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-Building a modular sound driver
- The following information is current as of linux-2.1.85. Check the other
-readme files, especially README.OSS, for information not specific to
-making sound modular.
- First, configure your kernel. This is an idea of what you should be
-setting in the sound section:
-<M> Sound card support
-<M> 100% Sound Blaster compatibles (SB16/32/64, ESS, Jazz16) support
- I have SoundBlaster. Select your card from the list.
-<M> Generic OPL2/OPL3 FM synthesizer support
-<M> FM synthesizer (YM3812/OPL-3) support
- If you don't set these, you will probably find you can play .wav files
-but not .midi. As the help for them says, set them unless you know your
-card does not use one of these chips for FM support.
- Once you are configured, make zlilo, modules, modules_install; reboot.
-Note that it is no longer necessary or possible to configure sound in the
-drivers/sound dir. Now one simply configures and makes one's kernel and
-modules in the usual way.
- Then, add to your /etc/modprobe.d/oss.conf something like:
-alias char-major-14-* sb
-install sb /sbin/modprobe -i sb && /sbin/modprobe adlib_card
-options sb io=0x220 irq=7 dma=1 dma16=5 mpu_io=0x330
-options adlib_card io=0x388 # FM synthesizer
- Alternatively, if you have compiled in kernel level ISAPnP support:
-alias char-major-14 sb
-softdep sb post: adlib_card
-options adlib_card io=0x388
- The effect of this is that the sound driver and all necessary bits and
-pieces autoload on demand, assuming you use kerneld (a sound choice) and
-autoclean when not in use. Also, options for the device drivers are
-set. They will not work without them. Change as appropriate for your card.
-If you are not yet using the very cool kerneld, you will have to "modprobe
--k sb" yourself to get things going. Eventually things may be fixed so
-that this kludgery is not necessary; for the time being, it seems to work
- Replace 'sb' with the driver for your card, and give it the right
-options. To find the filename of the driver, look in
-/lib/modules/<kernel-version>/misc. Mine looks like:
-adlib_card.o # This is the generic OPLx driver
-opl3.o # The OPL3 driver
-sb.o # <<The SoundBlaster driver. Yours may differ.>>
-sound.o # The sound driver
-uart401.o # Used by sb, maybe other cards
- Whichever card you have, try feeding it the options that would be the
-default if you were making the driver wired, not as modules. You can
-look at function referred to by module_init() for the card to see what
-args are expected.
- Note that at present there is no way to configure the io, irq and other
-parameters for the modular drivers as one does for the wired drivers.. One
-needs to pass the modules the necessary parameters as arguments, either
-with /etc/modprobe.d/*.conf or with command-line args to modprobe, e.g.
-modprobe sb io=0x220 irq=7 dma=1 dma16=5 mpu_io=0x330
-modprobe adlib_card io=0x388
- recommend using /etc/modprobe.d/*.conf.
-Persistent DMA Buffers:
-The sound modules normally allocate DMA buffers during open() and
-deallocate them during close(). Linux can often have problems allocating
-DMA buffers for ISA cards on machines with more than 16MB RAM. This is
-because ISA DMA buffers must exist below the 16MB boundary and it is quite
-possible that we can't find a large enough free block in this region after
-the machine has been running for any amount of time. The way to avoid this
-problem is to allocate the DMA buffers during module load and deallocate
-them when the module is unloaded. For this to be effective we need to load
-the sound modules right after the kernel boots, either manually or by an
-init script, and keep them around until we shut down. This is a little
-wasteful of RAM, but it guarantees that sound always works.
-To make the sound driver use persistent DMA buffers we need to pass the
-sound.o module a "dmabuf=1" command-line argument. This is normally done
-in /etc/modprobe.d/*.conf files like so:
-options sound dmabuf=1
-If you have 16MB or less RAM or a PCI sound card, this is wasteful and
-unnecessary. It is possible that machine with 16MB or less RAM will find
-this option useful, but if your machine is so memory-starved that it
-cannot find a 64K block free, you will be wasting even more RAM by keeping
-the sound modules loaded and the DMA buffers allocated when they are not
-needed. The proper solution is to upgrade your RAM. But you do also have
-this improper solution as well. Use it wisely.
- I'm afraid I know nothing about anything but my setup, being more of a
-text-mode guy anyway. If you have options for other cards or other helpful
-hints, send them to me, Jim Bray,,