>
- <para>
- To add Spice support to an existing virtual machine managed by libvirt,
- you need to edit it:
- <screen>
-host# virsh edit $vmname
- </screen>
- and then add a <link xlink:href="http://libvirt.org/formatdomain.html#elementsGraphics">Spice graphics element</link>:
- <programlisting>
-&lt;graphics type='spice'/&gt;
- </programlisting>
- You should also add a <link xlink:href="http://libvirt.org/formatdomain.html#elementsVideo">QXL video device</link>
- <programlisting>
-&lt;video&gt;
- &lt;model type='qxl'&gt;
-&lt;/video&gt;
- </programlisting>
- </para>
- <para>
- After stopping and restarting the virtual machine $vmname, it should be
- accessible through Spice. You can check the connection parameters with:
- <screen>
-host# virsh domdisplay $vmname
- </screen>
- </para>
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>Using QEMU</title>
- <para>
- To enable Spice support to your virtual machine, you only need to
- append the following to your QEMU command line:
- <screen>
--spice port=3001,disable-ticketing
- </screen>
- This will setup a Spice session listening on port 3001 exporting
- your virtual machine display.
- </para>
- <para>
- You can also add a QXL device by appending this to the command line:
- <screen>
--vga qxl
- </screen>
- </para>
-
- </section>
-
- <section xml:id="client_basics">
- <title>Connecting to guest</title>
-
- <para>
- The following section will show you basic usage of the Spice
- client. The example connection will be related to the qemu instance
- started in <link xlink:href="#qemu_basics">the previous section</link>.
- </para>
-
- <para>
- Be aware that the port used for spice communication
- <emphasis role="italic">(port 3001 in our case)</emphasis> should not be
- blocked by firewall. <emphasis role="bold">Host myhost is referring to the
- machine which is running our qemu instance.</emphasis>
- </para>
-
- <screen>client# remote-viewer spice://myhost:3001</screen>
- <figure>
- <title>Established connection to Windows 2008 guest</title>
- <mediaobject>
- <imageobject>
- <imagedata fileref="resources/spicec01.png"/>
- </imageobject>
- </mediaobject>
- </figure>
- </section>
- </section>
-
- <section xml:id="ticketing">
- <title>Ticketing</title>
- <para>
- Spice does not currently support multiple connections to the same qemu
- instance. So anybody who will connect to the same host and port can simply
- take over your session.
-
- <emphasis role="bold">You can eliminate this problem by using
- <link xlink:href="#ticketing">ticketing</link> or SSL.</emphasis>
- </para>
-
- <para>
- Ticketing is a simple authentication system which enables you to set simple
- tickets to a vm.
- Client has to authentificate before the connection can be established. See
- the spice option password in the following example.
- </para>
-
- <section>
- <title>Using virt-manager</title>
- <para>
- To set a Spice password for a virtual machine, go to this machine
- details in virt-manager, and then click on the "Display Spice" item in
- the left pane, and enter the ticket you want to use in the "Password"
- field.
- </para>
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>Using libvirt</title>
- <para>
- All you need to do is to append a passwd attribute to the Spice
- graphics node for your virtual machine:
- <programlisting>
-&lt;graphics type='spice' passwd='mysecretpassword'/&gt;
- </programlisting>
- </para>
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>Using QEMU</title>
- <para>
- Adding a ticket with QEMU involves a slight modification of the -spice
- parameter used when running QEMU:
- <screen>
--spice port=3001,password=mysecretpassword
- </screen>
- </para>
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>Client</title>
- <para>
- When you start the client as usual, if ticketing was enabled on the host,
- remote-viewer will pop up a window asking for a password before starting
- the Spice session. It won't be established if an incorrect ticket was
- passed to the client.
- </para>
-
- <para>
- You might have figured out that passing tickets as a commandline option isn't very safe.
- <emphasis role="bold">It's not safe as everybody with access to the host can read it from the output of ps(1).</emphasis>
- To prevent this, the ticket can be also set by using the qemu console command spice._set_ticket.
- </para>
- </section>
- </section>
-
- <section xml:id="agent">
- <title>Agent</title>
- <para>
- Agent support allows better integration with the guest. For example, it
- allows copy and paste between the guest and the host OSes, dynamic resolution
- changes when the client window is resized/fullscreened, file transfers through
- drag and drop, ...
- </para>
- <para>
- The agent is a daemon/service running in the guest OS so it must be installed
- if it was not installed by default during the guest OS installation. It also
- relies on a virtio-serial PCI device and a dedicated spicevmc char device
- to achieve communication between the guest and the host. These devices must
- be added to the virtual machine if we want to agent to work properly in the
- guest.
- </para>
-
- <section>
- <title>Using virt-manager</title>
- <para>
- The needed devices can be added from the virtual machine details. Click
- on "Add hardware" and then add a "Channel" device with type
- "Spice agent (spicevmc)". This will automatically add the needed
- virtio-serial device in addition to the spicevmc channel.
- </para>
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>Using libvirt</title>
- <para>
- Two distinct devices must be added:
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>a <link xlink:href="http://libvirt.org/formatdomain.html#elementsControllers">virtio serial device</link></listitem>
- <listitem>a <link xlink:href="http://libvirt.org/formatdomain.html#elementCharChannel">spicevmc channel</link></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- <programlisting>
-&lt;devices&gt;
- &lt;controller type='virtio-serial' index='0'/&gt;
- &lt;channel type='spicevmc'&gt;
- &lt;target type='virtio' name='com.redhat.spice.0'/&gt;
- &lt;/channel&gt;
-&lt;/devices&gt;
- </programlisting>
- </para>
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>Using QEMU</title>
- <para>
- Adding the following parameters to your QEMU command line will
- enable the needed devices for agent support in the guest OS:
- <screen>
--device virtio-serial \
--chardev spicevmc,id=vdagent,debug=0,name=vdagent \
--device virtserialport,chardev=vdagent,name=com.redhat.spice.0 \
- </screen>
- </para>
- </section>
- </section>
-
- <section xml:id="USB">
- <title>USB redirection</title>
- <para>
- With USB redirection, USB devices plugged into the client machine can be
- transparently redirected to the guest OS. This redirection can either be
- automatic (all newly plugged devices are redirected), or manual
- (the user selects which devices (s)he wants to redirect).
- </para>
- <para>
- For redirection to work, the virtual machine must have an USB2 EHCI controller
- (this implies 3 additional UHCI controllers). It also needs to have
- Spice channels for USB redirection. The number of such channels correspond
- to the number of USB devices that it will be possible to redirect at the same
- time.
- </para>
-
- <section>
- <title>Using virt-manager</title>
- <para>
- Virtual machines created with virt-manager should have a USB controller
- by default. In the virtual machine details, select "Controller USB" in
- the left pane, and make sure its model is set to USB2. You can then
- click on "Add Hardware" and add as many "USB Redirection" items as
- the number of USB devices you want to be able to redirect simultaneously.
- </para>
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>Using libvirt</title>
- <para>
- You need to add the needed USB controllers to the libvirt XML (make
- sure there is no pre-existing USB controller in your virtual machine
- XML before doing this), as well as one Spice USB redirection channel
- per device you want to redirect simultaneously.
- <programlisting>
- &lt;controller type='usb' index='0' model='ich9-ehci1'/&gt;
-&lt;controller type='usb' index='0' model='ich9-uhci1'&gt;
- &lt;master startport='0'/&gt;
-&lt;/controller&gt;
-&lt;controller type='usb' index='0' model='ich9-uhci2'&gt;
- &lt;master startport='2'/&gt;
-&lt;/controller&gt;
-&lt;controller type='usb' index='0' model='ich9-uhci3'&gt;
- &lt;master startport='4'/&gt;
-&lt;/controller&gt;
-&lt;redirdev bus='usb' type='spicevmc'/&gt;
-&lt;redirdev bus='usb' type='spicevmc'/&gt;
-&lt;redirdev bus='usb' type='spicevmc'/&gt;
-&lt;redirdev bus='usb' type='spicevmc'/&gt;
- </programlisting>
- </para>
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>Using QEMU</title>
- <para>
- Similarly to libvirt, we need to add EHCI/UHCI controllers to QEMU
- command line, and we also need to add one Spice redirection channel per
- device we want to redirect simultaneously.
- <screen>
--device ich9-usb-ehci1,id=usb \
--device ich9-usb-uhci1,masterbus=usb.0,firstport=0,multifunction=on \
--device ich9-usb-uhci2,masterbus=usb.0,firstport=2 \
--device ich9-usb-uhci3,masterbus=usb.0,firstport=4 \
--chardev spicevmc,name=usbredir,id=usbredirchardev1 \
--device usb-redir,chardev=usbredirchardev1,id=usbredirdev1 \
--chardev spicevmc,name=usbredir,id=usbredirchardev2 \
--device usb-redir,chardev=usbredirchardev2,id=usbredirdev2 \
--chardev spicevmc,name=usbredir,id=usbredirchardev3 \
--device usb-redir,chardev=usbredirchardev3,id=usbredirdev3
- </screen>
- </para>
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>Client</title>
- <para>
- The client needs to have support for USB redirection. In remote-viewer,
- you can select which USB devices to redirect in File/USB device selection
- once the Spice connection is established. There are also various command
- line redirection options which are described when running remote-viewer
- with --help-spice.
- </para>
- </section>
- </section>
-
- <section xml:id="multi-monitors">
- <title>Multiple monitor support</title>
- <para>
- When using Spice, it's possible to use multiple monitors. For that, the guest
- must have multiple QXL devices (for Windows guests), or a single QXL device
- configured to support multiple heads (for Linux guests).
- </para>
- <para>
- Before following the instructions in this section, make sure your virtual machine
- already has a QXL device. If that is not the case, refer to
- <link xlink:href="qemu_spice">this section</link>. Your guest OS will
- also need to have the QXL driver installed or multiple monitor support will
- not work.
- </para>
- <para>
- Once your virtual machine is using a QXL device, you don't need to make
- any other change to get multiple heads in a Linux guest. The following
- paragraph will deal with adding multiple QXL devices to get multiple
- monitors in a Windows guest.
- </para>
-
- <section>
- <title>Using virt-manager</title>
- <para>
- To add an additional QXL device for Windows guests, simply go to your
- virtual machine details. Check that you already have a "Video QXL" device,
- if notclick on "Add Hardware", and add a "Video" device
- with model "QXL". This can also work with Linux guests if your are willing
- to configure X.Org to use Xinerama (instead of XRandR).
- </para>
- <para>
- If you are using a new enough distribution (for example Fedora 19), and if your
- virtual machine already has a QXL device, you should not need to make any changes
- in virt-manager. If you are using an older distribution, you can't do the required
- changes from virt-manager, you'll need to edit libvirt XML as described on this
- <link xlink:href="http://hansdegoede.livejournal.com/12969.html">blog post</link>.
- </para>
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>Using libvirt</title>
- <para>
- To add an additional QXL device to your virtual machine managed by
- libvirt, you simply need to append a new video node whose model is
- QXL:
- <programlisting>
-&lt;video&gt;
- &lt;model type='qxl'&gt;
-&lt;/video&gt;
-&lt;video&gt;
- &lt;model type='qxl'&gt;
-&lt;/video&gt;
- </programlisting>
- </para>
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>Using QEMU</title>
- <para>
- To get a second QXL device in your virtual machine, you need to append
- -device qxl to your QEMU command line in addition to the -vga qxl that
- is already there:
- <screen>
--vga qxl -device qxl
- </screen>
- </para>
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>Client</title>
- <para>
- You can enable additional displays either from the Display/Displays menu
- in remote-viewer, or from your guest OS display configuration tool.
- </para>
- </section>
- </section>
-
- <section xml:id="tls">
- <title>TLS</title>
- <para>
- TLS support allows to encrypt all/some of the channels Spice uses
- for its communication.
- A separate port is used for the encrypted channels.
- When connecting through a TLS channel, the Spice client will verify
- the certificate sent by the host. It will check that this
- certificate matches the hostname it's connecting, and that
- this certificate is signed by a known certificate authority
- (CA). This can be achieved by either getting the host
- certificate signed by an official CA, or by passing to the client
- the certificate of the authority which signed the host certificate.
- The latter allows the use of self-signed certificates.
- </para>
-
- <section>
- <title>Using virt-manager</title>
- <para>
- It's not possible to define the CA certificate/host certificate
- to use for the TLS connection using virt-manager, see the next
- section for how to enable this using libvirt.
- </para>
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>Using libvirt</title>
- <para>
- The certificate must be specified in libvirtd configuration
- file in /etc/libvirt/qemu.conf (or in
- ~/.config/libvirt/qemu.conf if you are using a session libvirt).
- See the documentation in this file reproduced below:
- <screen>
-# Enable use of TLS encryption on the SPICE server.
-#
-# It is necessary to setup CA and issue a server certificate
-# before enabling this.
-#
-spice_tls = 1
-
-
-# Use of TLS requires that x509 certificates be issued. The
-# default it to keep them in /etc/pki/libvirt-spice. This directory
-# must contain
-#
-# ca-cert.pem - the CA master certificate
-# server-cert.pem - the server certificate signed with ca-cert.pem
-# server-key.pem - the server private key
-#
-# This option allows the certificate directory to be changed.
-#
-spice_tls_x509_cert_dir = "/etc/pki/libvirt-spice"
- </screen>
- </para>
- <para>
- Once the above is done, when the domain is running, you
- should get something like what is below if you are leaving
- Spice port allocation up to libvirt:
- <screen>
-host# virsh domdisplay
-spice://127.0.0.1?tls-port=5901
- </screen>
- </para>
- <para>
- This means that the connection is possible both through TLS and
- without any encryption. You can edit the libvirt graphics node
- if you want to change that behaviour and only allow connections
- through TLS:
- <programlisting>
-&lt;graphics type='spice' autoport='yes' defaultMode='secure'/&gt;
- </programlisting>
- </para>
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>Using QEMU</title>
- <para>
- QEMU expects the certificates to be named the same way as what
- libvirt expects in the previous paragraph. The directory where
- these certificates can be found is specified as options to the
- -spice command line parameters:
- <screen>
--spice port=5900,tls-port=5901,disable-ticketing,x509-dir=/etc/pki/libvirt-spice
- </screen>
- </para>
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>Client</title>
- <para>
- We need to change 2 things when starting the client:
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>specify the tls port to use</listitem>
- <listitem>specify the CA certificate to use when verifying the host certificate</listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- With remote-viewer, this is done this way:
- <screen>
-client# remote-viewer --spice-ca-file=/etc/pki/libvirt-spice/ca-cert.ca spice://myhost?tls-port=5901
- </screen>
- </para>
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>Generating self-signed certificates for use with Spice</title>
- <para>
- The following script can be used to create the various certificates
- needed to use a TLS Spice connection. Make sure to substitute the hostname
- of your Spice host in the subject of the certificate signing request.
- <screen>
-SERVER_KEY=server-key.pem
-
-# creating a key for our ca
-if [ ! -e ca-key.pem ]; then
- openssl genrsa -des3 -out ca-key.pem 1024
-fi
-# creating a ca
-if [ ! -e ca-cert.pem ]; then
- openssl req -new -x509 -days 1095 -key ca-key.pem -out ca-cert.pem -utf8 -subj "/C=IL/L=Raanana/O=Red Hat/CN=my CA"
-fi
-# create server key
-if [ ! -e $SERVER_KEY ]; then
- openssl genrsa -out $SERVER_KEY 1024
-fi
-# create a certificate signing request (csr)
-if [ ! -e server-key.csr ]; then
- openssl req -new -key $SERVER_KEY -out server-key.csr -utf8 -subj "/C=IL/L=Raanana/O=Red Hat/CN=myhostname.example.com"
-fi
-# signing our server certificate with this ca
-if [ ! -e server-cert.pem ]; then
- openssl x509 -req -days 1095 -in server-key.csr -CA ca-cert.pem -CAkey ca-key.pem -set_serial 01 -out server-cert.pem
-fi
-
-# now create a key that doesn't require a passphrase
-openssl rsa -in $SERVER_KEY -out $SERVER_KEY.insecure
-mv $SERVER_KEY $SERVER_KEY.secure
-mv $SERVER_KEY.insecure $SERVER_KEY
-
-# show the results (no other effect)
-openssl rsa -noout -text -in $SERVER_KEY
-openssl rsa -noout -text -in ca-key.pem
-openssl req -noout -text -in server-key.csr
-openssl x509 -noout -text -in server-cert.pem
-openssl x509 -noout -text -in ca-cert.pem
- </screen>
- </para>
- </section>
- </section>
-
- <section xml:id="sasl">
- <title>SASL</title>
- <para>
- Spice server and client have support for SASL authentication. When using QEMU, /etc/sasl2/qemu.conf will be
- used as a configuration file. For testing, you can use the digest-md5 mechanism, and populate a test database
- using 'saslpasswd2 -f /etc/qemu/passwd.db -c foo'. These files have to be readable by the qemu process that will
- handle your VM.
- </para>
-
- <para>
- To troubleshoot SASL issues, running strace -e open on the QEMU process can be a useful first step.
- </para>
-
-
- <section>
- <title>Using virt-manager</title>
- <para>
- It's currently not possible to enable SASL from virt-manager.
- </para>
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>Using libvirt</title>
- <para>
- SASL support for SPICE has been added to libvirt mid-October 2013 so you need a libvirt version
- that was released after this date. To enable SASL, you need to add spice_sasl = 1 in /etc/libvirt/qemu.conf
- for the system libvirtd instance, and to ~/.config/libvirt/qemu.conf for the session libvirtd instance.
- </para>
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>Using QEMU</title>
- <para>
- Using SASL with QEMU involves a slight modification of the -spice
- parameter used when running QEMU:
- <screen>
--spice port=3001,sasl
- </screen>
- </para>
- </section>
-
- <section>
- <title>Client</title>
- <para>
- When you start the client as usual, if SASL was enabled on the host,
- remote-viewer will pop up a window asking for a password before starting
- the Spice session. It won't be established if an incorrect ticket was
- passed to the client.
- </para>
- </section>
- </section>
-</chapter>