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- User Mode Linux HOWTO
- User Mode Linux Core Team
- Mon Nov 18 14:16:16 EST 2002
-
- This document describes the use and abuse of Jeff Dike's User Mode
- Linux: a port of the Linux kernel as a normal Intel Linux process.
- ______________________________________________________________________
-
- Table of Contents
-
- 1. Introduction
-
- 1.1 How is User Mode Linux Different?
- 1.2 Why Would I Want User Mode Linux?
-
- 2. Compiling the kernel and modules
-
- 2.1 Compiling the kernel
- 2.2 Compiling and installing kernel modules
- 2.3 Compiling and installing uml_utilities
-
- 3. Running UML and logging in
-
- 3.1 Running UML
- 3.2 Logging in
- 3.3 Examples
-
- 4. UML on 2G/2G hosts
-
- 4.1 Introduction
- 4.2 The problem
- 4.3 The solution
-
- 5. Setting up serial lines and consoles
-
- 5.1 Specifying the device
- 5.2 Specifying the channel
- 5.3 Examples
-
- 6. Setting up the network
-
- 6.1 General setup
- 6.2 Userspace daemons
- 6.3 Specifying ethernet addresses
- 6.4 UML interface setup
- 6.5 Multicast
- 6.6 TUN/TAP with the uml_net helper
- 6.7 TUN/TAP with a preconfigured tap device
- 6.8 Ethertap
- 6.9 The switch daemon
- 6.10 Slip
- 6.11 Slirp
- 6.12 pcap
- 6.13 Setting up the host yourself
-
- 7. Sharing Filesystems between Virtual Machines
-
- 7.1 A warning
- 7.2 Using layered block devices
- 7.3 Note!
- 7.4 Another warning
- 7.5 uml_moo : Merging a COW file with its backing file
-
- 8. Creating filesystems
-
- 8.1 Create the filesystem file
- 8.2 Assign the file to a UML device
- 8.3 Creating and mounting the filesystem
-
- 9. Host file access
-
- 9.1 Using hostfs
- 9.2 hostfs as the root filesystem
- 9.3 Building hostfs
-
- 10. The Management Console
- 10.1 version
- 10.2 halt and reboot
- 10.3 config
- 10.4 remove
- 10.5 sysrq
- 10.6 help
- 10.7 cad
- 10.8 stop
- 10.9 go
-
- 11. Kernel debugging
-
- 11.1 Starting the kernel under gdb
- 11.2 Examining sleeping processes
- 11.3 Running ddd on UML
- 11.4 Debugging modules
- 11.5 Attaching gdb to the kernel
- 11.6 Using alternate debuggers
-
- 12. Kernel debugging examples
-
- 12.1 The case of the hung fsck
- 12.2 Episode 2: The case of the hung fsck
-
- 13. What to do when UML doesn't work
-
- 13.1 Strange compilation errors when you build from source
- 13.2 (obsolete)
- 13.3 A variety of panics and hangs with /tmp on a reiserfs filesystem
- 13.4 The compile fails with errors about conflicting types for 'open', 'dup', and 'waitpid'
- 13.5 UML doesn't work when /tmp is an NFS filesystem
- 13.6 UML hangs on boot when compiled with gprof support
- 13.7 syslogd dies with a SIGTERM on startup
- 13.8 TUN/TAP networking doesn't work on a 2.4 host
- 13.9 You can network to the host but not to other machines on the net
- 13.10 I have no root and I want to scream
- 13.11 UML build conflict between ptrace.h and ucontext.h
- 13.12 The UML BogoMips is exactly half the host's BogoMips
- 13.13 When you run UML, it immediately segfaults
- 13.14 xterms appear, then immediately disappear
- 13.15 Any other panic, hang, or strange behavior
-
- 14. Diagnosing Problems
-
- 14.1 Case 1 : Normal kernel panics
- 14.2 Case 2 : Tracing thread panics
- 14.3 Case 3 : Tracing thread panics caused by other threads
- 14.4 Case 4 : Hangs
-
- 15. Thanks
-
- 15.1 Code and Documentation
- 15.2 Flushing out bugs
- 15.3 Buglets and clean-ups
- 15.4 Case Studies
- 15.5 Other contributions
-
-
- ______________________________________________________________________
-
- 1. Introduction
-
- Welcome to User Mode Linux. It's going to be fun.
-
-
-
- 1.1. How is User Mode Linux Different?
-
- Normally, the Linux Kernel talks straight to your hardware (video
- card, keyboard, hard drives, etc), and any programs which run ask the
- kernel to operate the hardware, like so:
-
-
-
- +-----------+-----------+----+
- | Process 1 | Process 2 | ...|
- +-----------+-----------+----+
- | Linux Kernel |
- +----------------------------+
- | Hardware |
- +----------------------------+
-
-
-
-
- The User Mode Linux Kernel is different; instead of talking to the
- hardware, it talks to a `real' Linux kernel (called the `host kernel'
- from now on), like any other program. Programs can then run inside
- User-Mode Linux as if they were running under a normal kernel, like
- so:
-
-
-
- +----------------+
- | Process 2 | ...|
- +-----------+----------------+
- | Process 1 | User-Mode Linux|
- +----------------------------+
- | Linux Kernel |
- +----------------------------+
- | Hardware |
- +----------------------------+
-
-
-
-
-
- 1.2. Why Would I Want User Mode Linux?
-
-
- 1. If User Mode Linux crashes, your host kernel is still fine.
-
- 2. You can run a usermode kernel as a non-root user.
-
- 3. You can debug the User Mode Linux like any normal process.
-
- 4. You can run gprof (profiling) and gcov (coverage testing).
-
- 5. You can play with your kernel without breaking things.
-
- 6. You can use it as a sandbox for testing new apps.
-
- 7. You can try new development kernels safely.
-
- 8. You can run different distributions simultaneously.
-
- 9. It's extremely fun.
-
-
-
-
-
- 2. Compiling the kernel and modules
-
-
-
-
- 2.1. Compiling the kernel
-
-
- Compiling the user mode kernel is just like compiling any other
- kernel. Let's go through the steps, using 2.4.0-prerelease (current
- as of this writing) as an example:
-
-
- 1. Download the latest UML patch from
-
- the download page <http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net/
-
- In this example, the file is uml-patch-2.4.0-prerelease.bz2.
-
-
- 2. Download the matching kernel from your favourite kernel mirror,
- such as:
-
- ftp://ftp.ca.kernel.org/pub/kernel/v2.4/linux-2.4.0-prerelease.tar.bz2
- <ftp://ftp.ca.kernel.org/pub/kernel/v2.4/linux-2.4.0-prerelease.tar.bz2>
- .
-
-
- 3. Make a directory and unpack the kernel into it.
-
-
-
- host%
- mkdir ~/uml
-
-
-
-
-
-
- host%
- cd ~/uml
-
-
-
-
-
-
- host%
- tar -xzvf linux-2.4.0-prerelease.tar.bz2
-
-
-
-
-
-
- 4. Apply the patch using
-
-
-
- host%
- cd ~/uml/linux
-
-
-
- host%
- bzcat uml-patch-2.4.0-prerelease.bz2 | patch -p1
-
-
-
-
-
-
- 5. Run your favorite config; `make xconfig ARCH=um' is the most
- convenient. `make config ARCH=um' and 'make menuconfig ARCH=um'
- will work as well. The defaults will give you a useful kernel. If
- you want to change something, go ahead, it probably won't hurt
- anything.
-
-
- Note: If the host is configured with a 2G/2G address space split
- rather than the usual 3G/1G split, then the packaged UML binaries
- will not run. They will immediately segfault. See ``UML on 2G/2G
- hosts'' for the scoop on running UML on your system.
-
-
-
- 6. Finish with `make linux ARCH=um': the result is a file called
- `linux' in the top directory of your source tree.
-
- Make sure that you don't build this kernel in /usr/src/linux. On some
- distributions, /usr/include/asm is a link into this pool. The user-
- mode build changes the other end of that link, and things that include
- <asm/anything.h> stop compiling.
-
- The sources are also available from cvs at the project's cvs page,
- which has directions on getting the sources. You can also browse the
- CVS pool from there.
-
- If you get the CVS sources, you will have to check them out into an
- empty directory. You will then have to copy each file into the
- corresponding directory in the appropriate kernel pool.
-
- If you don't have the latest kernel pool, you can get the
- corresponding user-mode sources with
-
-
- host% cvs co -r v_2_3_x linux
-
-
-
-
- where 'x' is the version in your pool. Note that you will not get the
- bug fixes and enhancements that have gone into subsequent releases.
-
-
- 2.2. Compiling and installing kernel modules
-
- UML modules are built in the same way as the native kernel (with the
- exception of the 'ARCH=um' that you always need for UML):
-
-
- host% make modules ARCH=um
-
-
-
-
- Any modules that you want to load into this kernel need to be built in
- the user-mode pool. Modules from the native kernel won't work.
-
- You can install them by using ftp or something to copy them into the
- virtual machine and dropping them into /lib/modules/`uname -r`.
-
- You can also get the kernel build process to install them as follows:
-
- 1. with the kernel not booted, mount the root filesystem in the top
- level of the kernel pool:
-
-
- host% mount root_fs mnt -o loop
-
-
-
-
-
-
- 2. run
-
-
- host%
- make modules_install INSTALL_MOD_PATH=`pwd`/mnt ARCH=um
-
-
-
-
-
-
- 3. unmount the filesystem
-
-
- host% umount mnt
-
-
-
-
-
-
- 4. boot the kernel on it
-
-
- When the system is booted, you can use insmod as usual to get the
- modules into the kernel. A number of things have been loaded into UML
- as modules, especially filesystems and network protocols and filters,
- so most symbols which need to be exported probably already are.
- However, if you do find symbols that need exporting, let us
- <http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net/> know, and
- they'll be "taken care of".
-
-
-
- 2.3. Compiling and installing uml_utilities
-
- Many features of the UML kernel require a user-space helper program,
- so a uml_utilities package is distributed separately from the kernel
- patch which provides these helpers. Included within this is:
-
- o port-helper - Used by consoles which connect to xterms or ports
-
- o tunctl - Configuration tool to create and delete tap devices
-
- o uml_net - Setuid binary for automatic tap device configuration
-
- o uml_switch - User-space virtual switch required for daemon
- transport
-
- The uml_utilities tree is compiled with:
-
-
- host#
- make && make install
-
-
-
-
- Note that UML kernel patches may require a specific version of the
- uml_utilities distribution. If you don't keep up with the mailing
- lists, ensure that you have the latest release of uml_utilities if you
- are experiencing problems with your UML kernel, particularly when
- dealing with consoles or command-line switches to the helper programs
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- 3. Running UML and logging in
-
-
-
- 3.1. Running UML
-
- It runs on 2.2.15 or later, and all 2.4 kernels.
-
-
- Booting UML is straightforward. Simply run 'linux': it will try to
- mount the file `root_fs' in the current directory. You do not need to
- run it as root. If your root filesystem is not named `root_fs', then
- you need to put a `ubd0=root_fs_whatever' switch on the linux command
- line.
-
-
- You will need a filesystem to boot UML from. There are a number
- available for download from here <http://user-mode-
- linux.sourceforge.net/> . There are also several tools
- <http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net/> which can be
- used to generate UML-compatible filesystem images from media.
- The kernel will boot up and present you with a login prompt.
-
-
- Note: If the host is configured with a 2G/2G address space split
- rather than the usual 3G/1G split, then the packaged UML binaries will
- not run. They will immediately segfault. See ``UML on 2G/2G hosts''
- for the scoop on running UML on your system.
-
-
-
- 3.2. Logging in
-
-
-
- The prepackaged filesystems have a root account with password 'root'
- and a user account with password 'user'. The login banner will
- generally tell you how to log in. So, you log in and you will find
- yourself inside a little virtual machine. Our filesystems have a
- variety of commands and utilities installed (and it is fairly easy to
- add more), so you will have a lot of tools with which to poke around
- the system.
-
- There are a couple of other ways to log in:
-
- o On a virtual console
-
-
-
- Each virtual console that is configured (i.e. the device exists in
- /dev and /etc/inittab runs a getty on it) will come up in its own
- xterm. If you get tired of the xterms, read ``Setting up serial
- lines and consoles'' to see how to attach the consoles to
- something else, like host ptys.
-
-
-
- o Over the serial line
-
-
- In the boot output, find a line that looks like:
-
-
-
- serial line 0 assigned pty /dev/ptyp1
-
-
-
-
- Attach your favorite terminal program to the corresponding tty. I.e.
- for minicom, the command would be
-
-
- host% minicom -o -p /dev/ttyp1
-
-
-
-
-
-
- o Over the net
-
-
- If the network is running, then you can telnet to the virtual
- machine and log in to it. See ``Setting up the network'' to learn
- about setting up a virtual network.
-
- When you're done using it, run halt, and the kernel will bring itself
- down and the process will exit.
-
-
- 3.3. Examples
-
- Here are some examples of UML in action:
-
- o A login session <http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net/login.html>
-
- o A virtual network <http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net/net.html>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- 4. UML on 2G/2G hosts
-
-
-
-
- 4.1. Introduction
-
-
- Most Linux machines are configured so that the kernel occupies the
- upper 1G (0xc0000000 - 0xffffffff) of the 4G address space and
- processes use the lower 3G (0x00000000 - 0xbfffffff). However, some
- machine are configured with a 2G/2G split, with the kernel occupying
- the upper 2G (0x80000000 - 0xffffffff) and processes using the lower
- 2G (0x00000000 - 0x7fffffff).
-
-
-
-
- 4.2. The problem
-
-
- The prebuilt UML binaries on this site will not run on 2G/2G hosts
- because UML occupies the upper .5G of the 3G process address space
- (0xa0000000 - 0xbfffffff). Obviously, on 2G/2G hosts, this is right
- in the middle of the kernel address space, so UML won't even load - it
- will immediately segfault.
-
-
-
-
- 4.3. The solution
-
-
- The fix for this is to rebuild UML from source after enabling
- CONFIG_HOST_2G_2G (under 'General Setup'). This will cause UML to
- load itself in the top .5G of that smaller process address space,
- where it will run fine. See ``Compiling the kernel and modules'' if
- you need help building UML from source.
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- 5. Setting up serial lines and consoles
-
-
- It is possible to attach UML serial lines and consoles to many types
- of host I/O channels by specifying them on the command line.
-
-
- You can attach them to host ptys, ttys, file descriptors, and ports.
- This allows you to do things like
-
- o have a UML console appear on an unused host console,
-
- o hook two virtual machines together by having one attach to a pty
- and having the other attach to the corresponding tty
-
- o make a virtual machine accessible from the net by attaching a
- console to a port on the host.
-
-
- The general format of the command line option is device=channel.
-
-
-
- 5.1. Specifying the device
-
- Devices are specified with "con" or "ssl" (console or serial line,
- respectively), optionally with a device number if you are talking
- about a specific device.
-
-
- Using just "con" or "ssl" describes all of the consoles or serial
- lines. If you want to talk about console #3 or serial line #10, they
- would be "con3" and "ssl10", respectively.
-
-
- A specific device name will override a less general "con=" or "ssl=".
- So, for example, you can assign a pty to each of the serial lines
- except for the first two like this:
-
-
- ssl=pty ssl0=tty:/dev/tty0 ssl1=tty:/dev/tty1
-
-
-
-
- The specificity of the device name is all that matters; order on the
- command line is irrelevant.
-
-
-
- 5.2. Specifying the channel
-
- There are a number of different types of channels to attach a UML
- device to, each with a different way of specifying exactly what to
- attach to.
-
- o pseudo-terminals - device=pty pts terminals - device=pts
-
-
- This will cause UML to allocate a free host pseudo-terminal for the
- device. The terminal that it got will be announced in the boot
- log. You access it by attaching a terminal program to the
- corresponding tty:
-
- o screen /dev/pts/n
-
- o screen /dev/ttyxx
-
- o minicom -o -p /dev/ttyxx - minicom seems not able to handle pts
- devices
-
- o kermit - start it up, 'open' the device, then 'connect'
-
-
-
-
-
- o terminals - device=tty:tty device file
-
-
- This will make UML attach the device to the specified tty (i.e
-
-
- con1=tty:/dev/tty3
-
-
-
-
- will attach UML's console 1 to the host's /dev/tty3). If the tty that
- you specify is the slave end of a tty/pty pair, something else must
- have already opened the corresponding pty in order for this to work.
-
-
-
-
-
- o xterms - device=xterm
-
-
- UML will run an xterm and the device will be attached to it.
-
-
-
-
-
- o Port - device=port:port number
-
-
- This will attach the UML devices to the specified host port.
- Attaching console 1 to the host's port 9000 would be done like
- this:
-
-
- con1=port:9000
-
-
-
-
- Attaching all the serial lines to that port would be done similarly:
-
-
- ssl=port:9000
-
-
-
-
- You access these devices by telnetting to that port. Each active tel-
- net session gets a different device. If there are more telnets to a
- port than UML devices attached to it, then the extra telnet sessions
- will block until an existing telnet detaches, or until another device
- becomes active (i.e. by being activated in /etc/inittab).
-
- This channel has the advantage that you can both attach multiple UML
- devices to it and know how to access them without reading the UML boot
- log. It is also unique in allowing access to a UML from remote
- machines without requiring that the UML be networked. This could be
- useful in allowing public access to UMLs because they would be
- accessible from the net, but wouldn't need any kind of network
- filtering or access control because they would have no network access.
-
-
- If you attach the main console to a portal, then the UML boot will
- appear to hang. In reality, it's waiting for a telnet to connect, at
- which point the boot will proceed.
-
-
-
-
-
- o already-existing file descriptors - device=file descriptor
-
-
- If you set up a file descriptor on the UML command line, you can
- attach a UML device to it. This is most commonly used to put the
- main console back on stdin and stdout after assigning all the other
- consoles to something else:
-
-
- con0=fd:0,fd:1 con=pts
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- o Nothing - device=null
-
-
- This allows the device to be opened, in contrast to 'none', but
- reads will block, and writes will succeed and the data will be
- thrown out.
-
-
-
-
-
- o None - device=none
-
-
- This causes the device to disappear.
-
-
-
- You can also specify different input and output channels for a device
- by putting a comma between them:
-
-
- ssl3=tty:/dev/tty2,xterm
-
-
-
-
- will cause serial line 3 to accept input on the host's /dev/tty2 and
- display output on an xterm. That's a silly example - the most common
- use of this syntax is to reattach the main console to stdin and stdout
- as shown above.
-
-
- If you decide to move the main console away from stdin/stdout, the
- initial boot output will appear in the terminal that you're running
- UML in. However, once the console driver has been officially
- initialized, then the boot output will start appearing wherever you
- specified that console 0 should be. That device will receive all
- subsequent output.
-
-
-
- 5.3. Examples
-
- There are a number of interesting things you can do with this
- capability.
-
-
- First, this is how you get rid of those bleeding console xterms by
- attaching them to host ptys:
-
-
- con=pty con0=fd:0,fd:1
-
-
-
-
- This will make a UML console take over an unused host virtual console,
- so that when you switch to it, you will see the UML login prompt
- rather than the host login prompt:
-
-
- con1=tty:/dev/tty6
-
-
-
-
- You can attach two virtual machines together with what amounts to a
- serial line as follows:
-
- Run one UML with a serial line attached to a pty -
-
-
- ssl1=pty
-
-
-
-
- Look at the boot log to see what pty it got (this example will assume
- that it got /dev/ptyp1).
-
- Boot the other UML with a serial line attached to the corresponding
- tty -
-
-
- ssl1=tty:/dev/ttyp1
-
-
-
-
- Log in, make sure that it has no getty on that serial line, attach a
- terminal program like minicom to it, and you should see the login
- prompt of the other virtual machine.
-
-
- 6. Setting up the network
-
-
-
- This page describes how to set up the various transports and to
- provide a UML instance with network access to the host, other machines
- on the local net, and the rest of the net.
-
-
- As of 2.4.5, UML networking has been completely redone to make it much
- easier to set up, fix bugs, and add new features.
-
-
- There is a new helper, uml_net, which does the host setup that
- requires root privileges.
-
-
- There are currently five transport types available for a UML virtual
- machine to exchange packets with other hosts:
-
- o ethertap
-
- o TUN/TAP
-
- o Multicast
-
- o a switch daemon
-
- o slip
-
- o slirp
-
- o pcap
-
- The TUN/TAP, ethertap, slip, and slirp transports allow a UML
- instance to exchange packets with the host. They may be directed
- to the host or the host may just act as a router to provide access
- to other physical or virtual machines.
-
-
- The pcap transport is a synthetic read-only interface, using the
- libpcap binary to collect packets from interfaces on the host and
- filter them. This is useful for building preconfigured traffic
- monitors or sniffers.
-
-
- The daemon and multicast transports provide a completely virtual
- network to other virtual machines. This network is completely
- disconnected from the physical network unless one of the virtual
- machines on it is acting as a gateway.
-
-
- With so many host transports, which one should you use? Here's when
- you should use each one:
-
- o ethertap - if you want access to the host networking and it is
- running 2.2
-
- o TUN/TAP - if you want access to the host networking and it is
- running 2.4. Also, the TUN/TAP transport is able to use a
- preconfigured device, allowing it to avoid using the setuid uml_net
- helper, which is a security advantage.
-
- o Multicast - if you want a purely virtual network and you don't want
- to set up anything but the UML
-
- o a switch daemon - if you want a purely virtual network and you
- don't mind running the daemon in order to get somewhat better
- performance
-
- o slip - there is no particular reason to run the slip backend unless
- ethertap and TUN/TAP are just not available for some reason
-
- o slirp - if you don't have root access on the host to setup
- networking, or if you don't want to allocate an IP to your UML
-
- o pcap - not much use for actual network connectivity, but great for
- monitoring traffic on the host
-
- Ethertap is available on 2.4 and works fine. TUN/TAP is preferred
- to it because it has better performance and ethertap is officially
- considered obsolete in 2.4. Also, the root helper only needs to
- run occasionally for TUN/TAP, rather than handling every packet, as
- it does with ethertap. This is a slight security advantage since
- it provides fewer opportunities for a nasty UML user to somehow
- exploit the helper's root privileges.
-
-
- 6.1. General setup
-
- First, you must have the virtual network enabled in your UML. If are
- running a prebuilt kernel from this site, everything is already
- enabled. If you build the kernel yourself, under the "Network device
- support" menu, enable "Network device support", and then the three
- transports.
-
-
- The next step is to provide a network device to the virtual machine.
- This is done by describing it on the kernel command line.
-
- The general format is
-
-
- eth <n> = <transport> , <transport args>
-
-
-
-
- For example, a virtual ethernet device may be attached to a host
- ethertap device as follows:
-
-
- eth0=ethertap,tap0,fe:fd:0:0:0:1,192.168.0.254
-
-
-
-
- This sets up eth0 inside the virtual machine to attach itself to the
- host /dev/tap0, assigns it an ethernet address, and assigns the host
- tap0 interface an IP address.
-
-
-
- Note that the IP address you assign to the host end of the tap device
- must be different than the IP you assign to the eth device inside UML.
- If you are short on IPs and don't want to consume two per UML, then
- you can reuse the host's eth IP address for the host ends of the tap
- devices. Internally, the UMLs must still get unique IPs for their eth
- devices. You can also give the UMLs non-routable IPs (192.168.x.x or
- 10.x.x.x) and have the host masquerade them. This will let outgoing
- connections work, but incoming connections won't without more work,
- such as port forwarding from the host.
- Also note that when you configure the host side of an interface, it is
- only acting as a gateway. It will respond to pings sent to it
- locally, but is not useful to do that since it's a host interface.
- You are not talking to the UML when you ping that interface and get a
- response.
-
-
- You can also add devices to a UML and remove them at runtime. See the
- ``The Management Console'' page for details.
-
-
- The sections below describe this in more detail.
-
-
- Once you've decided how you're going to set up the devices, you boot
- UML, log in, configure the UML side of the devices, and set up routes
- to the outside world. At that point, you will be able to talk to any
- other machines, physical or virtual, on the net.
-
-
- If ifconfig inside UML fails and the network refuses to come up, run
- tell you what went wrong.
-
-
-
- 6.2. Userspace daemons
-
- You will likely need the setuid helper, or the switch daemon, or both.
- They are both installed with the RPM and deb, so if you've installed
- either, you can skip the rest of this section.
-
-
- If not, then you need to check them out of CVS, build them, and
- install them. The helper is uml_net, in CVS /tools/uml_net, and the
- daemon is uml_switch, in CVS /tools/uml_router. They are both built
- with a plain 'make'. Both need to be installed in a directory that's
- in your path - /usr/bin is recommend. On top of that, uml_net needs
- to be setuid root.
-
-
-
- 6.3. Specifying ethernet addresses
-
- Below, you will see that the TUN/TAP, ethertap, and daemon interfaces
- allow you to specify hardware addresses for the virtual ethernet
- devices. This is generally not necessary. If you don't have a
- specific reason to do it, you probably shouldn't. If one is not
- specified on the command line, the driver will assign one based on the
- device IP address. It will provide the address fe:fd:nn:nn:nn:nn
- where nn.nn.nn.nn is the device IP address. This is nearly always
- sufficient to guarantee a unique hardware address for the device. A
- couple of exceptions are:
-
- o Another set of virtual ethernet devices are on the same network and
- they are assigned hardware addresses using a different scheme which
- may conflict with the UML IP address-based scheme
-
- o You aren't going to use the device for IP networking, so you don't
- assign the device an IP address
-
- If you let the driver provide the hardware address, you should make
- sure that the device IP address is known before the interface is
- brought up. So, inside UML, this will guarantee that:
-
-
-
- UML#
- ifconfig eth0 192.168.0.250 up
-
-
-
-
- If you decide to assign the hardware address yourself, make sure that
- the first byte of the address is even. Addresses with an odd first
- byte are broadcast addresses, which you don't want assigned to a
- device.
-
-
-
- 6.4. UML interface setup
-
- Once the network devices have been described on the command line, you
- should boot UML and log in.
-
-
- The first thing to do is bring the interface up:
-
-
- UML# ifconfig ethn ip-address up
-
-
-
-
- You should be able to ping the host at this point.
-
-
- To reach the rest of the world, you should set a default route to the
- host:
-
-
- UML# route add default gw host ip
-
-
-
-
- Again, with host ip of 192.168.0.4:
-
-
- UML# route add default gw 192.168.0.4
-
-
-
-
- This page used to recommend setting a network route to your local net.
- This is wrong, because it will cause UML to try to figure out hardware
- addresses of the local machines by arping on the interface to the
- host. Since that interface is basically a single strand of ethernet
- with two nodes on it (UML and the host) and arp requests don't cross
- networks, they will fail to elicit any responses. So, what you want
- is for UML to just blindly throw all packets at the host and let it
- figure out what to do with them, which is what leaving out the network
- route and adding the default route does.
-
-
- Note: If you can't communicate with other hosts on your physical
- ethernet, it's probably because of a network route that's
- automatically set up. If you run 'route -n' and see a route that
- looks like this:
-
-
-
-
- Destination Gateway Genmask Flags Metric Ref Use Iface
- 192.168.0.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 eth0
-
-
-
-
- with a mask that's not 255.255.255.255, then replace it with a route
- to your host:
-
-
- UML#
- route del -net 192.168.0.0 dev eth0 netmask 255.255.255.0
-
-
-
-
-
-
- UML#
- route add -host 192.168.0.4 dev eth0
-
-
-
-
- This, plus the default route to the host, will allow UML to exchange
- packets with any machine on your ethernet.
-
-
-
- 6.5. Multicast
-
- The simplest way to set up a virtual network between multiple UMLs is
- to use the mcast transport. This was written by Harald Welte and is
- present in UML version 2.4.5-5um and later. Your system must have
- multicast enabled in the kernel and there must be a multicast-capable
- network device on the host. Normally, this is eth0, but if there is
- no ethernet card on the host, then you will likely get strange error
- messages when you bring the device up inside UML.
-
-
- To use it, run two UMLs with
-
-
- eth0=mcast
-
-
-
-
- on their command lines. Log in, configure the ethernet device in each
- machine with different IP addresses:
-
-
- UML1# ifconfig eth0 192.168.0.254
-
-
-
-
-
-
- UML2# ifconfig eth0 192.168.0.253
-
-
-
-
- and they should be able to talk to each other.
-
- The full set of command line options for this transport are
-
-
-
- ethn=mcast,ethernet address,multicast
- address,multicast port,ttl
-
-
-
-
- Harald's original README is here <http://user-mode-linux.source-
- forge.net/> and explains these in detail, as well as
- some other issues.
-
- There is also a related point-to-point only "ucast" transport.
- This is useful when your network does not support multicast, and
- all network connections are simple point to point links.
-
- The full set of command line options for this transport are
-
-
- ethn=ucast,ethernet address,remote address,listen port,remote port
-
-
-
-
- 6.6. TUN/TAP with the uml_net helper
-
- TUN/TAP is the preferred mechanism on 2.4 to exchange packets with the
- host. The TUN/TAP backend has been in UML since 2.4.9-3um.
-
-
- The easiest way to get up and running is to let the setuid uml_net
- helper do the host setup for you. This involves insmod-ing the tun.o
- module if necessary, configuring the device, and setting up IP
- forwarding, routing, and proxy arp. If you are new to UML networking,
- do this first. If you're concerned about the security implications of
- the setuid helper, use it to get up and running, then read the next
- section to see how to have UML use a preconfigured tap device, which
- avoids the use of uml_net.
-
-
- If you specify an IP address for the host side of the device, the
- uml_net helper will do all necessary setup on the host - the only
- requirement is that TUN/TAP be available, either built in to the host
- kernel or as the tun.o module.
-
- The format of the command line switch to attach a device to a TUN/TAP
- device is
-
-
- eth <n> =tuntap,,, <IP address>
-
-
-
-
- For example, this argument will attach the UML's eth0 to the next
- available tap device and assign an ethernet address to it based on its
- IP address
-
-
- eth0=tuntap,,,192.168.0.254
-
-
-
-
-
-
- Note that the IP address that must be used for the eth device inside
- UML is fixed by the routing and proxy arp that is set up on the
- TUN/TAP device on the host. You can use a different one, but it won't
- work because reply packets won't reach the UML. This is a feature.
- It prevents a nasty UML user from doing things like setting the UML IP
- to the same as the network's nameserver or mail server.
-
-
- There are a couple potential problems with running the TUN/TAP
- transport on a 2.4 host kernel
-
- o TUN/TAP seems not to work on 2.4.3 and earlier. Upgrade the host
- kernel or use the ethertap transport.
-
- o With an upgraded kernel, TUN/TAP may fail with
-
-
- File descriptor in bad state
-
-
-
-
- This is due to a header mismatch between the upgraded kernel and the
- kernel that was originally installed on the machine. The fix is to
- make sure that /usr/src/linux points to the headers for the running
- kernel.
-
- These were pointed out by Tim Robinson <timro at trkr dot net> in
- <http://www.geocrawler.com/> name="this uml-
- user post"> .
-
-
-
- 6.7. TUN/TAP with a preconfigured tap device
-
- If you prefer not to have UML use uml_net (which is somewhat
- insecure), with UML 2.4.17-11, you can set up a TUN/TAP device
- beforehand. The setup needs to be done as root, but once that's done,
- there is no need for root assistance. Setting up the device is done
- as follows:
-
- o Create the device with tunctl (available from the UML utilities
- tarball)
-
-
-
-
- host# tunctl -u uid
-
-
-
-
- where uid is the user id or username that UML will be run as. This
- will tell you what device was created.
-
- o Configure the device IP (change IP addresses and device name to
- suit)
-
-
-
-
- host# ifconfig tap0 192.168.0.254 up
-
-
-
-
-
- o Set up routing and arping if desired - this is my recipe, there are
- other ways of doing the same thing
-
-
- host#
- bash -c 'echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward'
-
- host#
- route add -host 192.168.0.253 dev tap0
-
-
-
-
-
-
- host#
- bash -c 'echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/tap0/proxy_arp'
-
-
-
-
-
-
- host#
- arp -Ds 192.168.0.253 eth0 pub
-
-
-
-
- Note that this must be done every time the host boots - this configu-
- ration is not stored across host reboots. So, it's probably a good
- idea to stick it in an rc file. An even better idea would be a little
- utility which reads the information from a config file and sets up
- devices at boot time.
-
- o Rather than using up two IPs and ARPing for one of them, you can
- also provide direct access to your LAN by the UML by using a
- bridge.
-
-
- host#
- brctl addbr br0
-
-
-
-
-
-
- host#
- ifconfig eth0 0.0.0.0 promisc up
-
-
-
-
-
-
- host#
- ifconfig tap0 0.0.0.0 promisc up
-
-
-
-
-
-
- host#
- ifconfig br0 192.168.0.1 netmask 255.255.255.0 up
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- host#
- brctl stp br0 off
-
-
-
-
-
-
- host#
- brctl setfd br0 1
-
-
-
-
-
-
- host#
- brctl sethello br0 1
-
-
-
-
-
-
- host#
- brctl addif br0 eth0
-
-
-
-
-
-
- host#
- brctl addif br0 tap0
-
-
-
-
- Note that 'br0' should be setup using ifconfig with the existing IP
- address of eth0, as eth0 no longer has its own IP.
-
- o
-
-
- Also, the /dev/net/tun device must be writable by the user running
- UML in order for the UML to use the device that's been configured
- for it. The simplest thing to do is
-
-
- host# chmod 666 /dev/net/tun
-
-
-
-
- Making it world-writable looks bad, but it seems not to be
- exploitable as a security hole. However, it does allow anyone to cre-
- ate useless tap devices (useless because they can't configure them),
- which is a DOS attack. A somewhat more secure alternative would to be
- to create a group containing all the users who have preconfigured tap
- devices and chgrp /dev/net/tun to that group with mode 664 or 660.
-
-
- o Once the device is set up, run UML with 'eth0=tuntap,device name'
- (i.e. 'eth0=tuntap,tap0') on the command line (or do it with the
- mconsole config command).
-
- o Bring the eth device up in UML and you're in business.
-
- If you don't want that tap device any more, you can make it non-
- persistent with
-
-
- host# tunctl -d tap device
-
-
-
-
- Finally, tunctl has a -b (for brief mode) switch which causes it to
- output only the name of the tap device it created. This makes it
- suitable for capture by a script:
-
-
- host# TAP=`tunctl -u 1000 -b`
-
-
-
-
-
-
- 6.8. Ethertap
-
- Ethertap is the general mechanism on 2.2 for userspace processes to
- exchange packets with the kernel.
-
-
-
- To use this transport, you need to describe the virtual network device
- on the UML command line. The general format for this is
-
-
- eth <n> =ethertap, <device> , <ethernet address> , <tap IP address>
-
-
-
-
- So, the previous example
-
-
- eth0=ethertap,tap0,fe:fd:0:0:0:1,192.168.0.254
-
-
-
-
- attaches the UML eth0 device to the host /dev/tap0, assigns it the
- ethernet address fe:fd:0:0:0:1, and assigns the IP address
- 192.168.0.254 to the tap device.
-
-
-
- The tap device is mandatory, but the others are optional. If the
- ethernet address is omitted, one will be assigned to it.
-
-
- The presence of the tap IP address will cause the helper to run and do
- whatever host setup is needed to allow the virtual machine to
- communicate with the outside world. If you're not sure you know what
- you're doing, this is the way to go.
-
-
- If it is absent, then you must configure the tap device and whatever
- arping and routing you will need on the host. However, even in this
- case, the uml_net helper still needs to be in your path and it must be
- setuid root if you're not running UML as root. This is because the
- tap device doesn't support SIGIO, which UML needs in order to use
- something as a source of input. So, the helper is used as a
- convenient asynchronous IO thread.
-
- If you're using the uml_net helper, you can ignore the following host
- setup - uml_net will do it for you. You just need to make sure you
- have ethertap available, either built in to the host kernel or
- available as a module.
-
-
- If you want to set things up yourself, you need to make sure that the
- appropriate /dev entry exists. If it doesn't, become root and create
- it as follows:
-
-
- mknod /dev/tap <minor> c 36 <minor> + 16
-
-
-
-
- For example, this is how to create /dev/tap0:
-
-
- mknod /dev/tap0 c 36 0 + 16
-
-
-
-
- You also need to make sure that the host kernel has ethertap support.
- If ethertap is enabled as a module, you apparently need to insmod
- ethertap once for each ethertap device you want to enable. So,
-
-
- host#
- insmod ethertap
-
-
-
-
- will give you the tap0 interface. To get the tap1 interface, you need
- to run
-
-
- host#
- insmod ethertap unit=1 -o ethertap1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- 6.9. The switch daemon
-
- Note: This is the daemon formerly known as uml_router, but which was
- renamed so the network weenies of the world would stop growling at me.
-
-
- The switch daemon, uml_switch, provides a mechanism for creating a
- totally virtual network. By default, it provides no connection to the
- host network (but see -tap, below).
-
-
- The first thing you need to do is run the daemon. Running it with no
- arguments will make it listen on a default pair of unix domain
- sockets.
-
-
- If you want it to listen on a different pair of sockets, use
-
-
- -unix control socket data socket
-
-
-
-
-
- If you want it to act as a hub rather than a switch, use
-
-
- -hub
-
-
-
-
-
- If you want the switch to be connected to host networking (allowing
- the umls to get access to the outside world through the host), use
-
-
- -tap tap0
-
-
-
-
-
- Note that the tap device must be preconfigured (see "TUN/TAP with a
- preconfigured tap device", above). If you're using a different tap
- device than tap0, specify that instead of tap0.
-
-
- uml_switch can be backgrounded as follows
-
-
- host%
- uml_switch [ options ] < /dev/null > /dev/null
-
-
-
-
- The reason it doesn't background by default is that it listens to
- stdin for EOF. When it sees that, it exits.
-
-
- The general format of the kernel command line switch is
-
-
-
- ethn=daemon,ethernet address,socket
- type,control socket,data socket
-
-
-
-
- You can leave off everything except the 'daemon'. You only need to
- specify the ethernet address if the one that will be assigned to it
- isn't acceptable for some reason. The rest of the arguments describe
- how to communicate with the daemon. You should only specify them if
- you told the daemon to use different sockets than the default. So, if
- you ran the daemon with no arguments, running the UML on the same
- machine with
- eth0=daemon
-
-
-
-
- will cause the eth0 driver to attach itself to the daemon correctly.
-
-
-
- 6.10. Slip
-
- Slip is another, less general, mechanism for a process to communicate
- with the host networking. In contrast to the ethertap interface,
- which exchanges ethernet frames with the host and can be used to
- transport any higher-level protocol, it can only be used to transport
- IP.
-
-
- The general format of the command line switch is
-
-
-
- ethn=slip,slip IP
-
-
-
-
- The slip IP argument is the IP address that will be assigned to the
- host end of the slip device. If it is specified, the helper will run
- and will set up the host so that the virtual machine can reach it and
- the rest of the network.
-
-
- There are some oddities with this interface that you should be aware
- of. You should only specify one slip device on a given virtual
- machine, and its name inside UML will be 'umn', not 'eth0' or whatever
- you specified on the command line. These problems will be fixed at
- some point.
-
-
-
- 6.11. Slirp
-
- slirp uses an external program, usually /usr/bin/slirp, to provide IP
- only networking connectivity through the host. This is similar to IP
- masquerading with a firewall, although the translation is performed in
- user-space, rather than by the kernel. As slirp does not set up any
- interfaces on the host, or changes routing, slirp does not require
- root access or setuid binaries on the host.
-
-
- The general format of the command line switch for slirp is:
-
-
-
- ethn=slirp,ethernet address,slirp path
-
-
-
-
- The ethernet address is optional, as UML will set up the interface
- with an ethernet address based upon the initial IP address of the
- interface. The slirp path is generally /usr/bin/slirp, although it
- will depend on distribution.
-
-
- The slirp program can have a number of options passed to the command
- line and we can't add them to the UML command line, as they will be
- parsed incorrectly. Instead, a wrapper shell script can be written or
- the options inserted into the /.slirprc file. More information on
- all of the slirp options can be found in its man pages.
-
-
- The eth0 interface on UML should be set up with the IP 10.2.0.15,
- although you can use anything as long as it is not used by a network
- you will be connecting to. The default route on UML should be set to
- use
-
-
- UML#
- route add default dev eth0
-
-
-
-
- slirp provides a number of useful IP addresses which can be used by
- UML, such as 10.0.2.3 which is an alias for the DNS server specified
- in /etc/resolv.conf on the host or the IP given in the 'dns' option
- for slirp.
-
-
- Even with a baudrate setting higher than 115200, the slirp connection
- is limited to 115200. If you need it to go faster, the slirp binary
- needs to be compiled with FULL_BOLT defined in config.h.
-
-
-
- 6.12. pcap
-
- The pcap transport is attached to a UML ethernet device on the command
- line or with uml_mconsole with the following syntax:
-
-
-
- ethn=pcap,host interface,filter
- expression,option1,option2
-
-
-
-
- The expression and options are optional.
-
-
- The interface is whatever network device on the host you want to
- sniff. The expression is a pcap filter expression, which is also what
- tcpdump uses, so if you know how to specify tcpdump filters, you will
- use the same expressions here. The options are up to two of
- 'promisc', control whether pcap puts the host interface into
- promiscuous mode. 'optimize' and 'nooptimize' control whether the pcap
- expression optimizer is used.
-
-
- Example:
-
-
-
- eth0=pcap,eth0,tcp
-
- eth1=pcap,eth0,!tcp
-
-
-
- will cause the UML eth0 to emit all tcp packets on the host eth0 and
- the UML eth1 to emit all non-tcp packets on the host eth0.
-
-
-
- 6.13. Setting up the host yourself
-
- If you don't specify an address for the host side of the ethertap or
- slip device, UML won't do any setup on the host. So this is what is
- needed to get things working (the examples use a host-side IP of
- 192.168.0.251 and a UML-side IP of 192.168.0.250 - adjust to suit your
- own network):
-
- o The device needs to be configured with its IP address. Tap devices
- are also configured with an mtu of 1484. Slip devices are
- configured with a point-to-point address pointing at the UML ip
- address.
-
-
- host# ifconfig tap0 arp mtu 1484 192.168.0.251 up
-
-
-
-
-
-
- host#
- ifconfig sl0 192.168.0.251 pointopoint 192.168.0.250 up
-
-
-
-
-
- o If a tap device is being set up, a route is set to the UML IP.
-
-
- UML# route add -host 192.168.0.250 gw 192.168.0.251
-
-
-
-
-
- o To allow other hosts on your network to see the virtual machine,
- proxy arp is set up for it.
-
-
- host# arp -Ds 192.168.0.250 eth0 pub
-
-
-
-
-
- o Finally, the host is set up to route packets.
-
-
- host# echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- 7. Sharing Filesystems between Virtual Machines
-
-
-
-
- 7.1. A warning
-
- Don't attempt to share filesystems simply by booting two UMLs from the
- same file. That's the same thing as booting two physical machines
- from a shared disk. It will result in filesystem corruption.
-
-
-
- 7.2. Using layered block devices
-
- The way to share a filesystem between two virtual machines is to use
- the copy-on-write (COW) layering capability of the ubd block driver.
- As of 2.4.6-2um, the driver supports layering a read-write private
- device over a read-only shared device. A machine's writes are stored
- in the private device, while reads come from either device - the
- private one if the requested block is valid in it, the shared one if
- not. Using this scheme, the majority of data which is unchanged is
- shared between an arbitrary number of virtual machines, each of which
- has a much smaller file containing the changes that it has made. With
- a large number of UMLs booting from a large root filesystem, this
- leads to a huge disk space saving. It will also help performance,
- since the host will be able to cache the shared data using a much
- smaller amount of memory, so UML disk requests will be served from the
- host's memory rather than its disks.
-
-
-
-
- To add a copy-on-write layer to an existing block device file, simply
- add the name of the COW file to the appropriate ubd switch:
-
-
- ubd0=root_fs_cow,root_fs_debian_22
-
-
-
-
- where 'root_fs_cow' is the private COW file and 'root_fs_debian_22' is
- the existing shared filesystem. The COW file need not exist. If it
- doesn't, the driver will create and initialize it. Once the COW file
- has been initialized, it can be used on its own on the command line:
-
-
- ubd0=root_fs_cow
-
-
-
-
- The name of the backing file is stored in the COW file header, so it
- would be redundant to continue specifying it on the command line.
-
-
-
- 7.3. Note!
-
- When checking the size of the COW file in order to see the gobs of
- space that you're saving, make sure you use 'ls -ls' to see the actual
- disk consumption rather than the length of the file. The COW file is
- sparse, so the length will be very different from the disk usage.
- Here is a 'ls -l' of a COW file and backing file from one boot and
- shutdown:
- host% ls -l cow.debian debian2.2
- -rw-r--r-- 1 jdike jdike 492504064 Aug 6 21:16 cow.debian
- -rwxrw-rw- 1 jdike jdike 537919488 Aug 6 20:42 debian2.2
-
-
-
-
- Doesn't look like much saved space, does it? Well, here's 'ls -ls':
-
-
- host% ls -ls cow.debian debian2.2
- 880 -rw-r--r-- 1 jdike jdike 492504064 Aug 6 21:16 cow.debian
- 525832 -rwxrw-rw- 1 jdike jdike 537919488 Aug 6 20:42 debian2.2
-
-
-
-
- Now, you can see that the COW file has less than a meg of disk, rather
- than 492 meg.
-
-
-
- 7.4. Another warning
-
- Once a filesystem is being used as a readonly backing file for a COW
- file, do not boot directly from it or modify it in any way. Doing so
- will invalidate any COW files that are using it. The mtime and size
- of the backing file are stored in the COW file header at its creation,
- and they must continue to match. If they don't, the driver will
- refuse to use the COW file.
-
-
-
-
- If you attempt to evade this restriction by changing either the
- backing file or the COW header by hand, you will get a corrupted
- filesystem.
-
-
-
-
- Among other things, this means that upgrading the distribution in a
- backing file and expecting that all of the COW files using it will see
- the upgrade will not work.
-
-
-
-
- 7.5. uml_moo : Merging a COW file with its backing file
-
- Depending on how you use UML and COW devices, it may be advisable to
- merge the changes in the COW file into the backing file every once in
- a while.
-
-
-
-
- The utility that does this is uml_moo. Its usage is
-
-
- host% uml_moo COW file new backing file
-
-
-
-
- There's no need to specify the backing file since that information is
- already in the COW file header. If you're paranoid, boot the new
- merged file, and if you're happy with it, move it over the old backing
- file.
-
-
-
-
- uml_moo creates a new backing file by default as a safety measure. It
- also has a destructive merge option which will merge the COW file
- directly into its current backing file. This is really only usable
- when the backing file only has one COW file associated with it. If
- there are multiple COWs associated with a backing file, a -d merge of
- one of them will invalidate all of the others. However, it is
- convenient if you're short of disk space, and it should also be
- noticeably faster than a non-destructive merge.
-
-
-
-
- uml_moo is installed with the UML deb and RPM. If you didn't install
- UML from one of those packages, you can also get it from the UML
- utilities <http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net/
- utilities> tar file in tools/moo.
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- 8. Creating filesystems
-
-
- You may want to create and mount new UML filesystems, either because
- your root filesystem isn't large enough or because you want to use a
- filesystem other than ext2.
-
-
- This was written on the occasion of reiserfs being included in the
- 2.4.1 kernel pool, and therefore the 2.4.1 UML, so the examples will
- talk about reiserfs. This information is generic, and the examples
- should be easy to translate to the filesystem of your choice.
-
-
- 8.1. Create the filesystem file
-
- dd is your friend. All you need to do is tell dd to create an empty
- file of the appropriate size. I usually make it sparse to save time
- and to avoid allocating disk space until it's actually used. For
- example, the following command will create a sparse 100 meg file full
- of zeroes.
-
-
- host%
- dd if=/dev/zero of=new_filesystem seek=100 count=1 bs=1M
-
-
-
-
-
-
- 8.2. Assign the file to a UML device
-
- Add an argument like the following to the UML command line:
-
- ubd4=new_filesystem
-
-
-
-
- making sure that you use an unassigned ubd device number.
-
-
-
- 8.3. Creating and mounting the filesystem
-
- Make sure that the filesystem is available, either by being built into
- the kernel, or available as a module, then boot up UML and log in. If
- the root filesystem doesn't have the filesystem utilities (mkfs, fsck,
- etc), then get them into UML by way of the net or hostfs.
-
-
- Make the new filesystem on the device assigned to the new file:
-
-
- host# mkreiserfs /dev/ubd/4
-
-
- <----------- MKREISERFSv2 ----------->
-
- ReiserFS version 3.6.25
- Block size 4096 bytes
- Block count 25856
- Used blocks 8212
- Journal - 8192 blocks (18-8209), journal header is in block 8210
- Bitmaps: 17
- Root block 8211
- Hash function "r5"
- ATTENTION: ALL DATA WILL BE LOST ON '/dev/ubd/4'! (y/n)y
- journal size 8192 (from 18)
- Initializing journal - 0%....20%....40%....60%....80%....100%
- Syncing..done.
-
-
-
-
- Now, mount it:
-
-
- UML#
- mount /dev/ubd/4 /mnt
-
-
-
-
- and you're in business.
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- 9. Host file access
-
-
- If you want to access files on the host machine from inside UML, you
- can treat it as a separate machine and either nfs mount directories
- from the host or copy files into the virtual machine with scp or rcp.
- However, since UML is running on the host, it can access those
- files just like any other process and make them available inside the
- virtual machine without needing to use the network.
-
-
- This is now possible with the hostfs virtual filesystem. With it, you
- can mount a host directory into the UML filesystem and access the
- files contained in it just as you would on the host.
-
-
- 9.1. Using hostfs
-
- To begin with, make sure that hostfs is available inside the virtual
- machine with
-
-
- UML# cat /proc/filesystems
-
-
-
- . hostfs should be listed. If it's not, either rebuild the kernel
- with hostfs configured into it or make sure that hostfs is built as a
- module and available inside the virtual machine, and insmod it.
-
-
- Now all you need to do is run mount:
-
-
- UML# mount none /mnt/host -t hostfs
-
-
-
-
- will mount the host's / on the virtual machine's /mnt/host.
-
-
- If you don't want to mount the host root directory, then you can
- specify a subdirectory to mount with the -o switch to mount:
-
-
- UML# mount none /mnt/home -t hostfs -o /home
-
-
-
-
- will mount the hosts's /home on the virtual machine's /mnt/home.
-
-
-
- 9.2. hostfs as the root filesystem
-
- It's possible to boot from a directory hierarchy on the host using
- hostfs rather than using the standard filesystem in a file.
-
- To start, you need that hierarchy. The easiest way is to loop mount
- an existing root_fs file:
-
-
- host# mount root_fs uml_root_dir -o loop
-
-
-
-
- You need to change the filesystem type of / in etc/fstab to be
- 'hostfs', so that line looks like this:
-
- /dev/ubd/0 / hostfs defaults 1 1
-
-
-
-
- Then you need to chown to yourself all the files in that directory
- that are owned by root. This worked for me:
-
-
- host# find . -uid 0 -exec chown jdike {} \;
-
-
-
-
- Next, make sure that your UML kernel has hostfs compiled in, not as a
- module. Then run UML with the boot device pointing at that directory:
-
-
- ubd0=/path/to/uml/root/directory
-
-
-
-
- UML should then boot as it does normally.
-
-
- 9.3. Building hostfs
-
- If you need to build hostfs because it's not in your kernel, you have
- two choices:
-
-
-
- o Compiling hostfs into the kernel:
-
-
- Reconfigure the kernel and set the 'Host filesystem' option under
-
-
- o Compiling hostfs as a module:
-
-
- Reconfigure the kernel and set the 'Host filesystem' option under
- be in arch/um/fs/hostfs/hostfs.o. Install that in
- /lib/modules/`uname -r`/fs in the virtual machine, boot it up, and
-
-
- UML# insmod hostfs
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- 10. The Management Console
-
-
-
- The UML management console is a low-level interface to the kernel,
- somewhat like the i386 SysRq interface. Since there is a full-blown
- operating system under UML, there is much greater flexibility possible
- than with the SysRq mechanism.
-
-
- There are a number of things you can do with the mconsole interface:
-
- o get the kernel version
-
- o add and remove devices
-
- o halt or reboot the machine
-
- o Send SysRq commands
-
- o Pause and resume the UML
-
-
- You need the mconsole client (uml_mconsole) which is present in CVS
- (/tools/mconsole) in 2.4.5-9um and later, and will be in the RPM in
- 2.4.6.
-
-
- You also need CONFIG_MCONSOLE (under 'General Setup') enabled in UML.
- When you boot UML, you'll see a line like:
-
-
- mconsole initialized on /home/jdike/.uml/umlNJ32yL/mconsole
-
-
-
-
- If you specify a unique machine id one the UML command line, i.e.
-
-
- umid=debian
-
-
-
-
- you'll see this
-
-
- mconsole initialized on /home/jdike/.uml/debian/mconsole
-
-
-
-
- That file is the socket that uml_mconsole will use to communicate with
- UML. Run it with either the umid or the full path as its argument:
-
-
- host% uml_mconsole debian
-
-
-
-
- or
-
-
- host% uml_mconsole /home/jdike/.uml/debian/mconsole
-
-
-
-
- You'll get a prompt, at which you can run one of these commands:
-
- o version
-
- o halt
-
- o reboot
-
- o config
-
- o remove
-
- o sysrq
-
- o help
-
- o cad
-
- o stop
-
- o go
-
-
- 10.1. version
-
- This takes no arguments. It prints the UML version.
-
-
- (mconsole) version
- OK Linux usermode 2.4.5-9um #1 Wed Jun 20 22:47:08 EDT 2001 i686
-
-
-
-
- There are a couple actual uses for this. It's a simple no-op which
- can be used to check that a UML is running. It's also a way of
- sending an interrupt to the UML. This is sometimes useful on SMP
- hosts, where there's a bug which causes signals to UML to be lost,
- often causing it to appear to hang. Sending such a UML the mconsole
- version command is a good way to 'wake it up' before networking has
- been enabled, as it does not do anything to the function of the UML.
-
-
-
- 10.2. halt and reboot
-
- These take no arguments. They shut the machine down immediately, with
- no syncing of disks and no clean shutdown of userspace. So, they are
- pretty close to crashing the machine.
-
-
- (mconsole) halt
- OK
-
-
-
-
-
-
- 10.3. config
-
- "config" adds a new device to the virtual machine. Currently the ubd
- and network drivers support this. It takes one argument, which is the
- device to add, with the same syntax as the kernel command line.
-
-
-
-
- (mconsole)
- config ubd3=/home/jdike/incoming/roots/root_fs_debian22
-
- OK
- (mconsole) config eth1=mcast
- OK
-
-
-
-
-
-
- 10.4. remove
-
- "remove" deletes a device from the system. Its argument is just the
- name of the device to be removed. The device must be idle in whatever
- sense the driver considers necessary. In the case of the ubd driver,
- the removed block device must not be mounted, swapped on, or otherwise
- open, and in the case of the network driver, the device must be down.
-
-
- (mconsole) remove ubd3
- OK
- (mconsole) remove eth1
- OK
-
-
-
-
-
-
- 10.5. sysrq
-
- This takes one argument, which is a single letter. It calls the
- generic kernel's SysRq driver, which does whatever is called for by
- that argument. See the SysRq documentation in Documentation/sysrq.txt
- in your favorite kernel tree to see what letters are valid and what
- they do.
-
-
-
- 10.6. help
-
- "help" returns a string listing the valid commands and what each one
- does.
-
-
-
- 10.7. cad
-
- This invokes the Ctl-Alt-Del action on init. What exactly this ends
- up doing is up to /etc/inittab. Normally, it reboots the machine.
- With UML, this is usually not desired, so if a halt would be better,
- then find the section of inittab that looks like this
-
-
- # What to do when CTRL-ALT-DEL is pressed.
- ca:12345:ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t1 -a -r now
-
-
-
-
- and change the command to halt.
-
-
-
- 10.8. stop
-
- This puts the UML in a loop reading mconsole requests until a 'go'
- mconsole command is received. This is very useful for making backups
- of UML filesystems, as the UML can be stopped, then synced via 'sysrq
- s', so that everything is written to the filesystem. You can then copy
- the filesystem and then send the UML 'go' via mconsole.
-
-
- Note that a UML running with more than one CPU will have problems
- after you send the 'stop' command, as only one CPU will be held in a
- mconsole loop and all others will continue as normal. This is a bug,
- and will be fixed.
-
-
-
- 10.9. go
-
- This resumes a UML after being paused by a 'stop' command. Note that
- when the UML has resumed, TCP connections may have timed out and if
- the UML is paused for a long period of time, crond might go a little
- crazy, running all the jobs it didn't do earlier.
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- 11. Kernel debugging
-
-
- Note: The interface that makes debugging, as described here, possible
- is present in 2.4.0-test6 kernels and later.
-
-
- Since the user-mode kernel runs as a normal Linux process, it is
- possible to debug it with gdb almost like any other process. It is
- slightly different because the kernel's threads are already being
- ptraced for system call interception, so gdb can't ptrace them.
- However, a mechanism has been added to work around that problem.
-
-
- In order to debug the kernel, you need build it from source. See
- ``Compiling the kernel and modules'' for information on doing that.
- Make sure that you enable CONFIG_DEBUGSYM and CONFIG_PT_PROXY during
- the config. These will compile the kernel with -g, and enable the
- ptrace proxy so that gdb works with UML, respectively.
-
-
-
-
- 11.1. Starting the kernel under gdb
-
- You can have the kernel running under the control of gdb from the
- beginning by putting 'debug' on the command line. You will get an
- xterm with gdb running inside it. The kernel will send some commands
- to gdb which will leave it stopped at the beginning of start_kernel.
- At this point, you can get things going with 'next', 'step', or
- 'cont'.
-
-
- There is a transcript of a debugging session here <debug-
- session.html> , with breakpoints being set in the scheduler and in an
- interrupt handler.
- 11.2. Examining sleeping processes
-
- Not every bug is evident in the currently running process. Sometimes,
- processes hang in the kernel when they shouldn't because they've
- deadlocked on a semaphore or something similar. In this case, when
- you ^C gdb and get a backtrace, you will see the idle thread, which
- isn't very relevant.
-
-
- What you want is the stack of whatever process is sleeping when it
- shouldn't be. You need to figure out which process that is, which is
- generally fairly easy. Then you need to get its host process id,
- which you can do either by looking at ps on the host or at
- task.thread.extern_pid in gdb.
-
-
- Now what you do is this:
-
- o detach from the current thread
-
-
- (UML gdb) det
-
-
-
-
-
- o attach to the thread you are interested in
-
-
- (UML gdb) att <host pid>
-
-
-
-
-
- o look at its stack and anything else of interest
-
-
- (UML gdb) bt
-
-
-
-
- Note that you can't do anything at this point that requires that a
- process execute, e.g. calling a function
-
- o when you're done looking at that process, reattach to the current
- thread and continue it
-
-
- (UML gdb)
- att 1
-
-
-
-
-
-
- (UML gdb)
- c
-
-
-
-
- Here, specifying any pid which is not the process id of a UML thread
- will cause gdb to reattach to the current thread. I commonly use 1,
- but any other invalid pid would work.
-
-
-
- 11.3. Running ddd on UML
-
- ddd works on UML, but requires a special kludge. The process goes
- like this:
-
- o Start ddd
-
-
- host% ddd linux
-
-
-
-
-
- o With ps, get the pid of the gdb that ddd started. You can ask the
- gdb to tell you, but for some reason that confuses things and
- causes a hang.
-
- o run UML with 'debug=parent gdb-pid=<pid>' added to the command line
- - it will just sit there after you hit return
-
- o type 'att 1' to the ddd gdb and you will see something like
-
-
- 0xa013dc51 in __kill ()
-
-
- (gdb)
-
-
-
-
-
- o At this point, type 'c', UML will boot up, and you can use ddd just
- as you do on any other process.
-
-
-
- 11.4. Debugging modules
-
- gdb has support for debugging code which is dynamically loaded into
- the process. This support is what is needed to debug kernel modules
- under UML.
-
-
- Using that support is somewhat complicated. You have to tell gdb what
- object file you just loaded into UML and where in memory it is. Then,
- it can read the symbol table, and figure out where all the symbols are
- from the load address that you provided. It gets more interesting
- when you load the module again (i.e. after an rmmod). You have to
- tell gdb to forget about all its symbols, including the main UML ones
- for some reason, then load then all back in again.
-
-
- There's an easy way and a hard way to do this. The easy way is to use
- the umlgdb expect script written by Chandan Kudige. It basically
- automates the process for you.
-
-
- First, you must tell it where your modules are. There is a list in
- the script that looks like this:
- set MODULE_PATHS {
- "fat" "/usr/src/uml/linux-2.4.18/fs/fat/fat.o"
- "isofs" "/usr/src/uml/linux-2.4.18/fs/isofs/isofs.o"
- "minix" "/usr/src/uml/linux-2.4.18/fs/minix/minix.o"
- }
-
-
-
-
- You change that to list the names and paths of the modules that you
- are going to debug. Then you run it from the toplevel directory of
- your UML pool and it basically tells you what to do:
-
-
-
-
- ******** GDB pid is 21903 ********
- Start UML as: ./linux <kernel switches> debug gdb-pid=21903
-
-
-
- GNU gdb 5.0rh-5 Red Hat Linux 7.1
- Copyright 2001 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
- GDB is free software, covered by the GNU General Public License, and you are
- welcome to change it and/or distribute copies of it under certain conditions.
- Type "show copying" to see the conditions.
- There is absolutely no warranty for GDB. Type "show warranty" for details.
- This GDB was configured as "i386-redhat-linux"...
- (gdb) b sys_init_module
- Breakpoint 1 at 0xa0011923: file module.c, line 349.
- (gdb) att 1
-
-
-
-
- After you run UML and it sits there doing nothing, you hit return at
- the 'att 1' and continue it:
-
-
- Attaching to program: /home/jdike/linux/2.4/um/./linux, process 1
- 0xa00f4221 in __kill ()
- (UML gdb) c
- Continuing.
-
-
-
-
- At this point, you debug normally. When you insmod something, the
- expect magic will kick in and you'll see something like:
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- *** Module hostfs loaded ***
- Breakpoint 1, sys_init_module (name_user=0x805abb0 "hostfs",
- mod_user=0x8070e00) at module.c:349
- 349 char *name, *n_name, *name_tmp = NULL;
- (UML gdb) finish
- Run till exit from #0 sys_init_module (name_user=0x805abb0 "hostfs",
- mod_user=0x8070e00) at module.c:349
- 0xa00e2e23 in execute_syscall (r=0xa8140284) at syscall_kern.c:411
- 411 else res = EXECUTE_SYSCALL(syscall, regs);
- Value returned is $1 = 0
- (UML gdb)
- p/x (int)module_list + module_list->size_of_struct
-
- $2 = 0xa9021054
- (UML gdb) symbol-file ./linux
- Load new symbol table from "./linux"? (y or n) y
- Reading symbols from ./linux...
- done.
- (UML gdb)
- add-symbol-file /home/jdike/linux/2.4/um/arch/um/fs/hostfs/hostfs.o 0xa9021054
-
- add symbol table from file "/home/jdike/linux/2.4/um/arch/um/fs/hostfs/hostfs.o" at
- .text_addr = 0xa9021054
- (y or n) y
-
- Reading symbols from /home/jdike/linux/2.4/um/arch/um/fs/hostfs/hostfs.o...
- done.
- (UML gdb) p *module_list
- $1 = {size_of_struct = 84, next = 0xa0178720, name = 0xa9022de0 "hostfs",
- size = 9016, uc = {usecount = {counter = 0}, pad = 0}, flags = 1,
- nsyms = 57, ndeps = 0, syms = 0xa9023170, deps = 0x0, refs = 0x0,
- init = 0xa90221f0 <init_hostfs>, cleanup = 0xa902222c <exit_hostfs>,
- ex_table_start = 0x0, ex_table_end = 0x0, persist_start = 0x0,
- persist_end = 0x0, can_unload = 0, runsize = 0, kallsyms_start = 0x0,
- kallsyms_end = 0x0,
- archdata_start = 0x1b855 <Address 0x1b855 out of bounds>,
- archdata_end = 0xe5890000 <Address 0xe5890000 out of bounds>,
- kernel_data = 0xf689c35d <Address 0xf689c35d out of bounds>}
- >> Finished loading symbols for hostfs ...
-
-
-
-
- That's the easy way. It's highly recommended. The hard way is
- described below in case you're interested in what's going on.
-
-
- Boot the kernel under the debugger and load the module with insmod or
- modprobe. With gdb, do:
-
-
- (UML gdb) p module_list
-
-
-
-
- This is a list of modules that have been loaded into the kernel, with
- the most recently loaded module first. Normally, the module you want
- is at module_list. If it's not, walk down the next links, looking at
- the name fields until find the module you want to debug. Take the
- address of that structure, and add module.size_of_struct (which in
- 2.4.10 kernels is 96 (0x60)) to it. Gdb can make this hard addition
- for you :-):
-
-
-
- (UML gdb)
- printf "%#x\n", (int)module_list module_list->size_of_struct
-
-
-
-
- The offset from the module start occasionally changes (before 2.4.0,
- it was module.size_of_struct + 4), so it's a good idea to check the
- init and cleanup addresses once in a while, as describe below. Now
- do:
-
-
- (UML gdb)
- add-symbol-file /path/to/module/on/host that_address
-
-
-
-
- Tell gdb you really want to do it, and you're in business.
-
-
- If there's any doubt that you got the offset right, like breakpoints
- appear not to work, or they're appearing in the wrong place, you can
- check it by looking at the module structure. The init and cleanup
- fields should look like:
-
-
- init = 0x588066b0 <init_hostfs>, cleanup = 0x588066c0 <exit_hostfs>
-
-
-
-
- with no offsets on the symbol names. If the names are right, but they
- are offset, then the offset tells you how much you need to add to the
- address you gave to add-symbol-file.
-
-
- When you want to load in a new version of the module, you need to get
- gdb to forget about the old one. The only way I've found to do that
- is to tell gdb to forget about all symbols that it knows about:
-
-
- (UML gdb) symbol-file
-
-
-
-
- Then reload the symbols from the kernel binary:
-
-
- (UML gdb) symbol-file /path/to/kernel
-
-
-
-
- and repeat the process above. You'll also need to re-enable break-
- points. They were disabled when you dumped all the symbols because
- gdb couldn't figure out where they should go.
-
-
-
- 11.5. Attaching gdb to the kernel
-
- If you don't have the kernel running under gdb, you can attach gdb to
- it later by sending the tracing thread a SIGUSR1. The first line of
- the console output identifies its pid:
- tracing thread pid = 20093
-
-
-
-
- When you send it the signal:
-
-
- host% kill -USR1 20093
-
-
-
-
- you will get an xterm with gdb running in it.
-
-
- If you have the mconsole compiled into UML, then the mconsole client
- can be used to start gdb:
-
-
- (mconsole) (mconsole) config gdb=xterm
-
-
-
-
- will fire up an xterm with gdb running in it.
-
-
-
- 11.6. Using alternate debuggers
-
- UML has support for attaching to an already running debugger rather
- than starting gdb itself. This is present in CVS as of 17 Apr 2001.
- I sent it to Alan for inclusion in the ac tree, and it will be in my
- 2.4.4 release.
-
-
- This is useful when gdb is a subprocess of some UI, such as emacs or
- ddd. It can also be used to run debuggers other than gdb on UML.
- Below is an example of using strace as an alternate debugger.
-
-
- To do this, you need to get the pid of the debugger and pass it in
- with the
-
-
- If you are using gdb under some UI, then tell it to 'att 1', and
- you'll find yourself attached to UML.
-
-
- If you are using something other than gdb as your debugger, then
- you'll need to get it to do the equivalent of 'att 1' if it doesn't do
- it automatically.
-
-
- An example of an alternate debugger is strace. You can strace the
- actual kernel as follows:
-
- o Run the following in a shell
-
-
- host%
- sh -c 'echo pid=$$; echo -n hit return; read x; exec strace -p 1 -o strace.out'
-
-
-
- o Run UML with 'debug' and 'gdb-pid=<pid>' with the pid printed out
- by the previous command
-
- o Hit return in the shell, and UML will start running, and strace
- output will start accumulating in the output file.
-
- Note that this is different from running
-
-
- host% strace ./linux
-
-
-
-
- That will strace only the main UML thread, the tracing thread, which
- doesn't do any of the actual kernel work. It just oversees the vir-
- tual machine. In contrast, using strace as described above will show
- you the low-level activity of the virtual machine.
-
-
-
-
-
- 12. Kernel debugging examples
-
- 12.1. The case of the hung fsck
-
- When booting up the kernel, fsck failed, and dropped me into a shell
- to fix things up. I ran fsck -y, which hung:
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- Setting hostname uml [ OK ]
- Checking root filesystem
- /dev/fhd0 was not cleanly unmounted, check forced.
- Error reading block 86894 (Attempt to read block from filesystem resulted in short read) while reading indirect blocks of inode 19780.
-
- /dev/fhd0: UNEXPECTED INCONSISTENCY; RUN fsck MANUALLY.
- (i.e., without -a or -p options)
- [ FAILED ]
-
- *** An error occurred during the file system check.
- *** Dropping you to a shell; the system will reboot
- *** when you leave the shell.
- Give root password for maintenance
- (or type Control-D for normal startup):
-
- [root@uml /root]# fsck -y /dev/fhd0
- fsck -y /dev/fhd0
- Parallelizing fsck version 1.14 (9-Jan-1999)
- e2fsck 1.14, 9-Jan-1999 for EXT2 FS 0.5b, 95/08/09
- /dev/fhd0 contains a file system with errors, check forced.
- Pass 1: Checking inodes, blocks, and sizes
- Error reading block 86894 (Attempt to read block from filesystem resulted in short read) while reading indirect blocks of inode 19780. Ignore error? yes
-
- Inode 19780, i_blocks is 1548, should be 540. Fix? yes
-
- Pass 2: Checking directory structure
- Error reading block 49405 (Attempt to read block from filesystem resulted in short read). Ignore error? yes
-
- Directory inode 11858, block 0, offset 0: directory corrupted
- Salvage? yes
-
- Missing '.' in directory inode 11858.
- Fix? yes
-
- Missing '..' in directory inode 11858.
- Fix? yes
-
-
-
-
-
- The standard drill in this sort of situation is to fire up gdb on the
- signal thread, which, in this case, was pid 1935. In another window,
- I run gdb and attach pid 1935.
-
-
-
-
- ~/linux/2.3.26/um 1016: gdb linux
- GNU gdb 4.17.0.11 with Linux support
- Copyright 1998 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
- GDB is free software, covered by the GNU General Public License, and you are
- welcome to change it and/or distribute copies of it under certain conditions.
- Type "show copying" to see the conditions.
- There is absolutely no warranty for GDB. Type "show warranty" for details.
- This GDB was configured as "i386-redhat-linux"...
-
- (gdb) att 1935
- Attaching to program `/home/dike/linux/2.3.26/um/linux', Pid 1935
- 0x100756d9 in __wait4 ()
-
-
-
-
-
-
- Let's see what's currently running:
-
-
-
- (gdb) p current_task.pid
- $1 = 0
-
-
-
-
-
- It's the idle thread, which means that fsck went to sleep for some
- reason and never woke up.
-
-
- Let's guess that the last process in the process list is fsck:
-
-
-
- (gdb) p current_task.prev_task.comm
- $13 = "fsck.ext2\000\000\000\000\000\000"
-
-
-
-
-
- It is, so let's see what it thinks it's up to:
-
-
-
- (gdb) p current_task.prev_task.thread
- $14 = {extern_pid = 1980, tracing = 0, want_tracing = 0, forking = 0,
- kernel_stack_page = 0, signal_stack = 1342627840, syscall = {id = 4, args = {
- 3, 134973440, 1024, 0, 1024}, have_result = 0, result = 50590720},
- request = {op = 2, u = {exec = {ip = 1350467584, sp = 2952789424}, fork = {
- regs = {1350467584, 2952789424, 0 <repeats 15 times>}, sigstack = 0,
- pid = 0}, switch_to = 0x507e8000, thread = {proc = 0x507e8000,
- arg = 0xaffffdb0, flags = 0, new_pid = 0}, input_request = {
- op = 1350467584, fd = -1342177872, proc = 0, pid = 0}}}}
-
-
-
-
-
- The interesting things here are the fact that its .thread.syscall.id
- is __NR_write (see the big switch in arch/um/kernel/syscall_kern.c or
- the defines in include/asm-um/arch/unistd.h), and that it never
- returned. Also, its .request.op is OP_SWITCH (see
- arch/um/include/user_util.h). These mean that it went into a write,
- and, for some reason, called schedule().
-
-
- The fact that it never returned from write means that its stack should
- be fairly interesting. Its pid is 1980 (.thread.extern_pid). That
- process is being ptraced by the signal thread, so it must be detached
- before gdb can attach it:
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- (gdb) call detach(1980)
-
- Program received signal SIGSEGV, Segmentation fault.
- <function called from gdb>
- The program being debugged stopped while in a function called from GDB.
- When the function (detach) is done executing, GDB will silently
- stop (instead of continuing to evaluate the expression containing
- the function call).
- (gdb) call detach(1980)
- $15 = 0
-
-
-
-
-
- The first detach segfaults for some reason, and the second one
- succeeds.
-
-
- Now I detach from the signal thread, attach to the fsck thread, and
- look at its stack:
-
-
- (gdb) det
- Detaching from program: /home/dike/linux/2.3.26/um/linux Pid 1935
- (gdb) att 1980
- Attaching to program `/home/dike/linux/2.3.26/um/linux', Pid 1980
- 0x10070451 in __kill ()
- (gdb) bt
- #0 0x10070451 in __kill ()
- #1 0x10068ccd in usr1_pid (pid=1980) at process.c:30
- #2 0x1006a03f in _switch_to (prev=0x50072000, next=0x507e8000)
- at process_kern.c:156
- #3 0x1006a052 in switch_to (prev=0x50072000, next=0x507e8000, last=0x50072000)
- at process_kern.c:161
- #4 0x10001d12 in schedule () at sched.c:777
- #5 0x1006a744 in __down (sem=0x507d241c) at semaphore.c:71
- #6 0x1006aa10 in __down_failed () at semaphore.c:157
- #7 0x1006c5d8 in segv_handler (sc=0x5006e940) at trap_user.c:174
- #8 0x1006c5ec in kern_segv_handler (sig=11) at trap_user.c:182
- #9 <signal handler called>
- #10 0x10155404 in errno ()
- #11 0x1006c0aa in segv (address=1342179328, is_write=2) at trap_kern.c:50
- #12 0x1006c5d8 in segv_handler (sc=0x5006eaf8) at trap_user.c:174
- #13 0x1006c5ec in kern_segv_handler (sig=11) at trap_user.c:182
- #14 <signal handler called>
- #15 0xc0fd in ?? ()
- #16 0x10016647 in sys_write (fd=3,
- buf=0x80b8800 <Address 0x80b8800 out of bounds>, count=1024)
- at read_write.c:159
- #17 0x1006d5b3 in execute_syscall (syscall=4, args=0x5006ef08)
- at syscall_kern.c:254
- #18 0x1006af87 in really_do_syscall (sig=12) at syscall_user.c:35
- #19 <signal handler called>
- #20 0x400dc8b0 in ?? ()
-
-
-
-
-
- The interesting things here are :
-
- o There are two segfaults on this stack (frames 9 and 14)
-
- o The first faulting address (frame 11) is 0x50000800
-
- (gdb) p (void *)1342179328
- $16 = (void *) 0x50000800
-
-
-
-
-
- The initial faulting address is interesting because it is on the idle
- thread's stack. I had been seeing the idle thread segfault for no
- apparent reason, and the cause looked like stack corruption. In hopes
- of catching the culprit in the act, I had turned off all protections
- to that stack while the idle thread wasn't running. This apparently
- tripped that trap.
-
-
- However, the more immediate problem is that second segfault and I'm
- going to concentrate on that. First, I want to see where the fault
- happened, so I have to go look at the sigcontent struct in frame 8:
-
-
-
- (gdb) up
- #1 0x10068ccd in usr1_pid (pid=1980) at process.c:30
- 30 kill(pid, SIGUSR1);
- (gdb)
- #2 0x1006a03f in _switch_to (prev=0x50072000, next=0x507e8000)
- at process_kern.c:156
- 156 usr1_pid(getpid());
- (gdb)
- #3 0x1006a052 in switch_to (prev=0x50072000, next=0x507e8000, last=0x50072000)
- at process_kern.c:161
- 161 _switch_to(prev, next);
- (gdb)
- #4 0x10001d12 in schedule () at sched.c:777
- 777 switch_to(prev, next, prev);
- (gdb)
- #5 0x1006a744 in __down (sem=0x507d241c) at semaphore.c:71
- 71 schedule();
- (gdb)
- #6 0x1006aa10 in __down_failed () at semaphore.c:157
- 157 }
- (gdb)
- #7 0x1006c5d8 in segv_handler (sc=0x5006e940) at trap_user.c:174
- 174 segv(sc->cr2, sc->err & 2);
- (gdb)
- #8 0x1006c5ec in kern_segv_handler (sig=11) at trap_user.c:182
- 182 segv_handler(sc);
- (gdb) p *sc
- Cannot access memory at address 0x0.
-
-
-
-
- That's not very useful, so I'll try a more manual method:
-
-
- (gdb) p *((struct sigcontext *) (&sig + 1))
- $19 = {gs = 0, __gsh = 0, fs = 0, __fsh = 0, es = 43, __esh = 0, ds = 43,
- __dsh = 0, edi = 1342179328, esi = 1350378548, ebp = 1342630440,
- esp = 1342630420, ebx = 1348150624, edx = 1280, ecx = 0, eax = 0,
- trapno = 14, err = 4, eip = 268480945, cs = 35, __csh = 0, eflags = 66118,
- esp_at_signal = 1342630420, ss = 43, __ssh = 0, fpstate = 0x0, oldmask = 0,
- cr2 = 1280}
-
-
-
- The ip is in handle_mm_fault:
-
-
- (gdb) p (void *)268480945
- $20 = (void *) 0x1000b1b1
- (gdb) i sym $20
- handle_mm_fault + 57 in section .text
-
-
-
-
-
- Specifically, it's in pte_alloc:
-
-
- (gdb) i line *$20
- Line 124 of "/home/dike/linux/2.3.26/um/include/asm/pgalloc.h"
- starts at address 0x1000b1b1 <handle_mm_fault+57>
- and ends at 0x1000b1b7 <handle_mm_fault+63>.
-
-
-
-
-
- To find where in handle_mm_fault this is, I'll jump forward in the
- code until I see an address in that procedure:
-
-
-
- (gdb) i line *0x1000b1c0
- Line 126 of "/home/dike/linux/2.3.26/um/include/asm/pgalloc.h"
- starts at address 0x1000b1b7 <handle_mm_fault+63>
- and ends at 0x1000b1c3 <handle_mm_fault+75>.
- (gdb) i line *0x1000b1d0
- Line 131 of "/home/dike/linux/2.3.26/um/include/asm/pgalloc.h"
- starts at address 0x1000b1d0 <handle_mm_fault+88>
- and ends at 0x1000b1da <handle_mm_fault+98>.
- (gdb) i line *0x1000b1e0
- Line 61 of "/home/dike/linux/2.3.26/um/include/asm/pgalloc.h"
- starts at address 0x1000b1da <handle_mm_fault+98>
- and ends at 0x1000b1e1 <handle_mm_fault+105>.
- (gdb) i line *0x1000b1f0
- Line 134 of "/home/dike/linux/2.3.26/um/include/asm/pgalloc.h"
- starts at address 0x1000b1f0 <handle_mm_fault+120>
- and ends at 0x1000b200 <handle_mm_fault+136>.
- (gdb) i line *0x1000b200
- Line 135 of "/home/dike/linux/2.3.26/um/include/asm/pgalloc.h"
- starts at address 0x1000b200 <handle_mm_fault+136>
- and ends at 0x1000b208 <handle_mm_fault+144>.
- (gdb) i line *0x1000b210
- Line 139 of "/home/dike/linux/2.3.26/um/include/asm/pgalloc.h"
- starts at address 0x1000b210 <handle_mm_fault+152>
- and ends at 0x1000b219 <handle_mm_fault+161>.
- (gdb) i line *0x1000b220
- Line 1168 of "memory.c" starts at address 0x1000b21e <handle_mm_fault+166>
- and ends at 0x1000b222 <handle_mm_fault+170>.
-
-
-
-
-
- Something is apparently wrong with the page tables or vma_structs, so
- lets go back to frame 11 and have a look at them:
-
-
-
- #11 0x1006c0aa in segv (address=1342179328, is_write=2) at trap_kern.c:50
- 50 handle_mm_fault(current, vma, address, is_write);
- (gdb) call pgd_offset_proc(vma->vm_mm, address)
- $22 = (pgd_t *) 0x80a548c
-
-
-
-
-
- That's pretty bogus. Page tables aren't supposed to be in process
- text or data areas. Let's see what's in the vma:
-
-
- (gdb) p *vma
- $23 = {vm_mm = 0x507d2434, vm_start = 0, vm_end = 134512640,
- vm_next = 0x80a4f8c, vm_page_prot = {pgprot = 0}, vm_flags = 31200,
- vm_avl_height = 2058, vm_avl_left = 0x80a8c94, vm_avl_right = 0x80d1000,
- vm_next_share = 0xaffffdb0, vm_pprev_share = 0xaffffe63,
- vm_ops = 0xaffffe7a, vm_pgoff = 2952789626, vm_file = 0xafffffec,
- vm_private_data = 0x62}
- (gdb) p *vma.vm_mm
- $24 = {mmap = 0x507d2434, mmap_avl = 0x0, mmap_cache = 0x8048000,
- pgd = 0x80a4f8c, mm_users = {counter = 0}, mm_count = {counter = 134904288},
- map_count = 134909076, mmap_sem = {count = {counter = 135073792},
- sleepers = -1342177872, wait = {lock = <optimized out or zero length>,
- task_list = {next = 0xaffffe63, prev = 0xaffffe7a},
- __magic = -1342177670, __creator = -1342177300}, __magic = 98},
- page_table_lock = {}, context = 138, start_code = 0, end_code = 0,
- start_data = 0, end_data = 0, start_brk = 0, brk = 0, start_stack = 0,
- arg_start = 0, arg_end = 0, env_start = 0, env_end = 0, rss = 1350381536,
- total_vm = 0, locked_vm = 0, def_flags = 0, cpu_vm_mask = 0, swap_cnt = 0,
- swap_address = 0, segments = 0x0}
-
-
-
-
-
- This also pretty bogus. With all of the 0x80xxxxx and 0xaffffxxx
- addresses, this is looking like a stack was plonked down on top of
- these structures. Maybe it's a stack overflow from the next page:
-
-
-
- (gdb) p vma
- $25 = (struct vm_area_struct *) 0x507d2434
-
-
-
-
-
- That's towards the lower quarter of the page, so that would have to
- have been pretty heavy stack overflow:
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- (gdb) x/100x $25
- 0x507d2434: 0x507d2434 0x00000000 0x08048000 0x080a4f8c
- 0x507d2444: 0x00000000 0x080a79e0 0x080a8c94 0x080d1000
- 0x507d2454: 0xaffffdb0 0xaffffe63 0xaffffe7a 0xaffffe7a
- 0x507d2464: 0xafffffec 0x00000062 0x0000008a 0x00000000
- 0x507d2474: 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000
- 0x507d2484: 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000
- 0x507d2494: 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x507d2fe0 0x00000000
- 0x507d24a4: 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000
- 0x507d24b4: 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000
- 0x507d24c4: 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000
- 0x507d24d4: 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000
- 0x507d24e4: 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000
- 0x507d24f4: 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000
- 0x507d2504: 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000
- 0x507d2514: 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000
- 0x507d2524: 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000
- 0x507d2534: 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x507d25dc 0x00000000
- 0x507d2544: 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000
- 0x507d2554: 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000
- 0x507d2564: 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000
- 0x507d2574: 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000
- 0x507d2584: 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000
- 0x507d2594: 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000
- 0x507d25a4: 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000
- 0x507d25b4: 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000 0x00000000
-
-
-
-
-
- It's not stack overflow. The only "stack-like" piece of this data is
- the vma_struct itself.
-
-
- At this point, I don't see any avenues to pursue, so I just have to
- admit that I have no idea what's going on. What I will do, though, is
- stick a trap on the segfault handler which will stop if it sees any
- writes to the idle thread's stack. That was the thing that happened
- first, and it may be that if I can catch it immediately, what's going
- on will be somewhat clearer.
-
-
- 12.2. Episode 2: The case of the hung fsck
-
- After setting a trap in the SEGV handler for accesses to the signal
- thread's stack, I reran the kernel.
-
-
- fsck hung again, this time by hitting the trap:
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- Setting hostname uml [ OK ]
- Checking root filesystem
- /dev/fhd0 contains a file system with errors, check forced.
- Error reading block 86894 (Attempt to read block from filesystem resulted in short read) while reading indirect blocks of inode 19780.
-
- /dev/fhd0: UNEXPECTED INCONSISTENCY; RUN fsck MANUALLY.
- (i.e., without -a or -p options)
- [ FAILED ]
-
- *** An error occurred during the file system check.
- *** Dropping you to a shell; the system will reboot
- *** when you leave the shell.
- Give root password for maintenance
- (or type Control-D for normal startup):
-
- [root@uml /root]# fsck -y /dev/fhd0
- fsck -y /dev/fhd0
- Parallelizing fsck version 1.14 (9-Jan-1999)
- e2fsck 1.14, 9-Jan-1999 for EXT2 FS 0.5b, 95/08/09
- /dev/fhd0 contains a file system with errors, check forced.
- Pass 1: Checking inodes, blocks, and sizes
- Error reading block 86894 (Attempt to read block from filesystem resulted in short read) while reading indirect blocks of inode 19780. Ignore error? yes
-
- Pass 2: Checking directory structure
- Error reading block 49405 (Attempt to read block from filesystem resulted in short read). Ignore error? yes
-
- Directory inode 11858, block 0, offset 0: directory corrupted
- Salvage? yes
-
- Missing '.' in directory inode 11858.
- Fix? yes
-
- Missing '..' in directory inode 11858.
- Fix? yes
-
- Untested (4127) [100fe44c]: trap_kern.c line 31
-
-
-
-
-
- I need to get the signal thread to detach from pid 4127 so that I can
- attach to it with gdb. This is done by sending it a SIGUSR1, which is
- caught by the signal thread, which detaches the process:
-
-
- kill -USR1 4127
-
-
-
-
-
- Now I can run gdb on it:
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- ~/linux/2.3.26/um 1034: gdb linux
- GNU gdb 4.17.0.11 with Linux support
- Copyright 1998 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
- GDB is free software, covered by the GNU General Public License, and you are
- welcome to change it and/or distribute copies of it under certain conditions.
- Type "show copying" to see the conditions.
- There is absolutely no warranty for GDB. Type "show warranty" for details.
- This GDB was configured as "i386-redhat-linux"...
- (gdb) att 4127
- Attaching to program `/home/dike/linux/2.3.26/um/linux', Pid 4127
- 0x10075891 in __libc_nanosleep ()
-
-
-
-
-
- The backtrace shows that it was in a write and that the fault address
- (address in frame 3) is 0x50000800, which is right in the middle of
- the signal thread's stack page:
-
-
- (gdb) bt
- #0 0x10075891 in __libc_nanosleep ()
- #1 0x1007584d in __sleep (seconds=1000000)
- at ../sysdeps/unix/sysv/linux/sleep.c:78
- #2 0x1006ce9a in stop () at user_util.c:191
- #3 0x1006bf88 in segv (address=1342179328, is_write=2) at trap_kern.c:31
- #4 0x1006c628 in segv_handler (sc=0x5006eaf8) at trap_user.c:174
- #5 0x1006c63c in kern_segv_handler (sig=11) at trap_user.c:182
- #6 <signal handler called>
- #7 0xc0fd in ?? ()
- #8 0x10016647 in sys_write (fd=3, buf=0x80b8800 "R.", count=1024)
- at read_write.c:159
- #9 0x1006d603 in execute_syscall (syscall=4, args=0x5006ef08)
- at syscall_kern.c:254
- #10 0x1006af87 in really_do_syscall (sig=12) at syscall_user.c:35
- #11 <signal handler called>
- #12 0x400dc8b0 in ?? ()
- #13 <signal handler called>
- #14 0x400dc8b0 in ?? ()
- #15 0x80545fd in ?? ()
- #16 0x804daae in ?? ()
- #17 0x8054334 in ?? ()
- #18 0x804d23e in ?? ()
- #19 0x8049632 in ?? ()
- #20 0x80491d2 in ?? ()
- #21 0x80596b5 in ?? ()
- (gdb) p (void *)1342179328
- $3 = (void *) 0x50000800
-
-
-
-
-
- Going up the stack to the segv_handler frame and looking at where in
- the code the access happened shows that it happened near line 110 of
- block_dev.c:
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- (gdb) up
- #1 0x1007584d in __sleep (seconds=1000000)
- at ../sysdeps/unix/sysv/linux/sleep.c:78
- ../sysdeps/unix/sysv/linux/sleep.c:78: No such file or directory.
- (gdb)
- #2 0x1006ce9a in stop () at user_util.c:191
- 191 while(1) sleep(1000000);
- (gdb)
- #3 0x1006bf88 in segv (address=1342179328, is_write=2) at trap_kern.c:31
- 31 KERN_UNTESTED();
- (gdb)
- #4 0x1006c628 in segv_handler (sc=0x5006eaf8) at trap_user.c:174
- 174 segv(sc->cr2, sc->err & 2);
- (gdb) p *sc
- $1 = {gs = 0, __gsh = 0, fs = 0, __fsh = 0, es = 43, __esh = 0, ds = 43,
- __dsh = 0, edi = 1342179328, esi = 134973440, ebp = 1342631484,
- esp = 1342630864, ebx = 256, edx = 0, ecx = 256, eax = 1024, trapno = 14,
- err = 6, eip = 268550834, cs = 35, __csh = 0, eflags = 66070,
- esp_at_signal = 1342630864, ss = 43, __ssh = 0, fpstate = 0x0, oldmask = 0,
- cr2 = 1342179328}
- (gdb) p (void *)268550834
- $2 = (void *) 0x1001c2b2
- (gdb) i sym $2
- block_write + 1090 in section .text
- (gdb) i line *$2
- Line 209 of "/home/dike/linux/2.3.26/um/include/asm/arch/string.h"
- starts at address 0x1001c2a1 <block_write+1073>
- and ends at 0x1001c2bf <block_write+1103>.
- (gdb) i line *0x1001c2c0
- Line 110 of "block_dev.c" starts at address 0x1001c2bf <block_write+1103>
- and ends at 0x1001c2e3 <block_write+1139>.
-
-
-
-
-
- Looking at the source shows that the fault happened during a call to
- copy_to_user to copy the data into the kernel:
-
-
- 107 count -= chars;
- 108 copy_from_user(p,buf,chars);
- 109 p += chars;
- 110 buf += chars;
-
-
-
-
-
- p is the pointer which must contain 0x50000800, since buf contains
- 0x80b8800 (frame 8 above). It is defined as:
-
-
- p = offset + bh->b_data;
-
-
-
-
-
- I need to figure out what bh is, and it just so happens that bh is
- passed as an argument to mark_buffer_uptodate and mark_buffer_dirty a
- few lines later, so I do a little disassembly:
-
-
-
-
- (gdb) disas 0x1001c2bf 0x1001c2e0
- Dump of assembler code from 0x1001c2bf to 0x1001c2d0:
- 0x1001c2bf <block_write+1103>: addl %eax,0xc(%ebp)
- 0x1001c2c2 <block_write+1106>: movl 0xfffffdd4(%ebp),%edx
- 0x1001c2c8 <block_write+1112>: btsl $0x0,0x18(%edx)
- 0x1001c2cd <block_write+1117>: btsl $0x1,0x18(%edx)
- 0x1001c2d2 <block_write+1122>: sbbl %ecx,%ecx
- 0x1001c2d4 <block_write+1124>: testl %ecx,%ecx
- 0x1001c2d6 <block_write+1126>: jne 0x1001c2e3 <block_write+1139>
- 0x1001c2d8 <block_write+1128>: pushl $0x0
- 0x1001c2da <block_write+1130>: pushl %edx
- 0x1001c2db <block_write+1131>: call 0x1001819c <__mark_buffer_dirty>
- End of assembler dump.
-
-
-
-
-
- At that point, bh is in %edx (address 0x1001c2da), which is calculated
- at 0x1001c2c2 as %ebp + 0xfffffdd4, so I figure exactly what that is,
- taking %ebp from the sigcontext_struct above:
-
-
- (gdb) p (void *)1342631484
- $5 = (void *) 0x5006ee3c
- (gdb) p 0x5006ee3c+0xfffffdd4
- $6 = 1342630928
- (gdb) p (void *)$6
- $7 = (void *) 0x5006ec10
- (gdb) p *((void **)$7)
- $8 = (void *) 0x50100200
-
-
-
-
-
- Now, I look at the structure to see what's in it, and particularly,
- what its b_data field contains:
-
-
- (gdb) p *((struct buffer_head *)0x50100200)
- $13 = {b_next = 0x50289380, b_blocknr = 49405, b_size = 1024, b_list = 0,
- b_dev = 15872, b_count = {counter = 1}, b_rdev = 15872, b_state = 24,
- b_flushtime = 0, b_next_free = 0x501001a0, b_prev_free = 0x50100260,
- b_this_page = 0x501001a0, b_reqnext = 0x0, b_pprev = 0x507fcf58,
- b_data = 0x50000800 "", b_page = 0x50004000,
- b_end_io = 0x10017f60 <end_buffer_io_sync>, b_dev_id = 0x0,
- b_rsector = 98810, b_wait = {lock = <optimized out or zero length>,
- task_list = {next = 0x50100248, prev = 0x50100248}, __magic = 1343226448,
- __creator = 0}, b_kiobuf = 0x0}
-
-
-
-
-
- The b_data field is indeed 0x50000800, so the question becomes how
- that happened. The rest of the structure looks fine, so this probably
- is not a case of data corruption. It happened on purpose somehow.
-
-
- The b_page field is a pointer to the page_struct representing the
- 0x50000000 page. Looking at it shows the kernel's idea of the state
- of that page:
-
-
-
- (gdb) p *$13.b_page
- $17 = {list = {next = 0x50004a5c, prev = 0x100c5174}, mapping = 0x0,
- index = 0, next_hash = 0x0, count = {counter = 1}, flags = 132, lru = {
- next = 0x50008460, prev = 0x50019350}, wait = {
- lock = <optimized out or zero length>, task_list = {next = 0x50004024,
- prev = 0x50004024}, __magic = 1342193708, __creator = 0},
- pprev_hash = 0x0, buffers = 0x501002c0, virtual = 1342177280,
- zone = 0x100c5160}
-
-
-
-
-
- Some sanity-checking: the virtual field shows the "virtual" address of
- this page, which in this kernel is the same as its "physical" address,
- and the page_struct itself should be mem_map[0], since it represents
- the first page of memory:
-
-
-
- (gdb) p (void *)1342177280
- $18 = (void *) 0x50000000
- (gdb) p mem_map
- $19 = (mem_map_t *) 0x50004000
-
-
-
-
-
- These check out fine.
-
-
- Now to check out the page_struct itself. In particular, the flags
- field shows whether the page is considered free or not:
-
-
- (gdb) p (void *)132
- $21 = (void *) 0x84
-
-
-
-
-
- The "reserved" bit is the high bit, which is definitely not set, so
- the kernel considers the signal stack page to be free and available to
- be used.
-
-
- At this point, I jump to conclusions and start looking at my early
- boot code, because that's where that page is supposed to be reserved.
-
-
- In my setup_arch procedure, I have the following code which looks just
- fine:
-
-
-
- bootmap_size = init_bootmem(start_pfn, end_pfn - start_pfn);
- free_bootmem(__pa(low_physmem) + bootmap_size, high_physmem - low_physmem);
-
-
-
-
-
- Two stack pages have already been allocated, and low_physmem points to
- the third page, which is the beginning of free memory.
- The init_bootmem call declares the entire memory to the boot memory
- manager, which marks it all reserved. The free_bootmem call frees up
- all of it, except for the first two pages. This looks correct to me.
-
-
- So, I decide to see init_bootmem run and make sure that it is marking
- those first two pages as reserved. I never get that far.
-
-
- Stepping into init_bootmem, and looking at bootmem_map before looking
- at what it contains shows the following:
-
-
-
- (gdb) p bootmem_map
- $3 = (void *) 0x50000000
-
-
-
-
-
- Aha! The light dawns. That first page is doing double duty as a
- stack and as the boot memory map. The last thing that the boot memory
- manager does is to free the pages used by its memory map, so this page
- is getting freed even its marked as reserved.
-
-
- The fix was to initialize the boot memory manager before allocating
- those two stack pages, and then allocate them through the boot memory
- manager. After doing this, and fixing a couple of subsequent buglets,
- the stack corruption problem disappeared.
-
-
-
-
-
- 13. What to do when UML doesn't work
-
-
-
-
- 13.1. Strange compilation errors when you build from source
-
- As of test11, it is necessary to have "ARCH=um" in the environment or
- on the make command line for all steps in building UML, including
- clean, distclean, or mrproper, config, menuconfig, or xconfig, dep,
- and linux. If you forget for any of them, the i386 build seems to
- contaminate the UML build. If this happens, start from scratch with
-
-
- host%
- make mrproper ARCH=um
-
-
-
-
- and repeat the build process with ARCH=um on all the steps.
-
-
- See ``Compiling the kernel and modules'' for more details.
-
-
- Another cause of strange compilation errors is building UML in
- /usr/src/linux. If you do this, the first thing you need to do is
- clean up the mess you made. The /usr/src/linux/asm link will now
- point to /usr/src/linux/asm-um. Make it point back to
- /usr/src/linux/asm-i386. Then, move your UML pool someplace else and
- build it there. Also see below, where a more specific set of symptoms
- is described.
-
-
-
- 13.3. A variety of panics and hangs with /tmp on a reiserfs filesys-
- tem
-
- I saw this on reiserfs 3.5.21 and it seems to be fixed in 3.5.27.
- Panics preceded by
-
-
- Detaching pid nnnn
-
-
-
- are diagnostic of this problem. This is a reiserfs bug which causes a
- thread to occasionally read stale data from a mmapped page shared with
- another thread. The fix is to upgrade the filesystem or to have /tmp
- be an ext2 filesystem.
-
-
-
- 13.4. The compile fails with errors about conflicting types for
- 'open', 'dup', and 'waitpid'
-
- This happens when you build in /usr/src/linux. The UML build makes
- the include/asm link point to include/asm-um. /usr/include/asm points
- to /usr/src/linux/include/asm, so when that link gets moved, files
- which need to include the asm-i386 versions of headers get the
- incompatible asm-um versions. The fix is to move the include/asm link
- back to include/asm-i386 and to do UML builds someplace else.
-
-
-
- 13.5. UML doesn't work when /tmp is an NFS filesystem
-
- This seems to be a similar situation with the ReiserFS problem above.
- Some versions of NFS seems not to handle mmap correctly, which UML
- depends on. The workaround is have /tmp be a non-NFS directory.
-
-
- 13.6. UML hangs on boot when compiled with gprof support
-
- If you build UML with gprof support and, early in the boot, it does
- this
-
-
- kernel BUG at page_alloc.c:100!
-
-
-
-
- you have a buggy gcc. You can work around the problem by removing
- UM_FASTCALL from CFLAGS in arch/um/Makefile-i386. This will open up
- another bug, but that one is fairly hard to reproduce.
-
-
-
- 13.7. syslogd dies with a SIGTERM on startup
-
- The exact boot error depends on the distribution that you're booting,
- but Debian produces this:
-
-
- /etc/rc2.d/S10sysklogd: line 49: 93 Terminated
- start-stop-daemon --start --quiet --exec /sbin/syslogd -- $SYSLOGD
-
-
-
-
- This is a syslogd bug. There's a race between a parent process
- installing a signal handler and its child sending the signal. See
- this uml-devel post <http://www.geocrawler.com/lists/3/Source-
- Forge/709/0/6612801> for the details.
-
-
-
- 13.8. TUN/TAP networking doesn't work on a 2.4 host
-
- There are a couple of problems which were
- <http://www.geocrawler.com/lists/3/SourceForge/597/0/> name="pointed
- out"> by Tim Robinson <timro at trkr dot net>
-
- o It doesn't work on hosts running 2.4.7 (or thereabouts) or earlier.
- The fix is to upgrade to something more recent and then read the
- next item.
-
- o If you see
-
-
- File descriptor in bad state
-
-
-
- when you bring up the device inside UML, you have a header mismatch
- between the original kernel and the upgraded one. Make /usr/src/linux
- point at the new headers. This will only be a problem if you build
- uml_net yourself.
-
-
-
- 13.9. You can network to the host but not to other machines on the
- net
-
- If you can connect to the host, and the host can connect to UML, but
- you cannot connect to any other machines, then you may need to enable
- IP Masquerading on the host. Usually this is only experienced when
- using private IP addresses (192.168.x.x or 10.x.x.x) for host/UML
- networking, rather than the public address space that your host is
- connected to. UML does not enable IP Masquerading, so you will need
- to create a static rule to enable it:
-
-
- host%
- iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE
-
-
-
-
- Replace eth0 with the interface that you use to talk to the rest of
- the world.
-
-
- Documentation on IP Masquerading, and SNAT, can be found at
- www.netfilter.org <http://www.netfilter.org> .
-
-
- If you can reach the local net, but not the outside Internet, then
- that is usually a routing problem. The UML needs a default route:
-
-
- UML#
- route add default gw gateway IP
-
-
-
-
- The gateway IP can be any machine on the local net that knows how to
- reach the outside world. Usually, this is the host or the local net-
- work's gateway.
-
-
- Occasionally, we hear from someone who can reach some machines, but
- not others on the same net, or who can reach some ports on other
- machines, but not others. These are usually caused by strange
- firewalling somewhere between the UML and the other box. You track
- this down by running tcpdump on every interface the packets travel
- over and see where they disappear. When you find a machine that takes
- the packets in, but does not send them onward, that's the culprit.
-
-
-
- 13.10. I have no root and I want to scream
-
- Thanks to Birgit Wahlich for telling me about this strange one. It
- turns out that there's a limit of six environment variables on the
- kernel command line. When that limit is reached or exceeded, argument
- processing stops, which means that the 'root=' argument that UML
- usually adds is not seen. So, the filesystem has no idea what the
- root device is, so it panics.
-
-
- The fix is to put less stuff on the command line. Glomming all your
- setup variables into one is probably the best way to go.
-
-
-
- 13.11. UML build conflict between ptrace.h and ucontext.h
-
- On some older systems, /usr/include/asm/ptrace.h and
- /usr/include/sys/ucontext.h define the same names. So, when they're
- included together, the defines from one completely mess up the parsing
- of the other, producing errors like:
- /usr/include/sys/ucontext.h:47: parse error before
- `10'
-
-
-
-
- plus a pile of warnings.
-
-
- This is a libc botch, which has since been fixed, and I don't see any
- way around it besides upgrading.
-
-
-
- 13.12. The UML BogoMips is exactly half the host's BogoMips
-
- On i386 kernels, there are two ways of running the loop that is used
- to calculate the BogoMips rating, using the TSC if it's there or using
- a one-instruction loop. The TSC produces twice the BogoMips as the
- loop. UML uses the loop, since it has nothing resembling a TSC, and
- will get almost exactly the same BogoMips as a host using the loop.
- However, on a host with a TSC, its BogoMips will be double the loop
- BogoMips, and therefore double the UML BogoMips.
-
-
-
- 13.13. When you run UML, it immediately segfaults
-
- If the host is configured with the 2G/2G address space split, that's
- why. See ``UML on 2G/2G hosts'' for the details on getting UML to
- run on your host.
-
-
-
- 13.14. xterms appear, then immediately disappear
-
- If you're running an up to date kernel with an old release of
- uml_utilities, the port-helper program will not work properly, so
- xterms will exit straight after they appear. The solution is to
- upgrade to the latest release of uml_utilities. Usually this problem
- occurs when you have installed a packaged release of UML then compiled
- your own development kernel without upgrading the uml_utilities from
- the source distribution.
-
-
-
- 13.15. Any other panic, hang, or strange behavior
-
- If you're seeing truly strange behavior, such as hangs or panics that
- happen in random places, or you try running the debugger to see what's
- happening and it acts strangely, then it could be a problem in the
- host kernel. If you're not running a stock Linus or -ac kernel, then
- try that. An early version of the preemption patch and a 2.4.10 SuSE
- kernel have caused very strange problems in UML.
-
-
- Otherwise, let me know about it. Send a message to one of the UML
- mailing lists - either the developer list - user-mode-linux-devel at
- lists dot sourceforge dot net (subscription info) or the user list -
- user-mode-linux-user at lists dot sourceforge do net (subscription
- info), whichever you prefer. Don't assume that everyone knows about
- it and that a fix is imminent.
-
-
- If you want to be super-helpful, read ``Diagnosing Problems'' and
- follow the instructions contained therein.
- 14. Diagnosing Problems
-
-
- If you get UML to crash, hang, or otherwise misbehave, you should
- report this on one of the project mailing lists, either the developer
- list - user-mode-linux-devel at lists dot sourceforge dot net
- (subscription info) or the user list - user-mode-linux-user at lists
- dot sourceforge dot net (subscription info). When you do, it is
- likely that I will want more information. So, it would be helpful to
- read the stuff below, do whatever is applicable in your case, and
- report the results to the list.
-
-
- For any diagnosis, you're going to need to build a debugging kernel.
- The binaries from this site aren't debuggable. If you haven't done
- this before, read about ``Compiling the kernel and modules'' and
- ``Kernel debugging'' UML first.
-
-
- 14.1. Case 1 : Normal kernel panics
-
- The most common case is for a normal thread to panic. To debug this,
- you will need to run it under the debugger (add 'debug' to the command
- line). An xterm will start up with gdb running inside it. Continue
- it when it stops in start_kernel and make it crash. Now ^C gdb and
-
-
- If the panic was a "Kernel mode fault", then there will be a segv
- frame on the stack and I'm going to want some more information. The
- stack might look something like this:
-
-
- (UML gdb) backtrace
- #0 0x1009bf76 in __sigprocmask (how=1, set=0x5f347940, oset=0x0)
- at ../sysdeps/unix/sysv/linux/sigprocmask.c:49
- #1 0x10091411 in change_sig (signal=10, on=1) at process.c:218
- #2 0x10094785 in timer_handler (sig=26) at time_kern.c:32
- #3 0x1009bf38 in __restore ()
- at ../sysdeps/unix/sysv/linux/i386/sigaction.c:125
- #4 0x1009534c in segv (address=8, ip=268849158, is_write=2, is_user=0)
- at trap_kern.c:66
- #5 0x10095c04 in segv_handler (sig=11) at trap_user.c:285
- #6 0x1009bf38 in __restore ()
-
-
-
-
- I'm going to want to see the symbol and line information for the value
- of ip in the segv frame. In this case, you would do the following:
-
-
- (UML gdb) i sym 268849158
-
-
-
-
- and
-
-
- (UML gdb) i line *268849158
-
-
-
-
- The reason for this is the __restore frame right above the segv_han-
- dler frame is hiding the frame that actually segfaulted. So, I have
- to get that information from the faulting ip.
-
-
- 14.2. Case 2 : Tracing thread panics
-
- The less common and more painful case is when the tracing thread
- panics. In this case, the kernel debugger will be useless because it
- needs a healthy tracing thread in order to work. The first thing to
- do is get a backtrace from the tracing thread. This is done by
- figuring out what its pid is, firing up gdb, and attaching it to that
- pid. You can figure out the tracing thread pid by looking at the
- first line of the console output, which will look like this:
-
-
- tracing thread pid = 15851
-
-
-
-
- or by running ps on the host and finding the line that looks like
- this:
-
-
- jdike 15851 4.5 0.4 132568 1104 pts/0 S 21:34 0:05 ./linux [(tracing thread)]
-
-
-
-
- If the panic was 'segfault in signals', then follow the instructions
- above for collecting information about the location of the seg fault.
-
-
- If the tracing thread flaked out all by itself, then send that
- backtrace in and wait for our crack debugging team to fix the problem.
-
-
- 14.3. Case 3 : Tracing thread panics caused by other threads
-
- However, there are cases where the misbehavior of another thread
- caused the problem. The most common panic of this type is:
-
-
- wait_for_stop failed to wait for <pid> to stop with <signal number>
-
-
-
-
- In this case, you'll need to get a backtrace from the process men-
- tioned in the panic, which is complicated by the fact that the kernel
- debugger is defunct and without some fancy footwork, another gdb can't
- attach to it. So, this is how the fancy footwork goes:
-
- In a shell:
-
-
- host% kill -STOP pid
-
-
-
-
- Run gdb on the tracing thread as described in case 2 and do:
-
-
- (host gdb) call detach(pid)
-
-
- If you get a segfault, do it again. It always works the second time.
-
- Detach from the tracing thread and attach to that other thread:
-
-
- (host gdb) detach
-
-
-
-
-
-
- (host gdb) attach pid
-
-
-
-
- If gdb hangs when attaching to that process, go back to a shell and
- do:
-
-
- host%
- kill -CONT pid
-
-
-
-
- And then get the backtrace:
-
-
- (host gdb) backtrace
-
-
-
-
-
- 14.4. Case 4 : Hangs
-
- Hangs seem to be fairly rare, but they sometimes happen. When a hang
- happens, we need a backtrace from the offending process. Run the
- kernel debugger as described in case 1 and get a backtrace. If the
- current process is not the idle thread, then send in the backtrace.
- You can tell that it's the idle thread if the stack looks like this:
-
-
- #0 0x100b1401 in __libc_nanosleep ()
- #1 0x100a2885 in idle_sleep (secs=10) at time.c:122
- #2 0x100a546f in do_idle () at process_kern.c:445
- #3 0x100a5508 in cpu_idle () at process_kern.c:471
- #4 0x100ec18f in start_kernel () at init/main.c:592
- #5 0x100a3e10 in start_kernel_proc (unused=0x0) at um_arch.c:71
- #6 0x100a383f in signal_tramp (arg=0x100a3dd8) at trap_user.c:50
-
-
-
-
- If this is the case, then some other process is at fault, and went to
- sleep when it shouldn't have. Run ps on the host and figure out which
- process should not have gone to sleep and stayed asleep. Then attach
- to it with gdb and get a backtrace as described in case 3.
-
-
-
-
-
-
- 15. Thanks
-
-
- A number of people have helped this project in various ways, and this
- page gives recognition where recognition is due.
-
-
- If you're listed here and you would prefer a real link on your name,
- or no link at all, instead of the despammed email address pseudo-link,
- let me know.
-
-
- If you're not listed here and you think maybe you should be, please
- let me know that as well. I try to get everyone, but sometimes my
- bookkeeping lapses and I forget about contributions.
-
-
- 15.1. Code and Documentation
-
- Rusty Russell <rusty at linuxcare.com.au> -
-
- o wrote the HOWTO <http://user-mode-
- linux.sourceforge.net/UserModeLinux-HOWTO.html>
-
- o prodded me into making this project official and putting it on
- SourceForge
-
- o came up with the way cool UML logo <http://user-mode-
- linux.sourceforge.net/uml-small.png>
-
- o redid the config process
-
-
- Peter Moulder <reiter at netspace.net.au> - Fixed my config and build
- processes, and added some useful code to the block driver
-
-
- Bill Stearns <wstearns at pobox.com> -
-
- o HOWTO updates
-
- o lots of bug reports
-
- o lots of testing
-
- o dedicated a box (uml.ists.dartmouth.edu) to support UML development
-
- o wrote the mkrootfs script, which allows bootable filesystems of
- RPM-based distributions to be cranked out
-
- o cranked out a large number of filesystems with said script
-
-
- Jim Leu <jleu at mindspring.com> - Wrote the virtual ethernet driver
- and associated usermode tools
-
- Lars Brinkhoff <http://lars.nocrew.org/> - Contributed the ptrace
- proxy from his own project <http://a386.nocrew.org/> to allow easier
- kernel debugging
-
-
- Andrea Arcangeli <andrea at suse.de> - Redid some of the early boot
- code so that it would work on machines with Large File Support
-
-
- Chris Emerson <http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~cemerson/> - Did
- the first UML port to Linux/ppc
-
-
- Harald Welte <laforge at gnumonks.org> - Wrote the multicast
- transport for the network driver
-
-
- Jorgen Cederlof - Added special file support to hostfs
-
-
- Greg Lonnon <glonnon at ridgerun dot com> - Changed the ubd driver
- to allow it to layer a COW file on a shared read-only filesystem and
- wrote the iomem emulation support
-
-
- Henrik Nordstrom <http://hem.passagen.se/hno/> - Provided a variety
- of patches, fixes, and clues
-
-
- Lennert Buytenhek - Contributed various patches, a rewrite of the
- network driver, the first implementation of the mconsole driver, and
- did the bulk of the work needed to get SMP working again.
-
-
- Yon Uriarte - Fixed the TUN/TAP network backend while I slept.
-
-
- Adam Heath - Made a bunch of nice cleanups to the initialization code,
- plus various other small patches.
-
-
- Matt Zimmerman - Matt volunteered to be the UML Debian maintainer and
- is doing a real nice job of it. He also noticed and fixed a number of
- actually and potentially exploitable security holes in uml_net. Plus
- the occasional patch. I like patches.
-
-
- James McMechan - James seems to have taken over maintenance of the ubd
- driver and is doing a nice job of it.
-
-
- Chandan Kudige - wrote the umlgdb script which automates the reloading
- of module symbols.
-
-
- Steve Schmidtke - wrote the UML slirp transport and hostaudio drivers,
- enabling UML processes to access audio devices on the host. He also
- submitted patches for the slip transport and lots of other things.
-
-
- David Coulson <http://davidcoulson.net> -
-
- o Set up the usermodelinux.org <http://usermodelinux.org> site,
- which is a great way of keeping the UML user community on top of
- UML goings-on.
-
- o Site documentation and updates
-
- o Nifty little UML management daemon UMLd
- <http://uml.openconsultancy.com/umld/>
-
- o Lots of testing and bug reports
-
-
-
-
- 15.2. Flushing out bugs
-
-
-
- o Yuri Pudgorodsky
-
- o Gerald Britton
-
- o Ian Wehrman
-
- o Gord Lamb
-
- o Eugene Koontz
-
- o John H. Hartman
-
- o Anders Karlsson
-
- o Daniel Phillips
-
- o John Fremlin
-
- o Rainer Burgstaller
-
- o James Stevenson
-
- o Matt Clay
-
- o Cliff Jefferies
-
- o Geoff Hoff
-
- o Lennert Buytenhek
-
- o Al Viro
-
- o Frank Klingenhoefer
-
- o Livio Baldini Soares
-
- o Jon Burgess
-
- o Petru Paler
-
- o Paul
-
- o Chris Reahard
-
- o Sverker Nilsson
-
- o Gong Su
-
- o johan verrept
-
- o Bjorn Eriksson
-
- o Lorenzo Allegrucci
-
- o Muli Ben-Yehuda
-
- o David Mansfield
-
- o Howard Goff
-
- o Mike Anderson
-
- o John Byrne
-
- o Sapan J. Batia
-
- o Iris Huang
-
- o Jan Hudec
-
- o Voluspa
-
-
-
-
- 15.3. Buglets and clean-ups
-
-
-
- o Dave Zarzycki
-
- o Adam Lazur
-
- o Boria Feigin
-
- o Brian J. Murrell
-
- o JS
-
- o Roman Zippel
-
- o Wil Cooley
-
- o Ayelet Shemesh
-
- o Will Dyson
-
- o Sverker Nilsson
-
- o dvorak
-
- o v.naga srinivas
-
- o Shlomi Fish
-
- o Roger Binns
-
- o johan verrept
-
- o MrChuoi
-
- o Peter Cleve
-
- o Vincent Guffens
-
- o Nathan Scott
-
- o Patrick Caulfield
-
- o jbearce
-
- o Catalin Marinas
-
- o Shane Spencer
-
- o Zou Min
-
-
- o Ryan Boder
-
- o Lorenzo Colitti
-
- o Gwendal Grignou
-
- o Andre' Breiler
-
- o Tsutomu Yasuda
-
-
-
- 15.4. Case Studies
-
-
- o Jon Wright
-
- o William McEwan
-
- o Michael Richardson
-
-
-
- 15.5. Other contributions
-
-
- Bill Carr <Bill.Carr at compaq.com> made the Red Hat mkrootfs script
- work with RH 6.2.
-
- Michael Jennings <mikejen at hevanet.com> sent in some material which
- is now gracing the top of the index page <http://user-mode-
- linux.sourceforge.net/> of this site.
-
- SGI <http://www.sgi.com> (and more specifically Ralf Baechle <ralf at
- uni-koblenz.de> ) gave me an account on oss.sgi.com
- <http://www.oss.sgi.com> . The bandwidth there made it possible to
- produce most of the filesystems available on the project download
- page.
-
- Laurent Bonnaud <Laurent.Bonnaud at inpg.fr> took the old grotty
- Debian filesystem that I've been distributing and updated it to 2.2.
- It is now available by itself here.
-
- Rik van Riel gave me some ftp space on ftp.nl.linux.org so I can make
- releases even when Sourceforge is broken.
-
- Rodrigo de Castro looked at my broken pte code and told me what was
- wrong with it, letting me fix a long-standing (several weeks) and
- serious set of bugs.
-
- Chris Reahard built a specialized root filesystem for running a DNS
- server jailed inside UML. It's available from the download
- <http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net/dl-sf.html> page in the Jail
- Filesystems section.
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-