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-[Generated file: see http://ozlabs.org/~rusty/virtio-spec/]
-Virtio PCI Card Specification
-v0.9.5 DRAFT
--
-
-Rusty Russell <rusty@rustcorp.com.au> IBM Corporation (Editor)
-
-2012 May 7.
-
-Purpose and Description
-
-This document describes the specifications of the “virtio” family
-of PCI[LaTeX Command: nomenclature] devices. These are devices
-are found in virtual environments[LaTeX Command: nomenclature],
-yet by design they are not all that different from physical PCI
-devices, and this document treats them as such. This allows the
-guest to use standard PCI drivers and discovery mechanisms.
-
-The purpose of virtio and this specification is that virtual
-environments and guests should have a straightforward, efficient,
-standard and extensible mechanism for virtual devices, rather
-than boutique per-environment or per-OS mechanisms.
-
- Straightforward: Virtio PCI devices use normal PCI mechanisms
- of interrupts and DMA which should be familiar to any device
- driver author. There is no exotic page-flipping or COW
- mechanism: it's just a PCI device.[footnote:
-This lack of page-sharing implies that the implementation of the
-device (e.g. the hypervisor or host) needs full access to the
-guest memory. Communication with untrusted parties (i.e.
-inter-guest communication) requires copying.
-]
-
- Efficient: Virtio PCI devices consist of rings of descriptors
- for input and output, which are neatly separated to avoid cache
- effects from both guest and device writing to the same cache
- lines.
-
- Standard: Virtio PCI makes no assumptions about the environment
- in which it operates, beyond supporting PCI. In fact the virtio
- devices specified in the appendices do not require PCI at all:
- they have been implemented on non-PCI buses.[footnote:
-The Linux implementation further separates the PCI virtio code
-from the specific virtio drivers: these drivers are shared with
-the non-PCI implementations (currently lguest and S/390).
-]
-
- Extensible: Virtio PCI devices contain feature bits which are
- acknowledged by the guest operating system during device setup.
- This allows forwards and backwards compatibility: the device
- offers all the features it knows about, and the driver
- acknowledges those it understands and wishes to use.
-
- Virtqueues
-
-The mechanism for bulk data transport on virtio PCI devices is
-pretentiously called a virtqueue. Each device can have zero or
-more virtqueues: for example, the network device has one for
-transmit and one for receive.
-
-Each virtqueue occupies two or more physically-contiguous pages
-(defined, for the purposes of this specification, as 4096 bytes),
-and consists of three parts:
-
-
-+-------------------+-----------------------------------+-----------+
-| Descriptor Table | Available Ring (padding) | Used Ring |
-+-------------------+-----------------------------------+-----------+
-
-
-When the driver wants to send a buffer to the device, it fills in
-a slot in the descriptor table (or chains several together), and
-writes the descriptor index into the available ring. It then
-notifies the device. When the device has finished a buffer, it
-writes the descriptor into the used ring, and sends an interrupt.
-
-Specification
-
- PCI Discovery
-
-Any PCI device with Vendor ID 0x1AF4, and Device ID 0x1000
-through 0x103F inclusive is a virtio device[footnote:
-The actual value within this range is ignored
-]. The device must also have a Revision ID of 0 to match this
-specification.
-
-The Subsystem Device ID indicates which virtio device is
-supported by the device. The Subsystem Vendor ID should reflect
-the PCI Vendor ID of the environment (it's currently only used
-for informational purposes by the guest).
-
-
-+----------------------+--------------------+---------------+
-| Subsystem Device ID | Virtio Device | Specification |
-+----------------------+--------------------+---------------+
-+----------------------+--------------------+---------------+
-| 1 | network card | Appendix C |
-+----------------------+--------------------+---------------+
-| 2 | block device | Appendix D |
-+----------------------+--------------------+---------------+
-| 3 | console | Appendix E |
-+----------------------+--------------------+---------------+
-| 4 | entropy source | Appendix F |
-+----------------------+--------------------+---------------+
-| 5 | memory ballooning | Appendix G |
-+----------------------+--------------------+---------------+
-| 6 | ioMemory | - |
-+----------------------+--------------------+---------------+
-| 7 | rpmsg | Appendix H |
-+----------------------+--------------------+---------------+
-| 8 | SCSI host | Appendix I |
-+----------------------+--------------------+---------------+
-| 9 | 9P transport | - |
-+----------------------+--------------------+---------------+
-| 10 | mac80211 wlan | - |
-+----------------------+--------------------+---------------+
-
-
- Device Configuration
-
-To configure the device, we use the first I/O region of the PCI
-device. This contains a virtio header followed by a
-device-specific region.
-
-There may be different widths of accesses to the I/O region; the “
-natural” access method for each field in the virtio header must
-be used (i.e. 32-bit accesses for 32-bit fields, etc), but the
-device-specific region can be accessed using any width accesses,
-and should obtain the same results.
-
-Note that this is possible because while the virtio header is PCI
-(i.e. little) endian, the device-specific region is encoded in
-the native endian of the guest (where such distinction is
-applicable).
-
- Device Initialization Sequence<sub:Device-Initialization-Sequence>
-
-We start with an overview of device initialization, then expand
-on the details of the device and how each step is preformed.
-
- Reset the device. This is not required on initial start up.
-
- The ACKNOWLEDGE status bit is set: we have noticed the device.
-
- The DRIVER status bit is set: we know how to drive the device.
-
- Device-specific setup, including reading the Device Feature
- Bits, discovery of virtqueues for the device, optional MSI-X
- setup, and reading and possibly writing the virtio
- configuration space.
-
- The subset of Device Feature Bits understood by the driver is
- written to the device.
-
- The DRIVER_OK status bit is set.
-
- The device can now be used (ie. buffers added to the
- virtqueues)[footnote:
-Historically, drivers have used the device before steps 5 and 6.
-This is only allowed if the driver does not use any features
-which would alter this early use of the device.
-]
-
-If any of these steps go irrecoverably wrong, the guest should
-set the FAILED status bit to indicate that it has given up on the
-device (it can reset the device later to restart if desired).
-
-We now cover the fields required for general setup in detail.
-
- Virtio Header
-
-The virtio header looks as follows:
-
-
-+------------++---------------------+---------------------+----------+--------+---------+---------+---------+--------+
-| Bits || 32 | 32 | 32 | 16 | 16 | 16 | 8 | 8 |
-+------------++---------------------+---------------------+----------+--------+---------+---------+---------+--------+
-| Read/Write || R | R+W | R+W | R | R+W | R+W | R+W | R |
-+------------++---------------------+---------------------+----------+--------+---------+---------+---------+--------+
-| Purpose || Device | Guest | Queue | Queue | Queue | Queue | Device | ISR |
-| || Features bits 0:31 | Features bits 0:31 | Address | Size | Select | Notify | Status | Status |
-+------------++---------------------+---------------------+----------+--------+---------+---------+---------+--------+
-
-
-If MSI-X is enabled for the device, two additional fields
-immediately follow this header:[footnote:
-ie. once you enable MSI-X on the device, the other fields move.
-If you turn it off again, they move back!
-]
-
-
-+------------++----------------+--------+
-| Bits || 16 | 16 |
- +----------------+--------+
-+------------++----------------+--------+
-| Read/Write || R+W | R+W |
-+------------++----------------+--------+
-| Purpose || Configuration | Queue |
-| (MSI-X) || Vector | Vector |
-+------------++----------------+--------+
-
-
-Immediately following these general headers, there may be
-device-specific headers:
-
-
-+------------++--------------------+
-| Bits || Device Specific |
- +--------------------+
-+------------++--------------------+
-| Read/Write || Device Specific |
-+------------++--------------------+
-| Purpose || Device Specific... |
-| || |
-+------------++--------------------+
-
-
- Device Status
-
-The Device Status field is updated by the guest to indicate its
-progress. This provides a simple low-level diagnostic: it's most
-useful to imagine them hooked up to traffic lights on the console
-indicating the status of each device.
-
-The device can be reset by writing a 0 to this field, otherwise
-at least one bit should be set:
-
- ACKNOWLEDGE (1) Indicates that the guest OS has found the
- device and recognized it as a valid virtio device.
-
- DRIVER (2) Indicates that the guest OS knows how to drive the
- device. Under Linux, drivers can be loadable modules so there
- may be a significant (or infinite) delay before setting this
- bit.
-
- DRIVER_OK (4) Indicates that the driver is set up and ready to
- drive the device.
-
- FAILED (128) Indicates that something went wrong in the guest,
- and it has given up on the device. This could be an internal
- error, or the driver didn't like the device for some reason, or
- even a fatal error during device operation. The device must be
- reset before attempting to re-initialize.
-
- Feature Bits<sub:Feature-Bits>
-
-Thefirst configuration field indicates the features that the
-device supports. The bits are allocated as follows:
-
- 0 to 23 Feature bits for the specific device type
-
- 24 to 32 Feature bits reserved for extensions to the queue and
- feature negotiation mechanisms
-
-For example, feature bit 0 for a network device (i.e. Subsystem
-Device ID 1) indicates that the device supports checksumming of
-packets.
-
-The feature bits are negotiated: the device lists all the
-features it understands in the Device Features field, and the
-guest writes the subset that it understands into the Guest
-Features field. The only way to renegotiate is to reset the
-device.
-
-In particular, new fields in the device configuration header are
-indicated by offering a feature bit, so the guest can check
-before accessing that part of the configuration space.
-
-This allows for forwards and backwards compatibility: if the
-device is enhanced with a new feature bit, older guests will not
-write that feature bit back to the Guest Features field and it
-can go into backwards compatibility mode. Similarly, if a guest
-is enhanced with a feature that the device doesn't support, it
-will not see that feature bit in the Device Features field and
-can go into backwards compatibility mode (or, for poor
-implementations, set the FAILED Device Status bit).
-
- Configuration/Queue Vectors
-
-When MSI-X capability is present and enabled in the device
-(through standard PCI configuration space) 4 bytes at byte offset
-20 are used to map configuration change and queue interrupts to
-MSI-X vectors. In this case, the ISR Status field is unused, and
-device specific configuration starts at byte offset 24 in virtio
-header structure. When MSI-X capability is not enabled, device
-specific configuration starts at byte offset 20 in virtio header.
-
-Writing a valid MSI-X Table entry number, 0 to 0x7FF, to one of
-Configuration/Queue Vector registers, maps interrupts triggered
-by the configuration change/selected queue events respectively to
-the corresponding MSI-X vector. To disable interrupts for a
-specific event type, unmap it by writing a special NO_VECTOR
-value:
-
-/* Vector value used to disable MSI for queue */
-
-#define VIRTIO_MSI_NO_VECTOR 0xffff
-
-Reading these registers returns vector mapped to a given event,
-or NO_VECTOR if unmapped. All queue and configuration change
-events are unmapped by default.
-
-Note that mapping an event to vector might require allocating
-internal device resources, and might fail. Devices report such
-failures by returning the NO_VECTOR value when the relevant
-Vector field is read. After mapping an event to vector, the
-driver must verify success by reading the Vector field value: on
-success, the previously written value is returned, and on
-failure, NO_VECTOR is returned. If a mapping failure is detected,
-the driver can retry mapping with fewervectors, or disable MSI-X.
-
- Virtqueue Configuration<sec:Virtqueue-Configuration>
-
-As a device can have zero or more virtqueues for bulk data
-transport (for example, the network driver has two), the driver
-needs to configure them as part of the device-specific
-configuration.
-
-This is done as follows, for each virtqueue a device has:
-
- Write the virtqueue index (first queue is 0) to the Queue
- Select field.
-
- Read the virtqueue size from the Queue Size field, which is
- always a power of 2. This controls how big the virtqueue is
- (see below). If this field is 0, the virtqueue does not exist.
-
- Allocate and zero virtqueue in contiguous physical memory, on a
- 4096 byte alignment. Write the physical address, divided by
- 4096 to the Queue Address field.[footnote:
-The 4096 is based on the x86 page size, but it's also large
-enough to ensure that the separate parts of the virtqueue are on
-separate cache lines.
-]
-
- Optionally, if MSI-X capability is present and enabled on the
- device, select a vector to use to request interrupts triggered
- by virtqueue events. Write the MSI-X Table entry number
- corresponding to this vector in Queue Vector field. Read the
- Queue Vector field: on success, previously written value is
- returned; on failure, NO_VECTOR value is returned.
-
-The Queue Size field controls the total number of bytes required
-for the virtqueue according to the following formula:
-
-#define ALIGN(x) (((x) + 4095) & ~4095)
-
-static inline unsigned vring_size(unsigned int qsz)
-
-{
-
- return ALIGN(sizeof(struct vring_desc)*qsz + sizeof(u16)*(2
-+ qsz))
-
- + ALIGN(sizeof(struct vring_used_elem)*qsz);
-
-}
-
-This currently wastes some space with padding, but also allows
-future extensions. The virtqueue layout structure looks like this
-(qsz is the Queue Size field, which is a variable, so this code
-won't compile):
-
-struct vring {
-
- /* The actual descriptors (16 bytes each) */
-
- struct vring_desc desc[qsz];
-
-
-
- /* A ring of available descriptor heads with free-running
-index. */
-
- struct vring_avail avail;
-
-
-
- // Padding to the next 4096 boundary.
-
- char pad[];
-
-
-
- // A ring of used descriptor heads with free-running index.
-
- struct vring_used used;
-
-};
-
- A Note on Virtqueue Endianness
-
-Note that the endian of these fields and everything else in the
-virtqueue is the native endian of the guest, not little-endian as
-PCI normally is. This makes for simpler guest code, and it is
-assumed that the host already has to be deeply aware of the guest
-endian so such an “endian-aware” device is not a significant
-issue.
-
- Descriptor Table
-
-The descriptor table refers to the buffers the guest is using for
-the device. The addresses are physical addresses, and the buffers
-can be chained via the next field. Each descriptor describes a
-buffer which is read-only or write-only, but a chain of
-descriptors can contain both read-only and write-only buffers.
-
-No descriptor chain may be more than 2^32 bytes long in total.struct vring_desc {
-
- /* Address (guest-physical). */
-
- u64 addr;
-
- /* Length. */
-
- u32 len;
-
-/* This marks a buffer as continuing via the next field. */
-
-#define VRING_DESC_F_NEXT 1
-
-/* This marks a buffer as write-only (otherwise read-only). */
-
-#define VRING_DESC_F_WRITE 2
-
-/* This means the buffer contains a list of buffer descriptors.
-*/
-
-#define VRING_DESC_F_INDIRECT 4
-
- /* The flags as indicated above. */
-
- u16 flags;
-
- /* Next field if flags & NEXT */
-
- u16 next;
-
-};
-
-The number of descriptors in the table is specified by the Queue
-Size field for this virtqueue.
-
- <sub:Indirect-Descriptors>Indirect Descriptors
-
-Some devices benefit by concurrently dispatching a large number
-of large requests. The VIRTIO_RING_F_INDIRECT_DESC feature can be
-used to allow this (see [cha:Reserved-Feature-Bits]). To increase
-ring capacity it is possible to store a table of indirect
-descriptors anywhere in memory, and insert a descriptor in main
-virtqueue (with flags&INDIRECT on) that refers to memory buffer
-containing this indirect descriptor table; fields addr and len
-refer to the indirect table address and length in bytes,
-respectively. The indirect table layout structure looks like this
-(len is the length of the descriptor that refers to this table,
-which is a variable, so this code won't compile):
-
-struct indirect_descriptor_table {
-
- /* The actual descriptors (16 bytes each) */
-
- struct vring_desc desc[len / 16];
-
-};
-
-The first indirect descriptor is located at start of the indirect
-descriptor table (index 0), additional indirect descriptors are
-chained by next field. An indirect descriptor without next field
-(with flags&NEXT off) signals the end of the indirect descriptor
-table, and transfers control back to the main virtqueue. An
-indirect descriptor can not refer to another indirect descriptor
-table (flags&INDIRECT must be off). A single indirect descriptor
-table can include both read-only and write-only descriptors;
-write-only flag (flags&WRITE) in the descriptor that refers to it
-is ignored.
-
- Available Ring
-
-The available ring refers to what descriptors we are offering the
-device: it refers to the head of a descriptor chain. The “flags”
-field is currently 0 or 1: 1 indicating that we do not need an
-interrupt when the device consumes a descriptor from the
-available ring. Alternatively, the guest can ask the device to
-delay interrupts until an entry with an index specified by the “
-used_event” field is written in the used ring (equivalently,
-until the idx field in the used ring will reach the value
-used_event + 1). The method employed by the device is controlled
-by the VIRTIO_RING_F_EVENT_IDX feature bit (see [cha:Reserved-Feature-Bits]
-). This interrupt suppression is merely an optimization; it may
-not suppress interrupts entirely.
-
-The “idx” field indicates where we would put the next descriptor
-entry (modulo the ring size). This starts at 0, and increases.
-
-struct vring_avail {
-
-#define VRING_AVAIL_F_NO_INTERRUPT 1
-
- u16 flags;
-
- u16 idx;
-
- u16 ring[qsz]; /* qsz is the Queue Size field read from device
-*/
-
- u16 used_event;
-
-};
-
- Used Ring
-
-The used ring is where the device returns buffers once it is done
-with them. The flags field can be used by the device to hint that
-no notification is necessary when the guest adds to the available
-ring. Alternatively, the “avail_event” field can be used by the
-device to hint that no notification is necessary until an entry
-with an index specified by the “avail_event” is written in the
-available ring (equivalently, until the idx field in the
-available ring will reach the value avail_event + 1). The method
-employed by the device is controlled by the guest through the
-VIRTIO_RING_F_EVENT_IDX feature bit (see [cha:Reserved-Feature-Bits]
-). [footnote:
-These fields are kept here because this is the only part of the
-virtqueue written by the device
-].
-
-Each entry in the ring is a pair: the head entry of the
-descriptor chain describing the buffer (this matches an entry
-placed in the available ring by the guest earlier), and the total
-of bytes written into the buffer. The latter is extremely useful
-for guests using untrusted buffers: if you do not know exactly
-how much has been written by the device, you usually have to zero
-the buffer to ensure no data leakage occurs.
-
-/* u32 is used here for ids for padding reasons. */
-
-struct vring_used_elem {
-
- /* Index of start of used descriptor chain. */
-
- u32 id;
-
- /* Total length of the descriptor chain which was used
-(written to) */
-
- u32 len;
-
-};
-
-
-
-struct vring_used {
-
-#define VRING_USED_F_NO_NOTIFY 1
-
- u16 flags;
-
- u16 idx;
-
- struct vring_used_elem ring[qsz];
-
- u16 avail_event;
-
-};
-
- Helpers for Managing Virtqueues
-
-The Linux Kernel Source code contains the definitions above and
-helper routines in a more usable form, in
-include/linux/virtio_ring.h. This was explicitly licensed by IBM
-and Red Hat under the (3-clause) BSD license so that it can be
-freely used by all other projects, and is reproduced (with slight
-variation to remove Linux assumptions) in Appendix A.
-
- Device Operation<sec:Device-Operation>
-
-There are two parts to device operation: supplying new buffers to
-the device, and processing used buffers from the device. As an
-example, the virtio network device has two virtqueues: the
-transmit virtqueue and the receive virtqueue. The driver adds
-outgoing (read-only) packets to the transmit virtqueue, and then
-frees them after they are used. Similarly, incoming (write-only)
-buffers are added to the receive virtqueue, and processed after
-they are used.
-
- Supplying Buffers to The Device
-
-Actual transfer of buffers from the guest OS to the device
-operates as follows:
-
- Place the buffer(s) into free descriptor(s).
-
- If there are no free descriptors, the guest may choose to
- notify the device even if notifications are suppressed (to
- reduce latency).[footnote:
-The Linux drivers do this only for read-only buffers: for
-write-only buffers, it is assumed that the driver is merely
-trying to keep the receive buffer ring full, and no notification
-of this expected condition is necessary.
-]
-
- Place the id of the buffer in the next ring entry of the
- available ring.
-
- The steps (1) and (2) may be performed repeatedly if batching
- is possible.
-
- A memory barrier should be executed to ensure the device sees
- the updated descriptor table and available ring before the next
- step.
-
- The available “idx” field should be increased by the number of
- entries added to the available ring.
-
- A memory barrier should be executed to ensure that we update
- the idx field before checking for notification suppression.
-
- If notifications are not suppressed, the device should be
- notified of the new buffers.
-
-Note that the above code does not take precautions against the
-available ring buffer wrapping around: this is not possible since
-the ring buffer is the same size as the descriptor table, so step
-(1) will prevent such a condition.
-
-In addition, the maximum queue size is 32768 (it must be a power
-of 2 which fits in 16 bits), so the 16-bit “idx” value can always
-distinguish between a full and empty buffer.
-
-Here is a description of each stage in more detail.
-
- Placing Buffers Into The Descriptor Table
-
-A buffer consists of zero or more read-only physically-contiguous
-elements followed by zero or more physically-contiguous
-write-only elements (it must have at least one element). This
-algorithm maps it into the descriptor table:
-
- for each buffer element, b:
-
- Get the next free descriptor table entry, d
-
- Set d.addr to the physical address of the start of b
-
- Set d.len to the length of b.
-
- If b is write-only, set d.flags to VRING_DESC_F_WRITE,
- otherwise 0.
-
- If there is a buffer element after this:
-
- Set d.next to the index of the next free descriptor element.
-
- Set the VRING_DESC_F_NEXT bit in d.flags.
-
-In practice, the d.next fields are usually used to chain free
-descriptors, and a separate count kept to check there are enough
-free descriptors before beginning the mappings.
-
- Updating The Available Ring
-
-The head of the buffer we mapped is the first d in the algorithm
-above. A naive implementation would do the following:
-
-avail->ring[avail->idx % qsz] = head;
-
-However, in general we can add many descriptors before we update
-the “idx” field (at which point they become visible to the
-device), so we keep a counter of how many we've added:
-
-avail->ring[(avail->idx + added++) % qsz] = head;
-
- Updating The Index Field
-
-Once the idx field of the virtqueue is updated, the device will
-be able to access the descriptor entries we've created and the
-memory they refer to. This is why a memory barrier is generally
-used before the idx update, to ensure it sees the most up-to-date
-copy.
-
-The idx field always increments, and we let it wrap naturally at
-65536:
-
-avail->idx += added;
-
- <sub:Notifying-The-Device>Notifying The Device
-
-Device notification occurs by writing the 16-bit virtqueue index
-of this virtqueue to the Queue Notify field of the virtio header
-in the first I/O region of the PCI device. This can be expensive,
-however, so the device can suppress such notifications if it
-doesn't need them. We have to be careful to expose the new idx
-value before checking the suppression flag: it's OK to notify
-gratuitously, but not to omit a required notification. So again,
-we use a memory barrier here before reading the flags or the
-avail_event field.
-
-If the VIRTIO_F_RING_EVENT_IDX feature is not negotiated, and if
-the VRING_USED_F_NOTIFY flag is not set, we go ahead and write to
-the PCI configuration space.
-
-If the VIRTIO_F_RING_EVENT_IDX feature is negotiated, we read the
-avail_event field in the available ring structure. If the
-available index crossed_the avail_event field value since the
-last notification, we go ahead and write to the PCI configuration
-space. The avail_event field wraps naturally at 65536 as well:
-
-(u16)(new_idx - avail_event - 1) < (u16)(new_idx - old_idx)
-
- <sub:Receiving-Used-Buffers>Receiving Used Buffers From The
- Device
-
-Once the device has used a buffer (read from or written to it, or
-parts of both, depending on the nature of the virtqueue and the
-device), it sends an interrupt, following an algorithm very
-similar to the algorithm used for the driver to send the device a
-buffer:
-
- Write the head descriptor number to the next field in the used
- ring.
-
- Update the used ring idx.
-
- Determine whether an interrupt is necessary:
-
- If the VIRTIO_F_RING_EVENT_IDX feature is not negotiated: check
- if f the VRING_AVAIL_F_NO_INTERRUPT flag is not set in avail-
- >flags
-
- If the VIRTIO_F_RING_EVENT_IDX feature is negotiated: check
- whether the used index crossed the used_event field value
- since the last update. The used_event field wraps naturally
- at 65536 as well:(u16)(new_idx - used_event - 1) < (u16)(new_idx - old_idx)
-
- If an interrupt is necessary:
-
- If MSI-X capability is disabled:
-
- Set the lower bit of the ISR Status field for the device.
-
- Send the appropriate PCI interrupt for the device.
-
- If MSI-X capability is enabled:
-
- Request the appropriate MSI-X interrupt message for the
- device, Queue Vector field sets the MSI-X Table entry
- number.
-
- If Queue Vector field value is NO_VECTOR, no interrupt
- message is requested for this event.
-
-The guest interrupt handler should:
-
- If MSI-X capability is disabled: read the ISR Status field,
- which will reset it to zero. If the lower bit is zero, the
- interrupt was not for this device. Otherwise, the guest driver
- should look through the used rings of each virtqueue for the
- device, to see if any progress has been made by the device
- which requires servicing.
-
- If MSI-X capability is enabled: look through the used rings of
- each virtqueue mapped to the specific MSI-X vector for the
- device, to see if any progress has been made by the device
- which requires servicing.
-
-For each ring, guest should then disable interrupts by writing
-VRING_AVAIL_F_NO_INTERRUPT flag in avail structure, if required.
-It can then process used ring entries finally enabling interrupts
-by clearing the VRING_AVAIL_F_NO_INTERRUPT flag or updating the
-EVENT_IDX field in the available structure, Guest should then
-execute a memory barrier, and then recheck the ring empty
-condition. This is necessary to handle the case where, after the
-last check and before enabling interrupts, an interrupt has been
-suppressed by the device:
-
-vring_disable_interrupts(vq);
-
-for (;;) {
-
- if (vq->last_seen_used != vring->used.idx) {
-
- vring_enable_interrupts(vq);
-
- mb();
-
- if (vq->last_seen_used != vring->used.idx)
-
- break;
-
- }
-
- struct vring_used_elem *e =
-vring.used->ring[vq->last_seen_used%vsz];
-
- process_buffer(e);
-
- vq->last_seen_used++;
-
-}
-
- Dealing With Configuration Changes<sub:Dealing-With-Configuration>
-
-Some virtio PCI devices can change the device configuration
-state, as reflected in the virtio header in the PCI configuration
-space. In this case:
-
- If MSI-X capability is disabled: an interrupt is delivered and
- the second highest bit is set in the ISR Status field to
- indicate that the driver should re-examine the configuration
- space.Note that a single interrupt can indicate both that one
- or more virtqueue has been used and that the configuration
- space has changed: even if the config bit is set, virtqueues
- must be scanned.
-
- If MSI-X capability is enabled: an interrupt message is
- requested. The Configuration Vector field sets the MSI-X Table
- entry number to use. If Configuration Vector field value is
- NO_VECTOR, no interrupt message is requested for this event.
-
-Creating New Device Types
-
-Various considerations are necessary when creating a new device
-type:
-
- How Many Virtqueues?
-
-It is possible that a very simple device will operate entirely
-through its configuration space, but most will need at least one
-virtqueue in which it will place requests. A device with both
-input and output (eg. console and network devices described here)
-need two queues: one which the driver fills with buffers to
-receive input, and one which the driver places buffers to
-transmit output.
-
- What Configuration Space Layout?
-
-Configuration space is generally used for rarely-changing or
-initialization-time parameters. But it is a limited resource, so
-it might be better to use a virtqueue to update configuration
-information (the network device does this for filtering,
-otherwise the table in the config space could potentially be very
-large).
-
-Note that this space is generally the guest's native endian,
-rather than PCI's little-endian.
-
- What Device Number?
-
-Currently device numbers are assigned quite freely: a simple
-request mail to the author of this document or the Linux
-virtualization mailing list[footnote:
-
-https://lists.linux-foundation.org/mailman/listinfo/virtualization
-] will be sufficient to secure a unique one.
-
-Meanwhile for experimental drivers, use 65535 and work backwards.
-
- How many MSI-X vectors?
-
-Using the optional MSI-X capability devices can speed up
-interrupt processing by removing the need to read ISR Status
-register by guest driver (which might be an expensive operation),
-reducing interrupt sharing between devices and queues within the
-device, and handling interrupts from multiple CPUs. However, some
-systems impose a limit (which might be as low as 256) on the
-total number of MSI-X vectors that can be allocated to all
-devices. Devices and/or device drivers should take this into
-account, limiting the number of vectors used unless the device is
-expected to cause a high volume of interrupts. Devices can
-control the number of vectors used by limiting the MSI-X Table
-Size or not presenting MSI-X capability in PCI configuration
-space. Drivers can control this by mapping events to as small
-number of vectors as possible, or disabling MSI-X capability
-altogether.
-
- Message Framing
-
-The descriptors used for a buffer should not effect the semantics
-of the message, except for the total length of the buffer. For
-example, a network buffer consists of a 10 byte header followed
-by the network packet. Whether this is presented in the ring
-descriptor chain as (say) a 10 byte buffer and a 1514 byte
-buffer, or a single 1524 byte buffer, or even three buffers,
-should have no effect.
-
-In particular, no implementation should use the descriptor
-boundaries to determine the size of any header in a request.[footnote:
-The current qemu device implementations mistakenly insist that
-the first descriptor cover the header in these cases exactly, so
-a cautious driver should arrange it so.
-]
-
- Device Improvements
-
-Any change to configuration space, or new virtqueues, or
-behavioural changes, should be indicated by negotiation of a new
-feature bit. This establishes clarity[footnote:
-Even if it does mean documenting design or implementation
-mistakes!
-] and avoids future expansion problems.
-
-Clusters of functionality which are always implemented together
-can use a single bit, but if one feature makes sense without the
-others they should not be gratuitously grouped together to
-conserve feature bits. We can always extend the spec when the
-first person needs more than 24 feature bits for their device.
-
-[LaTeX Command: printnomenclature]
-
-Appendix A: virtio_ring.h
-
-#ifndef VIRTIO_RING_H
-
-#define VIRTIO_RING_H
-
-/* An interface for efficient virtio implementation.
-
- *
-
- * This header is BSD licensed so anyone can use the definitions
-
- * to implement compatible drivers/servers.
-
- *
-
- * Copyright 2007, 2009, IBM Corporation
-
- * Copyright 2011, Red Hat, Inc
-
- * All rights reserved.
-
- *
-
- * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or
-without
-
- * modification, are permitted provided that the following
-conditions
-
- * are met:
-
- * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above
-copyright
-
- * notice, this list of conditions and the following
-disclaimer.
-
- * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above
-copyright
-
- * notice, this list of conditions and the following
-disclaimer in the
-
- * documentation and/or other materials provided with the
-distribution.
-
- * 3. Neither the name of IBM nor the names of its contributors
-
- * may be used to endorse or promote products derived from
-this software
-
- * without specific prior written permission.
-
- * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND
-CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
-
- * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED
-TO, THE
-
- * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A
-PARTICULAR PURPOSE
-
- * ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL IBM OR CONTRIBUTORS BE
-LIABLE
-
- * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR
-CONSEQUENTIAL
-
- * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF
-SUBSTITUTE GOODS
-
- * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS
-INTERRUPTION)
-
- * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
-CONTRACT, STRICT
-
- * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING
-IN ANY WAY
-
- * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
-POSSIBILITY OF
-
- * SUCH DAMAGE.
-
- */
-
-
-
-/* This marks a buffer as continuing via the next field. */
-
-#define VRING_DESC_F_NEXT 1
-
-/* This marks a buffer as write-only (otherwise read-only). */
-
-#define VRING_DESC_F_WRITE 2
-
-
-
-/* The Host uses this in used->flags to advise the Guest: don't
-kick me
-
- * when you add a buffer. It's unreliable, so it's simply an
-
- * optimization. Guest will still kick if it's out of buffers.
-*/
-
-#define VRING_USED_F_NO_NOTIFY 1
-
-/* The Guest uses this in avail->flags to advise the Host: don't
-
- * interrupt me when you consume a buffer. It's unreliable, so
-it's
-
- * simply an optimization. */
-
-#define VRING_AVAIL_F_NO_INTERRUPT 1
-
-
-
-/* Virtio ring descriptors: 16 bytes.
-
- * These can chain together via "next". */
-
-struct vring_desc {
-
- /* Address (guest-physical). */
-
- uint64_t addr;
-
- /* Length. */
-
- uint32_t len;
-
- /* The flags as indicated above. */
-
- uint16_t flags;
-
- /* We chain unused descriptors via this, too */
-
- uint16_t next;
-
-};
-
-
-
-struct vring_avail {
-
- uint16_t flags;
-
- uint16_t idx;
-
- uint16_t ring[];
-
- uint16_t used_event;
-
-};
-
-
-
-/* u32 is used here for ids for padding reasons. */
-
-struct vring_used_elem {
-
- /* Index of start of used descriptor chain. */
-
- uint32_t id;
-
- /* Total length of the descriptor chain which was written
-to. */
-
- uint32_t len;
-
-};
-
-
-
-struct vring_used {
-
- uint16_t flags;
-
- uint16_t idx;
-
- struct vring_used_elem ring[];
-
- uint16_t avail_event;
-
-};
-
-
-
-struct vring {
-
- unsigned int num;
-
-
-
- struct vring_desc *desc;
-
- struct vring_avail *avail;
-
- struct vring_used *used;
-
-};
-
-
-
-/* The standard layout for the ring is a continuous chunk of
-memory which
-
- * looks like this. We assume num is a power of 2.
-
- *
-
- * struct vring {
-
- * // The actual descriptors (16 bytes each)
-
- * struct vring_desc desc[num];
-
- *
-
- * // A ring of available descriptor heads with free-running
-index.
-
- * __u16 avail_flags;
-
- * __u16 avail_idx;
-
- * __u16 available[num];
-
- *
-
- * // Padding to the next align boundary.
-
- * char pad[];
-
- *
-
- * // A ring of used descriptor heads with free-running
-index.
-
- * __u16 used_flags;
-
- * __u16 EVENT_IDX;
-
- * struct vring_used_elem used[num];
-
- * };
-
- * Note: for virtio PCI, align is 4096.
-
- */
-
-static inline void vring_init(struct vring *vr, unsigned int num,
-void *p,
-
- unsigned long align)
-
-{
-
- vr->num = num;
-
- vr->desc = p;
-
- vr->avail = p + num*sizeof(struct vring_desc);
-
- vr->used = (void *)(((unsigned long)&vr->avail->ring[num]
-
- + align-1)
-
- & ~(align - 1));
-
-}
-
-
-
-static inline unsigned vring_size(unsigned int num, unsigned long
-align)
-
-{
-
- return ((sizeof(struct vring_desc)*num +
-sizeof(uint16_t)*(2+num)
-
- + align - 1) & ~(align - 1))
-
- + sizeof(uint16_t)*3 + sizeof(struct
-vring_used_elem)*num;
-
-}
-
-
-
-static inline int vring_need_event(uint16_t event_idx, uint16_t
-new_idx, uint16_t old_idx)
-
-{
-
- return (uint16_t)(new_idx - event_idx - 1) <
-(uint16_t)(new_idx - old_idx);
-
-}
-
-#endif /* VIRTIO_RING_H */
-
-<cha:Reserved-Feature-Bits>Appendix B: Reserved Feature Bits
-
-Currently there are five device-independent feature bits defined:
-
- VIRTIO_F_NOTIFY_ON_EMPTY (24) Negotiating this feature
- indicates that the driver wants an interrupt if the device runs
- out of available descriptors on a virtqueue, even though
- interrupts are suppressed using the VRING_AVAIL_F_NO_INTERRUPT
- flag or the used_event field. An example of this is the
- networking driver: it doesn't need to know every time a packet
- is transmitted, but it does need to free the transmitted
- packets a finite time after they are transmitted. It can avoid
- using a timer if the device interrupts it when all the packets
- are transmitted.
-
- VIRTIO_F_RING_INDIRECT_DESC (28) Negotiating this feature
- indicates that the driver can use descriptors with the
- VRING_DESC_F_INDIRECT flag set, as described in [sub:Indirect-Descriptors]
- .
-
- VIRTIO_F_RING_EVENT_IDX(29) This feature enables the used_event
- and the avail_event fields. If set, it indicates that the
- device should ignore the flags field in the available ring
- structure. Instead, the used_event field in this structure is
- used by guest to suppress device interrupts. Further, the
- driver should ignore the flags field in the used ring
- structure. Instead, the avail_event field in this structure is
- used by the device to suppress notifications. If unset, the
- driver should ignore the used_event field; the device should
- ignore the avail_event field; the flags field is used
-
-Appendix C: Network Device
-
-The virtio network device is a virtual ethernet card, and is the
-most complex of the devices supported so far by virtio. It has
-enhanced rapidly and demonstrates clearly how support for new
-features should be added to an existing device. Empty buffers are
-placed in one virtqueue for receiving packets, and outgoing
-packets are enqueued into another for transmission in that order.
-A third command queue is used to control advanced filtering
-features.
-
- Configuration
-
- Subsystem Device ID 1
-
- Virtqueues 0:receiveq. 1:transmitq. 2:controlq[footnote:
-Only if VIRTIO_NET_F_CTRL_VQ set
-]
-
- Feature bits
-
- VIRTIO_NET_F_CSUM (0) Device handles packets with partial
- checksum
-
- VIRTIO_NET_F_GUEST_CSUM (1) Guest handles packets with partial
- checksum
-
- VIRTIO_NET_F_MAC (5) Device has given MAC address.
-
- VIRTIO_NET_F_GSO (6) (Deprecated) device handles packets with
- any GSO type.[footnote:
-It was supposed to indicate segmentation offload support, but
-upon further investigation it became clear that multiple bits
-were required.
-]
-
- VIRTIO_NET_F_GUEST_TSO4 (7) Guest can receive TSOv4.
-
- VIRTIO_NET_F_GUEST_TSO6 (8) Guest can receive TSOv6.
-
- VIRTIO_NET_F_GUEST_ECN (9) Guest can receive TSO with ECN.
-
- VIRTIO_NET_F_GUEST_UFO (10) Guest can receive UFO.
-
- VIRTIO_NET_F_HOST_TSO4 (11) Device can receive TSOv4.
-
- VIRTIO_NET_F_HOST_TSO6 (12) Device can receive TSOv6.
-
- VIRTIO_NET_F_HOST_ECN (13) Device can receive TSO with ECN.
-
- VIRTIO_NET_F_HOST_UFO (14) Device can receive UFO.
-
- VIRTIO_NET_F_MRG_RXBUF (15) Guest can merge receive buffers.
-
- VIRTIO_NET_F_STATUS (16) Configuration status field is
- available.
-
- VIRTIO_NET_F_CTRL_VQ (17) Control channel is available.
-
- VIRTIO_NET_F_CTRL_RX (18) Control channel RX mode support.
-
- VIRTIO_NET_F_CTRL_VLAN (19) Control channel VLAN filtering.
-
- VIRTIO_NET_F_GUEST_ANNOUNCE(21) Guest can send gratuitous
- packets.
-
- Device configuration layout Two configuration fields are
- currently defined. The mac address field always exists (though
- is only valid if VIRTIO_NET_F_MAC is set), and the status field
- only exists if VIRTIO_NET_F_STATUS is set. Two read-only bits
- are currently defined for the status field:
- VIRTIO_NET_S_LINK_UP and VIRTIO_NET_S_ANNOUNCE. #define VIRTIO_NET_S_LINK_UP 1
-
-#define VIRTIO_NET_S_ANNOUNCE 2
-
-
-
-struct virtio_net_config {
-
- u8 mac[6];
-
- u16 status;
-
-};
-
- Device Initialization
-
- The initialization routine should identify the receive and
- transmission virtqueues.
-
- If the VIRTIO_NET_F_MAC feature bit is set, the configuration
- space “mac” entry indicates the “physical” address of the the
- network card, otherwise a private MAC address should be
- assigned. All guests are expected to negotiate this feature if
- it is set.
-
- If the VIRTIO_NET_F_CTRL_VQ feature bit is negotiated, identify
- the control virtqueue.
-
- If the VIRTIO_NET_F_STATUS feature bit is negotiated, the link
- status can be read from the bottom bit of the “status” config
- field. Otherwise, the link should be assumed active.
-
- The receive virtqueue should be filled with receive buffers.
- This is described in detail below in “Setting Up Receive
- Buffers”.
-
- A driver can indicate that it will generate checksumless
- packets by negotating the VIRTIO_NET_F_CSUM feature. This “
- checksum offload” is a common feature on modern network cards.
-
- If that feature is negotiated[footnote:
-ie. VIRTIO_NET_F_HOST_TSO* and VIRTIO_NET_F_HOST_UFO are
-dependent on VIRTIO_NET_F_CSUM; a dvice which offers the offload
-features must offer the checksum feature, and a driver which
-accepts the offload features must accept the checksum feature.
-Similar logic applies to the VIRTIO_NET_F_GUEST_TSO4 features
-depending on VIRTIO_NET_F_GUEST_CSUM.
-], a driver can use TCP or UDP segmentation offload by
- negotiating the VIRTIO_NET_F_HOST_TSO4 (IPv4 TCP),
- VIRTIO_NET_F_HOST_TSO6 (IPv6 TCP) and VIRTIO_NET_F_HOST_UFO
- (UDP fragmentation) features. It should not send TCP packets
- requiring segmentation offload which have the Explicit
- Congestion Notification bit set, unless the
- VIRTIO_NET_F_HOST_ECN feature is negotiated.[footnote:
-This is a common restriction in real, older network cards.
-]
-
- The converse features are also available: a driver can save the
- virtual device some work by negotiating these features.[footnote:
-For example, a network packet transported between two guests on
-the same system may not require checksumming at all, nor
-segmentation, if both guests are amenable.
-] The VIRTIO_NET_F_GUEST_CSUM feature indicates that partially
- checksummed packets can be received, and if it can do that then
- the VIRTIO_NET_F_GUEST_TSO4, VIRTIO_NET_F_GUEST_TSO6,
- VIRTIO_NET_F_GUEST_UFO and VIRTIO_NET_F_GUEST_ECN are the input
- equivalents of the features described above. See “Receiving
- Packets” below.
-
- Device Operation
-
-Packets are transmitted by placing them in the transmitq, and
-buffers for incoming packets are placed in the receiveq. In each
-case, the packet itself is preceeded by a header:
-
-struct virtio_net_hdr {
-
-#define VIRTIO_NET_HDR_F_NEEDS_CSUM 1
-
- u8 flags;
-
-#define VIRTIO_NET_HDR_GSO_NONE 0
-
-#define VIRTIO_NET_HDR_GSO_TCPV4 1
-
-#define VIRTIO_NET_HDR_GSO_UDP 3
-
-#define VIRTIO_NET_HDR_GSO_TCPV6 4
-
-#define VIRTIO_NET_HDR_GSO_ECN 0x80
-
- u8 gso_type;
-
- u16 hdr_len;
-
- u16 gso_size;
-
- u16 csum_start;
-
- u16 csum_offset;
-
-/* Only if VIRTIO_NET_F_MRG_RXBUF: */
-
- u16 num_buffers
-
-};
-
-The controlq is used to control device features such as
-filtering.
-
- Packet Transmission
-
-Transmitting a single packet is simple, but varies depending on
-the different features the driver negotiated.
-
- If the driver negotiated VIRTIO_NET_F_CSUM, and the packet has
- not been fully checksummed, then the virtio_net_hdr's fields
- are set as follows. Otherwise, the packet must be fully
- checksummed, and flags is zero.
-
- flags has the VIRTIO_NET_HDR_F_NEEDS_CSUM set,
-
- <ite:csum_start-is-set>csum_start is set to the offset within
- the packet to begin checksumming, and
-
- csum_offset indicates how many bytes after the csum_start the
- new (16 bit ones' complement) checksum should be placed.[footnote:
-For example, consider a partially checksummed TCP (IPv4) packet.
-It will have a 14 byte ethernet header and 20 byte IP header
-followed by the TCP header (with the TCP checksum field 16 bytes
-into that header). csum_start will be 14+20 = 34 (the TCP
-checksum includes the header), and csum_offset will be 16. The
-value in the TCP checksum field should be initialized to the sum
-of the TCP pseudo header, so that replacing it by the ones'
-complement checksum of the TCP header and body will give the
-correct result.
-]
-
- <enu:If-the-driver>If the driver negotiated
- VIRTIO_NET_F_HOST_TSO4, TSO6 or UFO, and the packet requires
- TCP segmentation or UDP fragmentation, then the “gso_type”
- field is set to VIRTIO_NET_HDR_GSO_TCPV4, TCPV6 or UDP.
- (Otherwise, it is set to VIRTIO_NET_HDR_GSO_NONE). In this
- case, packets larger than 1514 bytes can be transmitted: the
- metadata indicates how to replicate the packet header to cut it
- into smaller packets. The other gso fields are set:
-
- hdr_len is a hint to the device as to how much of the header
- needs to be kept to copy into each packet, usually set to the
- length of the headers, including the transport header.[footnote:
-Due to various bugs in implementations, this field is not useful
-as a guarantee of the transport header size.
-]
-
- gso_size is the maximum size of each packet beyond that header
- (ie. MSS).
-
- If the driver negotiated the VIRTIO_NET_F_HOST_ECN feature, the
- VIRTIO_NET_HDR_GSO_ECN bit may be set in “gso_type” as well,
- indicating that the TCP packet has the ECN bit set.[footnote:
-This case is not handled by some older hardware, so is called out
-specifically in the protocol.
-]
-
- If the driver negotiated the VIRTIO_NET_F_MRG_RXBUF feature,
- the num_buffers field is set to zero.
-
- The header and packet are added as one output buffer to the
- transmitq, and the device is notified of the new entry (see [sub:Notifying-The-Device]
- ).[footnote:
-Note that the header will be two bytes longer for the
-VIRTIO_NET_F_MRG_RXBUF case.
-]
-
- Packet Transmission Interrupt
-
-Often a driver will suppress transmission interrupts using the
-VRING_AVAIL_F_NO_INTERRUPT flag (see [sub:Receiving-Used-Buffers]
-) and check for used packets in the transmit path of following
-packets. However, it will still receive interrupts if the
-VIRTIO_F_NOTIFY_ON_EMPTY feature is negotiated, indicating that
-the transmission queue is completely emptied.
-
-The normal behavior in this interrupt handler is to retrieve and
-new descriptors from the used ring and free the corresponding
-headers and packets.
-
- Setting Up Receive Buffers
-
-It is generally a good idea to keep the receive virtqueue as
-fully populated as possible: if it runs out, network performance
-will suffer.
-
-If the VIRTIO_NET_F_GUEST_TSO4, VIRTIO_NET_F_GUEST_TSO6 or
-VIRTIO_NET_F_GUEST_UFO features are used, the Guest will need to
-accept packets of up to 65550 bytes long (the maximum size of a
-TCP or UDP packet, plus the 14 byte ethernet header), otherwise
-1514 bytes. So unless VIRTIO_NET_F_MRG_RXBUF is negotiated, every
-buffer in the receive queue needs to be at least this length [footnote:
-Obviously each one can be split across multiple descriptor
-elements.
-].
-
-If VIRTIO_NET_F_MRG_RXBUF is negotiated, each buffer must be at
-least the size of the struct virtio_net_hdr.
-
- Packet Receive Interrupt
-
-When a packet is copied into a buffer in the receiveq, the
-optimal path is to disable further interrupts for the receiveq
-(see [sub:Receiving-Used-Buffers]) and process packets until no
-more are found, then re-enable them.
-
-Processing packet involves:
-
- If the driver negotiated the VIRTIO_NET_F_MRG_RXBUF feature,
- then the “num_buffers” field indicates how many descriptors
- this packet is spread over (including this one). This allows
- receipt of large packets without having to allocate large
- buffers. In this case, there will be at least “num_buffers” in
- the used ring, and they should be chained together to form a
- single packet. The other buffers will not begin with a struct
- virtio_net_hdr.
-
- If the VIRTIO_NET_F_MRG_RXBUF feature was not negotiated, or
- the “num_buffers” field is one, then the entire packet will be
- contained within this buffer, immediately following the struct
- virtio_net_hdr.
-
- If the VIRTIO_NET_F_GUEST_CSUM feature was negotiated, the
- VIRTIO_NET_HDR_F_NEEDS_CSUM bit in the “flags” field may be
- set: if so, the checksum on the packet is incomplete and the “
- csum_start” and “csum_offset” fields indicate how to calculate
- it (see [ite:csum_start-is-set]).
-
- If the VIRTIO_NET_F_GUEST_TSO4, TSO6 or UFO options were
- negotiated, then the “gso_type” may be something other than
- VIRTIO_NET_HDR_GSO_NONE, and the “gso_size” field indicates the
- desired MSS (see [enu:If-the-driver]).
-
- Control Virtqueue
-
-The driver uses the control virtqueue (if VIRTIO_NET_F_VTRL_VQ is
-negotiated) to send commands to manipulate various features of
-the device which would not easily map into the configuration
-space.
-
-All commands are of the following form:
-
-struct virtio_net_ctrl {
-
- u8 class;
-
- u8 command;
-
- u8 command-specific-data[];
-
- u8 ack;
-
-};
-
-
-
-/* ack values */
-
-#define VIRTIO_NET_OK 0
-
-#define VIRTIO_NET_ERR 1
-
-The class, command and command-specific-data are set by the
-driver, and the device sets the ack byte. There is little it can
-do except issue a diagnostic if the ack byte is not
-VIRTIO_NET_OK.
-
- Packet Receive Filtering
-
-If the VIRTIO_NET_F_CTRL_RX feature is negotiated, the driver can
-send control commands for promiscuous mode, multicast receiving,
-and filtering of MAC addresses.
-
-Note that in general, these commands are best-effort: unwanted
-packets may still arrive.
-
- Setting Promiscuous Mode
-
-#define VIRTIO_NET_CTRL_RX 0
-
- #define VIRTIO_NET_CTRL_RX_PROMISC 0
-
- #define VIRTIO_NET_CTRL_RX_ALLMULTI 1
-
-The class VIRTIO_NET_CTRL_RX has two commands:
-VIRTIO_NET_CTRL_RX_PROMISC turns promiscuous mode on and off, and
-VIRTIO_NET_CTRL_RX_ALLMULTI turns all-multicast receive on and
-off. The command-specific-data is one byte containing 0 (off) or
-1 (on).
-
- Setting MAC Address Filtering
-
-struct virtio_net_ctrl_mac {
-
- u32 entries;
-
- u8 macs[entries][ETH_ALEN];
-
-};
-
-
-
-#define VIRTIO_NET_CTRL_MAC 1
-
- #define VIRTIO_NET_CTRL_MAC_TABLE_SET 0
-
-The device can filter incoming packets by any number of
-destination MAC addresses.[footnote:
-Since there are no guarentees, it can use a hash filter
-orsilently switch to allmulti or promiscuous mode if it is given
-too many addresses.
-] This table is set using the class VIRTIO_NET_CTRL_MAC and the
-command VIRTIO_NET_CTRL_MAC_TABLE_SET. The command-specific-data
-is two variable length tables of 6-byte MAC addresses. The first
-table contains unicast addresses, and the second contains
-multicast addresses.
-
- VLAN Filtering
-
-If the driver negotiates the VIRTION_NET_F_CTRL_VLAN feature, it
-can control a VLAN filter table in the device.
-
-#define VIRTIO_NET_CTRL_VLAN 2
-
- #define VIRTIO_NET_CTRL_VLAN_ADD 0
-
- #define VIRTIO_NET_CTRL_VLAN_DEL 1
-
-Both the VIRTIO_NET_CTRL_VLAN_ADD and VIRTIO_NET_CTRL_VLAN_DEL
-command take a 16-bit VLAN id as the command-specific-data.
-
- Gratuitous Packet Sending
-
-If the driver negotiates the VIRTIO_NET_F_GUEST_ANNOUNCE (depends
-on VIRTIO_NET_F_CTRL_VQ), it can ask the guest to send gratuitous
-packets; this is usually done after the guest has been physically
-migrated, and needs to announce its presence on the new network
-links. (As hypervisor does not have the knowledge of guest
-network configuration (eg. tagged vlan) it is simplest to prod
-the guest in this way).
-
-#define VIRTIO_NET_CTRL_ANNOUNCE 3
-
- #define VIRTIO_NET_CTRL_ANNOUNCE_ACK 0
-
-The Guest needs to check VIRTIO_NET_S_ANNOUNCE bit in status
-field when it notices the changes of device configuration. The
-command VIRTIO_NET_CTRL_ANNOUNCE_ACK is used to indicate that
-driver has recevied the notification and device would clear the
-VIRTIO_NET_S_ANNOUNCE bit in the status filed after it received
-this command.
-
-Processing this notification involves:
-
- Sending the gratuitous packets or marking there are pending
- gratuitous packets to be sent and letting deferred routine to
- send them.
-
- Sending VIRTIO_NET_CTRL_ANNOUNCE_ACK command through control
- vq.
-
- .
-
-Appendix D: Block Device
-
-The virtio block device is a simple virtual block device (ie.
-disk). Read and write requests (and other exotic requests) are
-placed in the queue, and serviced (probably out of order) by the
-device except where noted.
-
- Configuration
-
- Subsystem Device ID 2
-
- Virtqueues 0:requestq.
-
- Feature bits
-
- VIRTIO_BLK_F_BARRIER (0) Host supports request barriers.
-
- VIRTIO_BLK_F_SIZE_MAX (1) Maximum size of any single segment is
- in “size_max”.
-
- VIRTIO_BLK_F_SEG_MAX (2) Maximum number of segments in a
- request is in “seg_max”.
-
- VIRTIO_BLK_F_GEOMETRY (4) Disk-style geometry specified in “
- geometry”.
-
- VIRTIO_BLK_F_RO (5) Device is read-only.
-
- VIRTIO_BLK_F_BLK_SIZE (6) Block size of disk is in “blk_size”.
-
- VIRTIO_BLK_F_SCSI (7) Device supports scsi packet commands.
-
- VIRTIO_BLK_F_FLUSH (9) Cache flush command support.
-
- Device configuration layout The capacity of the device
- (expressed in 512-byte sectors) is always present. The
- availability of the others all depend on various feature bits
- as indicated above. struct virtio_blk_config {
-
- u64 capacity;
-
- u32 size_max;
-
- u32 seg_max;
-
- struct virtio_blk_geometry {
-
- u16 cylinders;
-
- u8 heads;
-
- u8 sectors;
-
- } geometry;
-
- u32 blk_size;
-
-
-
-};
-
- Device Initialization
-
- The device size should be read from the “capacity”
- configuration field. No requests should be submitted which goes
- beyond this limit.
-
- If the VIRTIO_BLK_F_BLK_SIZE feature is negotiated, the
- blk_size field can be read to determine the optimal sector size
- for the driver to use. This does not effect the units used in
- the protocol (always 512 bytes), but awareness of the correct
- value can effect performance.
-
- If the VIRTIO_BLK_F_RO feature is set by the device, any write
- requests will fail.
-
- Device Operation
-
-The driver queues requests to the virtqueue, and they are used by
-the device (not necessarily in order). Each request is of form:
-
-struct virtio_blk_req {
-
-
-
- u32 type;
-
- u32 ioprio;
-
- u64 sector;
-
- char data[][512];
-
- u8 status;
-
-};
-
-If the device has VIRTIO_BLK_F_SCSI feature, it can also support
-scsi packet command requests, each of these requests is of form:struct virtio_scsi_pc_req {
-
- u32 type;
-
- u32 ioprio;
-
- u64 sector;
-
- char cmd[];
-
- char data[][512];
-
-#define SCSI_SENSE_BUFFERSIZE 96
-
- u8 sense[SCSI_SENSE_BUFFERSIZE];
-
- u32 errors;
-
- u32 data_len;
-
- u32 sense_len;
-
- u32 residual;
-
- u8 status;
-
-};
-
-The type of the request is either a read (VIRTIO_BLK_T_IN), a
-write (VIRTIO_BLK_T_OUT), a scsi packet command
-(VIRTIO_BLK_T_SCSI_CMD or VIRTIO_BLK_T_SCSI_CMD_OUT[footnote:
-the SCSI_CMD and SCSI_CMD_OUT types are equivalent, the device
-does not distinguish between them
-]) or a flush (VIRTIO_BLK_T_FLUSH or VIRTIO_BLK_T_FLUSH_OUT[footnote:
-the FLUSH and FLUSH_OUT types are equivalent, the device does not
-distinguish between them
-]). If the device has VIRTIO_BLK_F_BARRIER feature the high bit
-(VIRTIO_BLK_T_BARRIER) indicates that this request acts as a
-barrier and that all preceeding requests must be complete before
-this one, and all following requests must not be started until
-this is complete. Note that a barrier does not flush caches in
-the underlying backend device in host, and thus does not serve as
-data consistency guarantee. Driver must use FLUSH request to
-flush the host cache.
-
-#define VIRTIO_BLK_T_IN 0
-
-#define VIRTIO_BLK_T_OUT 1
-
-#define VIRTIO_BLK_T_SCSI_CMD 2
-
-#define VIRTIO_BLK_T_SCSI_CMD_OUT 3
-
-#define VIRTIO_BLK_T_FLUSH 4
-
-#define VIRTIO_BLK_T_FLUSH_OUT 5
-
-#define VIRTIO_BLK_T_BARRIER 0x80000000
-
-The ioprio field is a hint about the relative priorities of
-requests to the device: higher numbers indicate more important
-requests.
-
-The sector number indicates the offset (multiplied by 512) where
-the read or write is to occur. This field is unused and set to 0
-for scsi packet commands and for flush commands.
-
-The cmd field is only present for scsi packet command requests,
-and indicates the command to perform. This field must reside in a
-single, separate read-only buffer; command length can be derived
-from the length of this buffer.
-
-Note that these first three (four for scsi packet commands)
-fields are always read-only: the data field is either read-only
-or write-only, depending on the request. The size of the read or
-write can be derived from the total size of the request buffers.
-
-The sense field is only present for scsi packet command requests,
-and indicates the buffer for scsi sense data.
-
-The data_len field is only present for scsi packet command
-requests, this field is deprecated, and should be ignored by the
-driver. Historically, devices copied data length there.
-
-The sense_len field is only present for scsi packet command
-requests and indicates the number of bytes actually written to
-the sense buffer.
-
-The residual field is only present for scsi packet command
-requests and indicates the residual size, calculated as data
-length - number of bytes actually transferred.
-
-The final status byte is written by the device: either
-VIRTIO_BLK_S_OK for success, VIRTIO_BLK_S_IOERR for host or guest
-error or VIRTIO_BLK_S_UNSUPP for a request unsupported by host:#define VIRTIO_BLK_S_OK 0
-
-#define VIRTIO_BLK_S_IOERR 1
-
-#define VIRTIO_BLK_S_UNSUPP 2
-
-Historically, devices assumed that the fields type, ioprio and
-sector reside in a single, separate read-only buffer; the fields
-errors, data_len, sense_len and residual reside in a single,
-separate write-only buffer; the sense field in a separate
-write-only buffer of size 96 bytes, by itself; the fields errors,
-data_len, sense_len and residual in a single write-only buffer;
-and the status field is a separate read-only buffer of size 1
-byte, by itself.
-
-Appendix E: Console Device
-
-The virtio console device is a simple device for data input and
-output. A device may have one or more ports. Each port has a pair
-of input and output virtqueues. Moreover, a device has a pair of
-control IO virtqueues. The control virtqueues are used to
-communicate information between the device and the driver about
-ports being opened and closed on either side of the connection,
-indication from the host about whether a particular port is a
-console port, adding new ports, port hot-plug/unplug, etc., and
-indication from the guest about whether a port or a device was
-successfully added, port open/close, etc.. For data IO, one or
-more empty buffers are placed in the receive queue for incoming
-data and outgoing characters are placed in the transmit queue.
-
- Configuration
-
- Subsystem Device ID 3
-
- Virtqueues 0:receiveq(port0). 1:transmitq(port0), 2:control
- receiveq[footnote:
-Ports 2 onwards only if VIRTIO_CONSOLE_F_MULTIPORT is set
-], 3:control transmitq, 4:receiveq(port1), 5:transmitq(port1),
- ...
-
- Feature bits
-
- VIRTIO_CONSOLE_F_SIZE (0) Configuration cols and rows fields
- are valid.
-
- VIRTIO_CONSOLE_F_MULTIPORT(1) Device has support for multiple
- ports; configuration fields nr_ports and max_nr_ports are
- valid and control virtqueues will be used.
-
- Device configuration layout The size of the console is supplied
- in the configuration space if the VIRTIO_CONSOLE_F_SIZE feature
- is set. Furthermore, if the VIRTIO_CONSOLE_F_MULTIPORT feature
- is set, the maximum number of ports supported by the device can
- be fetched.struct virtio_console_config {
-
- u16 cols;
-
- u16 rows;
-
-
-
- u32 max_nr_ports;
-
-};
-
- Device Initialization
-
- If the VIRTIO_CONSOLE_F_SIZE feature is negotiated, the driver
- can read the console dimensions from the configuration fields.
-
- If the VIRTIO_CONSOLE_F_MULTIPORT feature is negotiated, the
- driver can spawn multiple ports, not all of which may be
- attached to a console. Some could be generic ports. In this
- case, the control virtqueues are enabled and according to the
- max_nr_ports configuration-space value, the appropriate number
- of virtqueues are created. A control message indicating the
- driver is ready is sent to the host. The host can then send
- control messages for adding new ports to the device. After
- creating and initializing each port, a
- VIRTIO_CONSOLE_PORT_READY control message is sent to the host
- for that port so the host can let us know of any additional
- configuration options set for that port.
-
- The receiveq for each port is populated with one or more
- receive buffers.
-
- Device Operation
-
- For output, a buffer containing the characters is placed in the
- port's transmitq.[footnote:
-Because this is high importance and low bandwidth, the current
-Linux implementation polls for the buffer to be used, rather than
-waiting for an interrupt, simplifying the implementation
-significantly. However, for generic serial ports with the
-O_NONBLOCK flag set, the polling limitation is relaxed and the
-consumed buffers are freed upon the next write or poll call or
-when a port is closed or hot-unplugged.
-]
-
- When a buffer is used in the receiveq (signalled by an
- interrupt), the contents is the input to the port associated
- with the virtqueue for which the notification was received.
-
- If the driver negotiated the VIRTIO_CONSOLE_F_SIZE feature, a
- configuration change interrupt may occur. The updated size can
- be read from the configuration fields.
-
- If the driver negotiated the VIRTIO_CONSOLE_F_MULTIPORT
- feature, active ports are announced by the host using the
- VIRTIO_CONSOLE_PORT_ADD control message. The same message is
- used for port hot-plug as well.
-
- If the host specified a port `name', a sysfs attribute is
- created with the name filled in, so that udev rules can be
- written that can create a symlink from the port's name to the
- char device for port discovery by applications in the guest.
-
- Changes to ports' state are effected by control messages.
- Appropriate action is taken on the port indicated in the
- control message. The layout of the structure of the control
- buffer and the events associated are:struct virtio_console_control {
-
- uint32_t id; /* Port number */
-
- uint16_t event; /* The kind of control event */
-
- uint16_t value; /* Extra information for the event */
-
-};
-
-
-
-/* Some events for the internal messages (control packets) */
-
-
-
-#define VIRTIO_CONSOLE_DEVICE_READY 0
-
-#define VIRTIO_CONSOLE_PORT_ADD 1
-
-#define VIRTIO_CONSOLE_PORT_REMOVE 2
-
-#define VIRTIO_CONSOLE_PORT_READY 3
-
-#define VIRTIO_CONSOLE_CONSOLE_PORT 4
-
-#define VIRTIO_CONSOLE_RESIZE 5
-
-#define VIRTIO_CONSOLE_PORT_OPEN 6
-
-#define VIRTIO_CONSOLE_PORT_NAME 7
-
-Appendix F: Entropy Device
-
-The virtio entropy device supplies high-quality randomness for
-guest use.
-
- Configuration
-
- Subsystem Device ID 4
-
- Virtqueues 0:requestq.
-
- Feature bits None currently defined
-
- Device configuration layout None currently defined.
-
- Device Initialization
-
- The virtqueue is initialized
-
- Device Operation
-
-When the driver requires random bytes, it places the descriptor
-of one or more buffers in the queue. It will be completely filled
-by random data by the device.
-
-Appendix G: Memory Balloon Device
-
-The virtio memory balloon device is a primitive device for
-managing guest memory: the device asks for a certain amount of
-memory, and the guest supplies it (or withdraws it, if the device
-has more than it asks for). This allows the guest to adapt to
-changes in allowance of underlying physical memory. If the
-feature is negotiated, the device can also be used to communicate
-guest memory statistics to the host.
-
- Configuration
-
- Subsystem Device ID 5
-
- Virtqueues 0:inflateq. 1:deflateq. 2:statsq.[footnote:
-Only if VIRTIO_BALLON_F_STATS_VQ set
-]
-
- Feature bits
-
- VIRTIO_BALLOON_F_MUST_TELL_HOST (0) Host must be told before
- pages from the balloon are used.
-
- VIRTIO_BALLOON_F_STATS_VQ (1) A virtqueue for reporting guest
- memory statistics is present.
-
- Device configuration layout Both fields of this configuration
- are always available. Note that they are little endian, despite
- convention that device fields are guest endian:struct virtio_balloon_config {
-
- u32 num_pages;
-
- u32 actual;
-
-};
-
- Device Initialization
-
- The inflate and deflate virtqueues are identified.
-
- If the VIRTIO_BALLOON_F_STATS_VQ feature bit is negotiated:
-
- Identify the stats virtqueue.
-
- Add one empty buffer to the stats virtqueue and notify the
- host.
-
-Device operation begins immediately.
-
- Device Operation
-
- Memory Ballooning The device is driven by the receipt of a
- configuration change interrupt.
-
- The “num_pages” configuration field is examined. If this is
- greater than the “actual” number of pages, memory must be given
- to the balloon. If it is less than the “actual” number of
- pages, memory may be taken back from the balloon for general
- use.
-
- To supply memory to the balloon (aka. inflate):
-
- The driver constructs an array of addresses of unused memory
- pages. These addresses are divided by 4096[footnote:
-This is historical, and independent of the guest page size
-] and the descriptor describing the resulting 32-bit array is
- added to the inflateq.
-
- To remove memory from the balloon (aka. deflate):
-
- The driver constructs an array of addresses of memory pages it
- has previously given to the balloon, as described above. This
- descriptor is added to the deflateq.
-
- If the VIRTIO_BALLOON_F_MUST_TELL_HOST feature is set, the
- guest may not use these requested pages until that descriptor
- in the deflateq has been used by the device.
-
- Otherwise, the guest may begin to re-use pages previously given
- to the balloon before the device has acknowledged their
- withdrawl. [footnote:
-In this case, deflation advice is merely a courtesy
-]
-
- In either case, once the device has completed the inflation or
- deflation, the “actual” field of the configuration should be
- updated to reflect the new number of pages in the balloon.[footnote:
-As updates to configuration space are not atomic, this field
-isn't particularly reliable, but can be used to diagnose buggy
-guests.
-]
-
- Memory Statistics
-
-The stats virtqueue is atypical because communication is driven
-by the device (not the driver). The channel becomes active at
-driver initialization time when the driver adds an empty buffer
-and notifies the device. A request for memory statistics proceeds
-as follows:
-
- The device pushes the buffer onto the used ring and sends an
- interrupt.
-
- The driver pops the used buffer and discards it.
-
- The driver collects memory statistics and writes them into a
- new buffer.
-
- The driver adds the buffer to the virtqueue and notifies the
- device.
-
- The device pops the buffer (retaining it to initiate a
- subsequent request) and consumes the statistics.
-
- Memory Statistics Format Each statistic consists of a 16 bit
- tag and a 64 bit value. Both quantities are represented in the
- native endian of the guest. All statistics are optional and the
- driver may choose which ones to supply. To guarantee backwards
- compatibility, unsupported statistics should be omitted.
-
- struct virtio_balloon_stat {
-
-#define VIRTIO_BALLOON_S_SWAP_IN 0
-
-#define VIRTIO_BALLOON_S_SWAP_OUT 1
-
-#define VIRTIO_BALLOON_S_MAJFLT 2
-
-#define VIRTIO_BALLOON_S_MINFLT 3
-
-#define VIRTIO_BALLOON_S_MEMFREE 4
-
-#define VIRTIO_BALLOON_S_MEMTOT 5
-
- u16 tag;
-
- u64 val;
-
-} __attribute__((packed));
-
- Tags
-
- VIRTIO_BALLOON_S_SWAP_IN The amount of memory that has been
- swapped in (in bytes).
-
- VIRTIO_BALLOON_S_SWAP_OUT The amount of memory that has been
- swapped out to disk (in bytes).
-
- VIRTIO_BALLOON_S_MAJFLT The number of major page faults that
- have occurred.
-
- VIRTIO_BALLOON_S_MINFLT The number of minor page faults that
- have occurred.
-
- VIRTIO_BALLOON_S_MEMFREE The amount of memory not being used
- for any purpose (in bytes).
-
- VIRTIO_BALLOON_S_MEMTOT The total amount of memory available
- (in bytes).
-
-Appendix H: Rpmsg: Remote Processor Messaging
-
-Virtio rpmsg devices represent remote processors on the system
-which run in asymmetric multi-processing (AMP) configuration, and
-which are usually used to offload cpu-intensive tasks from the
-main application processor (a typical SoC methodology).
-
-Virtio is being used to communicate with those remote processors;
-empty buffers are placed in one virtqueue for receiving messages,
-and non-empty buffers, containing outbound messages, are enqueued
-in a second virtqueue for transmission.
-
-Numerous communication channels can be multiplexed over those two
-virtqueues, so different entities, running on the application and
-remote processor, can directly communicate in a point-to-point
-fashion.
-
- Configuration
-
- Subsystem Device ID 7
-
- Virtqueues 0:receiveq. 1:transmitq.
-
- Feature bits
-
- VIRTIO_RPMSG_F_NS (0) Device sends (and capable of receiving)
- name service messages announcing the creation (or
- destruction) of a channel:/**
-
- * struct rpmsg_ns_msg - dynamic name service announcement
-message
-
- * @name: name of remote service that is published
-
- * @addr: address of remote service that is published
-
- * @flags: indicates whether service is created or destroyed
-
- *
-
- * This message is sent across to publish a new service (or
-announce
-
- * about its removal). When we receives these messages, an
-appropriate
-
- * rpmsg channel (i.e device) is created/destroyed.
-
- */
-
-struct rpmsg_ns_msgoon_config {
-
- char name[RPMSG_NAME_SIZE];
-
- u32 addr;
-
- u32 flags;
-
-} __packed;
-
-
-
-/**
-
- * enum rpmsg_ns_flags - dynamic name service announcement flags
-
- *
-
- * @RPMSG_NS_CREATE: a new remote service was just created
-
- * @RPMSG_NS_DESTROY: a remote service was just destroyed
-
- */
-
-enum rpmsg_ns_flags {
-
- RPMSG_NS_CREATE = 0,
-
- RPMSG_NS_DESTROY = 1,
-
-};
-
- Device configuration layout
-
-At his point none currently defined.
-
- Device Initialization
-
- The initialization routine should identify the receive and
- transmission virtqueues.
-
- The receive virtqueue should be filled with receive buffers.
-
- Device Operation
-
-Messages are transmitted by placing them in the transmitq, and
-buffers for inbound messages are placed in the receiveq. In any
-case, messages are always preceded by the following header: /**
-
- * struct rpmsg_hdr - common header for all rpmsg messages
-
- * @src: source address
-
- * @dst: destination address
-
- * @reserved: reserved for future use
-
- * @len: length of payload (in bytes)
-
- * @flags: message flags
-
- * @data: @len bytes of message payload data
-
- *
-
- * Every message sent(/received) on the rpmsg bus begins with
-this header.
-
- */
-
-struct rpmsg_hdr {
-
- u32 src;
-
- u32 dst;
-
- u32 reserved;
-
- u16 len;
-
- u16 flags;
-
- u8 data[0];
-
-} __packed;
-
-Appendix I: SCSI Host Device
-
-The virtio SCSI host device groups together one or more virtual
-logical units (such as disks), and allows communicating to them
-using the SCSI protocol. An instance of the device represents a
-SCSI host to which many targets and LUNs are attached.
-
-The virtio SCSI device services two kinds of requests:
-
- command requests for a logical unit;
-
- task management functions related to a logical unit, target or
- command.
-
-The device is also able to send out notifications about added and
-removed logical units. Together, these capabilities provide a
-SCSI transport protocol that uses virtqueues as the transfer
-medium. In the transport protocol, the virtio driver acts as the
-initiator, while the virtio SCSI host provides one or more
-targets that receive and process the requests.
-
- Configuration
-
- Subsystem Device ID 8
-
- Virtqueues 0:controlq; 1:eventq; 2..n:request queues.
-
- Feature bits
-
- VIRTIO_SCSI_F_INOUT (0) A single request can include both
- read-only and write-only data buffers.
-
- VIRTIO_SCSI_F_HOTPLUG (1) The host should enable
- hot-plug/hot-unplug of new LUNs and targets on the SCSI bus.
-
- Device configuration layout All fields of this configuration
- are always available. sense_size and cdb_size are writable by
- the guest.struct virtio_scsi_config {
-
- u32 num_queues;
-
- u32 seg_max;
-
- u32 max_sectors;
-
- u32 cmd_per_lun;
-
- u32 event_info_size;
-
- u32 sense_size;
-
- u32 cdb_size;
-
- u16 max_channel;
-
- u16 max_target;
-
- u32 max_lun;
-
-};
-
- num_queues is the total number of request virtqueues exposed by
- the device. The driver is free to use only one request queue,
- or it can use more to achieve better performance.
-
- seg_max is the maximum number of segments that can be in a
- command. A bidirectional command can include seg_max input
- segments and seg_max output segments.
-
- max_sectors is a hint to the guest about the maximum transfer
- size it should use.
-
- cmd_per_lun is a hint to the guest about the maximum number of
- linked commands it should send to one LUN. The actual value
- to be used is the minimum of cmd_per_lun and the virtqueue
- size.
-
- event_info_size is the maximum size that the device will fill
- for buffers that the driver places in the eventq. The driver
- should always put buffers at least of this size. It is
- written by the device depending on the set of negotated
- features.
-
- sense_size is the maximum size of the sense data that the
- device will write. The default value is written by the device
- and will always be 96, but the driver can modify it. It is
- restored to the default when the device is reset.
-
- cdb_size is the maximum size of the CDB that the driver will
- write. The default value is written by the device and will
- always be 32, but the driver can likewise modify it. It is
- restored to the default when the device is reset.
-
- max_channel, max_target and max_lun can be used by the driver
- as hints to constrain scanning the logical units on the
- host.h
-
- Device Initialization
-
-The initialization routine should first of all discover the
-device's virtqueues.
-
-If the driver uses the eventq, it should then place at least a
-buffer in the eventq.
-
-The driver can immediately issue requests (for example, INQUIRY
-or REPORT LUNS) or task management functions (for example, I_T
-RESET).
-
- Device Operation: request queues
-
-The driver queues requests to an arbitrary request queue, and
-they are used by the device on that same queue. It is the
-responsibility of the driver to ensure strict request ordering
-for commands placed on different queues, because they will be
-consumed with no order constraints.
-
-Requests have the following format:
-
-struct virtio_scsi_req_cmd {
-
- // Read-only
-
- u8 lun[8];
-
- u64 id;
-
- u8 task_attr;
-
- u8 prio;
-
- u8 crn;
-
- char cdb[cdb_size];
-
- char dataout[];
-
- // Write-only part
-
- u32 sense_len;
-
- u32 residual;
-
- u16 status_qualifier;
-
- u8 status;
-
- u8 response;
-
- u8 sense[sense_size];
-
- char datain[];
-
-};
-
-
-
-/* command-specific response values */
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_S_OK 0
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_S_OVERRUN 1
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_S_ABORTED 2
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_S_BAD_TARGET 3
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_S_RESET 4
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_S_BUSY 5
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_S_TRANSPORT_FAILURE 6
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_S_TARGET_FAILURE 7
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_S_NEXUS_FAILURE 8
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_S_FAILURE 9
-
-
-
-/* task_attr */
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_S_SIMPLE 0
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_S_ORDERED 1
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_S_HEAD 2
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_S_ACA 3
-
-The lun field addresses a target and logical unit in the
-virtio-scsi device's SCSI domain. The only supported format for
-the LUN field is: first byte set to 1, second byte set to target,
-third and fourth byte representing a single level LUN structure,
-followed by four zero bytes. With this representation, a
-virtio-scsi device can serve up to 256 targets and 16384 LUNs per
-target.
-
-The id field is the command identifier (“tag”).
-
-task_attr, prio and crn should be left to zero. task_attr defines
-the task attribute as in the table above, but all task attributes
-may be mapped to SIMPLE by the device; crn may also be provided
-by clients, but is generally expected to be 0. The maximum CRN
-value defined by the protocol is 255, since CRN is stored in an
-8-bit integer.
-
-All of these fields are defined in SAM. They are always
-read-only, as are the cdb and dataout field. The cdb_size is
-taken from the configuration space.
-
-sense and subsequent fields are always write-only. The sense_len
-field indicates the number of bytes actually written to the sense
-buffer. The residual field indicates the residual size,
-calculated as “data_length - number_of_transferred_bytes”, for
-read or write operations. For bidirectional commands, the
-number_of_transferred_bytes includes both read and written bytes.
-A residual field that is less than the size of datain means that
-the dataout field was processed entirely. A residual field that
-exceeds the size of datain means that the dataout field was
-processed partially and the datain field was not processed at
-all.
-
-The status byte is written by the device to be the status code as
-defined in SAM.
-
-The response byte is written by the device to be one of the
-following:
-
- VIRTIO_SCSI_S_OK when the request was completed and the status
- byte is filled with a SCSI status code (not necessarily
- "GOOD").
-
- VIRTIO_SCSI_S_OVERRUN if the content of the CDB requires
- transferring more data than is available in the data buffers.
-
- VIRTIO_SCSI_S_ABORTED if the request was cancelled due to an
- ABORT TASK or ABORT TASK SET task management function.
-
- VIRTIO_SCSI_S_BAD_TARGET if the request was never processed
- because the target indicated by the lun field does not exist.
-
- VIRTIO_SCSI_S_RESET if the request was cancelled due to a bus
- or device reset (including a task management function).
-
- VIRTIO_SCSI_S_TRANSPORT_FAILURE if the request failed due to a
- problem in the connection between the host and the target
- (severed link).
-
- VIRTIO_SCSI_S_TARGET_FAILURE if the target is suffering a
- failure and the guest should not retry on other paths.
-
- VIRTIO_SCSI_S_NEXUS_FAILURE if the nexus is suffering a failure
- but retrying on other paths might yield a different result.
-
- VIRTIO_SCSI_S_BUSY if the request failed but retrying on the
- same path should work.
-
- VIRTIO_SCSI_S_FAILURE for other host or guest error. In
- particular, if neither dataout nor datain is empty, and the
- VIRTIO_SCSI_F_INOUT feature has not been negotiated, the
- request will be immediately returned with a response equal to
- VIRTIO_SCSI_S_FAILURE.
-
- Device Operation: controlq
-
-The controlq is used for other SCSI transport operations.
-Requests have the following format:
-
-struct virtio_scsi_ctrl {
-
- u32 type;
-
- ...
-
- u8 response;
-
-};
-
-
-
-/* response values valid for all commands */
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_S_OK 0
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_S_BAD_TARGET 3
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_S_BUSY 5
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_S_TRANSPORT_FAILURE 6
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_S_TARGET_FAILURE 7
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_S_NEXUS_FAILURE 8
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_S_FAILURE 9
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_S_INCORRECT_LUN 12
-
-The type identifies the remaining fields.
-
-The following commands are defined:
-
- Task management function
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_T_TMF 0
-
-
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_T_TMF_ABORT_TASK 0
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_T_TMF_ABORT_TASK_SET 1
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_T_TMF_CLEAR_ACA 2
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_T_TMF_CLEAR_TASK_SET 3
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_T_TMF_I_T_NEXUS_RESET 4
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_T_TMF_LOGICAL_UNIT_RESET 5
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_T_TMF_QUERY_TASK 6
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_T_TMF_QUERY_TASK_SET 7
-
-
-
-struct virtio_scsi_ctrl_tmf
-
-{
-
- // Read-only part
-
- u32 type;
-
- u32 subtype;
-
- u8 lun[8];
-
- u64 id;
-
- // Write-only part
-
- u8 response;
-
-}
-
-
-
-/* command-specific response values */
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_S_FUNCTION_COMPLETE 0
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_S_FUNCTION_SUCCEEDED 10
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_S_FUNCTION_REJECTED 11
-
- The type is VIRTIO_SCSI_T_TMF; the subtype field defines. All
- fields except response are filled by the driver. The subtype
- field must always be specified and identifies the requested
- task management function.
-
- Other fields may be irrelevant for the requested TMF; if so,
- they are ignored but they should still be present. The lun
- field is in the same format specified for request queues; the
- single level LUN is ignored when the task management function
- addresses a whole I_T nexus. When relevant, the value of the id
- field is matched against the id values passed on the requestq.
-
- The outcome of the task management function is written by the
- device in the response field. The command-specific response
- values map 1-to-1 with those defined in SAM.
-
- Asynchronous notification query
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_T_AN_QUERY 1
-
-
-
-struct virtio_scsi_ctrl_an {
-
- // Read-only part
-
- u32 type;
-
- u8 lun[8];
-
- u32 event_requested;
-
- // Write-only part
-
- u32 event_actual;
-
- u8 response;
-
-}
-
-
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_EVT_ASYNC_OPERATIONAL_CHANGE 2
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_EVT_ASYNC_POWER_MGMT 4
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_EVT_ASYNC_EXTERNAL_REQUEST 8
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_EVT_ASYNC_MEDIA_CHANGE 16
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_EVT_ASYNC_MULTI_HOST 32
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_EVT_ASYNC_DEVICE_BUSY 64
-
- By sending this command, the driver asks the device which
- events the given LUN can report, as described in paragraphs 6.6
- and A.6 of the SCSI MMC specification. The driver writes the
- events it is interested in into the event_requested; the device
- responds by writing the events that it supports into
- event_actual.
-
- The type is VIRTIO_SCSI_T_AN_QUERY. The lun and event_requested
- fields are written by the driver. The event_actual and response
- fields are written by the device.
-
- No command-specific values are defined for the response byte.
-
- Asynchronous notification subscription
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_T_AN_SUBSCRIBE 2
-
-
-
-struct virtio_scsi_ctrl_an {
-
- // Read-only part
-
- u32 type;
-
- u8 lun[8];
-
- u32 event_requested;
-
- // Write-only part
-
- u32 event_actual;
-
- u8 response;
-
-}
-
- By sending this command, the driver asks the specified LUN to
- report events for its physical interface, again as described in
- the SCSI MMC specification. The driver writes the events it is
- interested in into the event_requested; the device responds by
- writing the events that it supports into event_actual.
-
- Event types are the same as for the asynchronous notification
- query message.
-
- The type is VIRTIO_SCSI_T_AN_SUBSCRIBE. The lun and
- event_requested fields are written by the driver. The
- event_actual and response fields are written by the device.
-
- No command-specific values are defined for the response byte.
-
- Device Operation: eventq
-
-The eventq is used by the device to report information on logical
-units that are attached to it. The driver should always leave a
-few buffers ready in the eventq. In general, the device will not
-queue events to cope with an empty eventq, and will end up
-dropping events if it finds no buffer ready. However, when
-reporting events for many LUNs (e.g. when a whole target
-disappears), the device can throttle events to avoid dropping
-them. For this reason, placing 10-15 buffers on the event queue
-should be enough.
-
-Buffers are placed in the eventq and filled by the device when
-interesting events occur. The buffers should be strictly
-write-only (device-filled) and the size of the buffers should be
-at least the value given in the device's configuration
-information.
-
-Buffers returned by the device on the eventq will be referred to
-as "events" in the rest of this section. Events have the
-following format:
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_T_EVENTS_MISSED 0x80000000
-
-
-
-struct virtio_scsi_event {
-
- // Write-only part
-
- u32 event;
-
- ...
-
-}
-
-If bit 31 is set in the event field, the device failed to report
-an event due to missing buffers. In this case, the driver should
-poll the logical units for unit attention conditions, and/or do
-whatever form of bus scan is appropriate for the guest operating
-system.
-
-Other data that the device writes to the buffer depends on the
-contents of the event field. The following events are defined:
-
- No event
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_T_NO_EVENT 0
-
- This event is fired in the following cases:
-
- When the device detects in the eventq a buffer that is shorter
- than what is indicated in the configuration field, it might
- use it immediately and put this dummy value in the event
- field. A well-written driver will never observe this
- situation.
-
- When events are dropped, the device may signal this event as
- soon as the drivers makes a buffer available, in order to
- request action from the driver. In this case, of course, this
- event will be reported with the VIRTIO_SCSI_T_EVENTS_MISSED
- flag.
-
- Transport reset
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_T_TRANSPORT_RESET 1
-
-
-
-struct virtio_scsi_event_reset {
-
- // Write-only part
-
- u32 event;
-
- u8 lun[8];
-
- u32 reason;
-
-}
-
-
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_EVT_RESET_HARD 0
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_EVT_RESET_RESCAN 1
-
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_EVT_RESET_REMOVED 2
-
- By sending this event, the device signals that a logical unit
- on a target has been reset, including the case of a new device
- appearing or disappearing on the bus.The device fills in all
- fields. The event field is set to
- VIRTIO_SCSI_T_TRANSPORT_RESET. The lun field addresses a
- logical unit in the SCSI host.
-
- The reason value is one of the three #define values appearing
- above:
-
- VIRTIO_SCSI_EVT_RESET_REMOVED (“LUN/target removed”) is used if
- the target or logical unit is no longer able to receive
- commands.
-
- VIRTIO_SCSI_EVT_RESET_HARD (“LUN hard reset”) is used if the
- logical unit has been reset, but is still present.
-
- VIRTIO_SCSI_EVT_RESET_RESCAN (“rescan LUN/target”) is used if a
- target or logical unit has just appeared on the device.
-
- The “removed” and “rescan” events, when sent for LUN 0, may
- apply to the entire target. After receiving them the driver
- should ask the initiator to rescan the target, in order to
- detect the case when an entire target has appeared or
- disappeared. These two events will never be reported unless the
- VIRTIO_SCSI_F_HOTPLUG feature was negotiated between the host
- and the guest.
-
- Events will also be reported via sense codes (this obviously
- does not apply to newly appeared buses or targets, since the
- application has never discovered them):
-
- “LUN/target removed” maps to sense key ILLEGAL REQUEST, asc
- 0x25, ascq 0x00 (LOGICAL UNIT NOT SUPPORTED)
-
- “LUN hard reset” maps to sense key UNIT ATTENTION, asc 0x29
- (POWER ON, RESET OR BUS DEVICE RESET OCCURRED)
-
- “rescan LUN/target” maps to sense key UNIT ATTENTION, asc 0x3f,
- ascq 0x0e (REPORTED LUNS DATA HAS CHANGED)
-
- The preferred way to detect transport reset is always to use
- events, because sense codes are only seen by the driver when it
- sends a SCSI command to the logical unit or target. However, in
- case events are dropped, the initiator will still be able to
- synchronize with the actual state of the controller if the
- driver asks the initiator to rescan of the SCSI bus. During the
- rescan, the initiator will be able to observe the above sense
- codes, and it will process them as if it the driver had
- received the equivalent event.
-
- Asynchronous notification
-#define VIRTIO_SCSI_T_ASYNC_NOTIFY 2
-
-
-
-struct virtio_scsi_event_an {
-
- // Write-only part
-
- u32 event;
-
- u8 lun[8];
-
- u32 reason;
-
-}
-
- By sending this event, the device signals that an asynchronous
- event was fired from a physical interface.
-
- All fields are written by the device. The event field is set to
- VIRTIO_SCSI_T_ASYNC_NOTIFY. The lun field addresses a logical
- unit in the SCSI host. The reason field is a subset of the
- events that the driver has subscribed to via the "Asynchronous
- notification subscription" command.
-
- When dropped events are reported, the driver should poll for
- asynchronous events manually using SCSI commands.
-
-Appendix X: virtio-mmio
-
-Virtual environments without PCI support (a common situation in
-embedded devices models) might use simple memory mapped device (“
-virtio-mmio”) instead of the PCI device.
-
-The memory mapped virtio device behaviour is based on the PCI
-device specification. Therefore most of operations like device
-initialization, queues configuration and buffer transfers are
-nearly identical. Existing differences are described in the
-following sections.
-
- Device Initialization
-
-Instead of using the PCI IO space for virtio header, the “
-virtio-mmio” device provides a set of memory mapped control
-registers, all 32 bits wide, followed by device-specific
-configuration space. The following list presents their layout:
-
- Offset from the device base address | Direction | Name
- Description
-
- 0x000 | R | MagicValue
- “virt” string.
-
- 0x004 | R | Version
- Device version number. Currently must be 1.
-
- 0x008 | R | DeviceID
- Virtio Subsystem Device ID (ie. 1 for network card).
-
- 0x00c | R | VendorID
- Virtio Subsystem Vendor ID.
-
- 0x010 | R | HostFeatures
- Flags representing features the device supports.
- Reading from this register returns 32 consecutive flag bits,
- first bit depending on the last value written to
- HostFeaturesSel register. Access to this register returns bits HostFeaturesSel*32
-
- to (HostFeaturesSel*32)+31
-, eg. feature bits 0 to 31 if
- HostFeaturesSel is set to 0 and features bits 32 to 63 if
- HostFeaturesSel is set to 1. Also see [sub:Feature-Bits]
-
- 0x014 | W | HostFeaturesSel
- Device (Host) features word selection.
- Writing to this register selects a set of 32 device feature bits
- accessible by reading from HostFeatures register. Device driver
- must write a value to the HostFeaturesSel register before
- reading from the HostFeatures register.
-
- 0x020 | W | GuestFeatures
- Flags representing device features understood and activated by
- the driver.
- Writing to this register sets 32 consecutive flag bits, first
- bit depending on the last value written to GuestFeaturesSel
- register. Access to this register sets bits GuestFeaturesSel*32
-
- to (GuestFeaturesSel*32)+31
-, eg. feature bits 0 to 31 if
- GuestFeaturesSel is set to 0 and features bits 32 to 63 if
- GuestFeaturesSel is set to 1. Also see [sub:Feature-Bits]
-
- 0x024 | W | GuestFeaturesSel
- Activated (Guest) features word selection.
- Writing to this register selects a set of 32 activated feature
- bits accessible by writing to the GuestFeatures register.
- Device driver must write a value to the GuestFeaturesSel
- register before writing to the GuestFeatures register.
-
- 0x028 | W | GuestPageSize
- Guest page size.
- Device driver must write the guest page size in bytes to the
- register during initialization, before any queues are used.
- This value must be a power of 2 and is used by the Host to
- calculate Guest address of the first queue page (see QueuePFN).
-
- 0x030 | W | QueueSel
- Virtual queue index (first queue is 0).
- Writing to this register selects the virtual queue that the
- following operations on QueueNum, QueueAlign and QueuePFN apply
- to.
-
- 0x034 | R | QueueNumMax
- Maximum virtual queue size.
- Reading from the register returns the maximum size of the queue
- the Host is ready to process or zero (0x0) if the queue is not
- available. This applies to the queue selected by writing to
- QueueSel and is allowed only when QueuePFN is set to zero
- (0x0), so when the queue is not actively used.
-
- 0x038 | W | QueueNum
- Virtual queue size.
- Queue size is a number of elements in the queue, therefore size
- of the descriptor table and both available and used rings.
- Writing to this register notifies the Host what size of the
- queue the Guest will use. This applies to the queue selected by
- writing to QueueSel.
-
- 0x03c | W | QueueAlign
- Used Ring alignment in the virtual queue.
- Writing to this register notifies the Host about alignment
- boundary of the Used Ring in bytes. This value must be a power
- of 2 and applies to the queue selected by writing to QueueSel.
-
- 0x040 | RW | QueuePFN
- Guest physical page number of the virtual queue.
- Writing to this register notifies the host about location of the
- virtual queue in the Guest's physical address space. This value
- is the index number of a page starting with the queue
- Descriptor Table. Value zero (0x0) means physical address zero
- (0x00000000) and is illegal. When the Guest stops using the
- queue it must write zero (0x0) to this register.
- Reading from this register returns the currently used page
- number of the queue, therefore a value other than zero (0x0)
- means that the queue is in use.
- Both read and write accesses apply to the queue selected by
- writing to QueueSel.
-
- 0x050 | W | QueueNotify
- Queue notifier.
- Writing a queue index to this register notifies the Host that
- there are new buffers to process in the queue.
-
- 0x60 | R | InterruptStatus
-Interrupt status.
-Reading from this register returns a bit mask of interrupts
- asserted by the device. An interrupt is asserted if the
- corresponding bit is set, ie. equals one (1).
-
- Bit 0 | Used Ring Update
-This interrupt is asserted when the Host has updated the Used
- Ring in at least one of the active virtual queues.
-
- Bit 1 | Configuration change
-This interrupt is asserted when configuration of the device has
- changed.
-
- 0x064 | W | InterruptACK
- Interrupt acknowledge.
- Writing to this register notifies the Host that the Guest
- finished handling interrupts. Set bits in the value clear the
- corresponding bits of the InterruptStatus register.
-
- 0x070 | RW | Status
- Device status.
- Reading from this register returns the current device status
- flags.
- Writing non-zero values to this register sets the status flags,
- indicating the Guest progress. Writing zero (0x0) to this
- register triggers a device reset.
- Also see [sub:Device-Initialization-Sequence]
-
- 0x100+ | RW | Config
- Device-specific configuration space starts at an offset 0x100
- and is accessed with byte alignment. Its meaning and size
- depends on the device and the driver.
-
-Virtual queue size is a number of elements in the queue,
-therefore size of the descriptor table and both available and
-used rings.
-
-The endianness of the registers follows the native endianness of
-the Guest. Writing to registers described as “R” and reading from
-registers described as “W” is not permitted and can cause
-undefined behavior.
-
-The device initialization is performed as described in [sub:Device-Initialization-Sequence]
- with one exception: the Guest must notify the Host about its
-page size, writing the size in bytes to GuestPageSize register
-before the initialization is finished.
-
-The memory mapped virtio devices generate single interrupt only,
-therefore no special configuration is required.
-
- Virtqueue Configuration
-
-The virtual queue configuration is performed in a similar way to
-the one described in [sec:Virtqueue-Configuration] with a few
-additional operations:
-
- Select the queue writing its index (first queue is 0) to the
- QueueSel register.
-
- Check if the queue is not already in use: read QueuePFN
- register, returned value should be zero (0x0).
-
- Read maximum queue size (number of elements) from the
- QueueNumMax register. If the returned value is zero (0x0) the
- queue is not available.
-
- Allocate and zero the queue pages in contiguous virtual memory,
- aligning the Used Ring to an optimal boundary (usually page
- size). Size of the allocated queue may be smaller than or equal
- to the maximum size returned by the Host.
-
- Notify the Host about the queue size by writing the size to
- QueueNum register.
-
- Notify the Host about the used alignment by writing its value
- in bytes to QueueAlign register.
-
- Write the physical number of the first page of the queue to the
- QueuePFN register.
-
-The queue and the device are ready to begin normal operations
-now.
-
- Device Operation
-
-The memory mapped virtio device behaves in the same way as
-described in [sec:Device-Operation], with the following
-exceptions:
-
- The device is notified about new buffers available in a queue
- by writing the queue index to register QueueNum instead of the
- virtio header in PCI I/O space ([sub:Notifying-The-Device]).
-
- The memory mapped virtio device is using single, dedicated
- interrupt signal, which is raised when at least one of the
- interrupts described in the InterruptStatus register
- description is asserted. After receiving an interrupt, the
- driver must read the InterruptStatus register to check what
- caused the interrupt (see the register description). After the
- interrupt is handled, the driver must acknowledge it by writing
- a bit mask corresponding to the serviced interrupt to the
- InterruptACK register.
-