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-Introduction Notes on Modular Sound Drivers and Soundcore
-Wade Hampton
-2/14/2001
-
-Purpose:
-========
-This document provides some general notes on the modular
-sound drivers and their configuration, along with the
-support modules sound.o and soundcore.o.
-
-Note, some of this probably should be added to the Sound-HOWTO!
-
-Note, soundlow.o was present with 2.2 kernels but is not
-required for 2.4.x kernels. References have been removed
-to this.
-
-
-Copying:
-========
-none
-
-
-History:
-========
-0.1.0 11/20/1998 First version, draft
-1.0.0 11/1998 Alan Cox changes, incorporation in 2.2.0
- as Documentation/sound/oss/Introduction
-1.1.0 6/30/1999 Second version, added notes on making the drivers,
- added info on multiple sound cards of similar types,]
- added more diagnostics info, added info about esd.
- added info on OSS and ALSA.
-1.1.1 19991031 Added notes on sound-slot- and sound-service.
- (Alan Cox)
-1.1.2 20000920 Modified for Kernel 2.4 (Christoph Hellwig)
-1.1.3 20010214 Minor notes and corrections (Wade Hampton)
- Added examples of sound-slot-0, etc.
-
-
-Modular Sound Drivers:
-======================
-
-Thanks to the GREAT work by Alan Cox (alan@lxorguk.ukuu.org.uk),
-
-[And Oleg Drokin, Thomas Sailer, Andrew Veliath and more than a few
- others - not to mention Hannu's original code being designed well
- enough to cope with that kind of chopping up](Alan)
-
-the standard Linux kernels support a modular sound driver. From
-Alan's comments in linux/drivers/sound/README.FIRST:
-
- The modular sound driver patches were funded by Red Hat Software
- (www.redhat.com). The sound driver here is thus a modified version of
- Hannu's code. Please bear that in mind when considering the appropriate
- forums for bug reporting.
-
-The modular sound drivers may be loaded via insmod or modprobe.
-To support all the various sound modules, there are two general
-support modules that must be loaded first:
-
- soundcore.o: Top level handler for the sound system, provides
- a set of functions for registration of devices
- by type.
-
- sound.o: Common sound functions required by all modules.
-
-For the specific sound modules (e.g., sb.o for the Soundblaster),
-read the documentation on that module to determine what options
-are available, for example IRQ, address, DMA.
-
-Warning, the options for different cards sometime use different names
-for the same or a similar feature (dma1= versus dma16=). As a last
-resort, inspect the code (search for module_param).
-
-Notes:
-
-1. There is a new OpenSource sound driver called ALSA which is
- currently under development: http://www.alsa-project.org/
- The ALSA drivers support some newer hardware that may not
- be supported by this sound driver and also provide some
- additional features.
-
-2. The commercial OSS driver may be obtained from the site:
- http://www.opensound.com. This may be used for cards that
- are unsupported by the kernel driver, or may be used
- by other operating systems.
-
-3. The enlightenment sound daemon may be used for playing
- multiple sounds at the same time via a single card, eliminating
- some of the requirements for multiple sound card systems. For
- more information, see: http://www.tux.org/~ricdude/EsounD.html
- The "esd" program may be used with the real-player and mpeg
- players like mpg123 and x11amp. The newer real-player
- and some games even include built-in support for ESD!
-
-
-Building the Modules:
-=====================
-
-This document does not provide full details on building the
-kernel, etc. The notes below apply only to making the kernel
-sound modules. If this conflicts with the kernel's README,
-the README takes precedence.
-
-1. To make the kernel sound modules, cd to your /usr/src/linux
- directory (typically) and type make config, make menuconfig,
- or make xconfig (to start the command line, dialog, or x-based
- configuration tool).
-
-2. Select the Sound option and a dialog will be displayed.
-
-3. Select M (module) for "Sound card support".
-
-4. Select your sound driver(s) as a module. For ProAudio, Sound
- Blaster, etc., select M (module) for OSS sound modules.
- [thanks to Marvin Stodolsky <stodolsk@erols.com>]A
-
-5. Make the kernel (e.g., make bzImage), and install the kernel.
-
-6. Make the modules and install them (make modules; make modules_install).
-
-Note, for 2.5.x kernels, make sure you have the newer module-init-tools
-installed or modules will not be loaded properly. 2.5.x requires an
-updated module-init-tools.
-
-
-Plug and Play (PnP:
-===================
-
-If the sound card is an ISA PnP card, isapnp may be used
-to configure the card. See the file isapnp.txt in the
-directory one level up (e.g., /usr/src/linux/Documentation).
-
-Also the 2.4.x kernels provide PnP capabilities, see the
-file NEWS in this directory.
-
-PCI sound cards are highly recommended, as they are far
-easier to configure and from what I have read, they use
-less resources and are more CPU efficient.
-
-
-INSMOD:
-=======
-
-If loading via insmod, the common modules must be loaded in the
-order below BEFORE loading the other sound modules. The card-specific
-modules may then be loaded (most require parameters). For example,
-I use the following via a shell script to load my SoundBlaster:
-
-SB_BASE=0x240
-SB_IRQ=9
-SB_DMA=3
-SB_DMA2=5
-SB_MPU=0x300
-#
-echo Starting sound
-/sbin/insmod soundcore
-/sbin/insmod sound
-#
-echo Starting sound blaster....
-/sbin/insmod uart401
-/sbin/insmod sb io=$SB_BASE irq=$SB_IRQ dma=$SB_DMA dma16=$SB_DMA2 mpu_io=$SB_MP
-
-When using sound as a module, I typically put these commands
-in a file such as /root/soundon.sh.
-
-
-MODPROBE:
-=========
-
-If loading via modprobe, these common files are automatically loaded when
-requested by modprobe. For example, my /etc/modprobe.d/oss.conf contains:
-
-alias sound sb
-options sb io=0x240 irq=9 dma=3 dma16=5 mpu_io=0x300
-
-All you need to do to load the module is:
-
- /sbin/modprobe sb
-
-
-Sound Status:
-=============
-
-The status of sound may be read/checked by:
- cat (anyfile).au >/dev/audio
-
-[WWH: This may not work properly for SoundBlaster PCI 128 cards
-such as the es1370/1 (see the es1370/1 files in this directory)
-as they do not automatically support uLaw on /dev/audio.]
-
-The status of the modules and which modules depend on
-which other modules may be checked by:
- /sbin/lsmod
-
-/sbin/lsmod should show something like the following:
- sb 26280 0
- uart401 5640 0 [sb]
- sound 57112 0 [sb uart401]
- soundcore 1968 8 [sb sound]
-
-
-Removing Sound:
-===============
-
-Sound may be removed by using /sbin/rmmod in the reverse order
-in which you load the modules. Note, if a program has a sound device
-open (e.g., xmixer), that module (and the modules on which it
-depends) may not be unloaded.
-
-For example, I use the following to remove my Soundblaster (rmmod
-in the reverse order in which I loaded the modules):
-
-/sbin/rmmod sb
-/sbin/rmmod uart401
-/sbin/rmmod sound
-/sbin/rmmod soundcore
-
-When using sound as a module, I typically put these commands
-in a script such as /root/soundoff.sh.
-
-
-Removing Sound for use with OSS:
-================================
-
-If you get really stuck or have a card that the kernel modules
-will not support, you can get a commercial sound driver from
-http://www.opensound.com. Before loading the commercial sound
-driver, you should do the following:
-
-1. remove sound modules (detailed above)
-2. remove the sound modules from /etc/modprobe.d/*.conf
-3. move the sound modules from /lib/modules/<kernel>/misc
- (for example, I make a /lib/modules/<kernel>/misc/tmp
- directory and copy the sound module files to that
- directory).
-
-
-Multiple Sound Cards:
-=====================
-
-The sound drivers will support multiple sound cards and there
-are some great applications like multitrack that support them.
-Typically, you need two sound cards of different types. Note, this
-uses more precious interrupts and DMA channels and sometimes
-can be a configuration nightmare. I have heard reports of 3-4
-sound cards (typically I only use 2). You can sometimes use
-multiple PCI sound cards of the same type.
-
-On my machine I have two sound cards (cs4232 and Soundblaster Vibra
-16). By loading sound as modules, I can control which is the first
-sound device (/dev/dsp, /dev/audio, /dev/mixer) and which is
-the second. Normally, the cs4232 (Dell sound on the motherboard)
-would be the first sound device, but I prefer the Soundblaster.
-All you have to do is to load the one you want as /dev/dsp
-first (in my case "sb") and then load the other one
-(in my case "cs4232").
-
-If you have two cards of the same type that are jumpered
-cards or different PnP revisions, you may load the same
-module twice. For example, I have a SoundBlaster vibra 16
-and an older SoundBlaster 16 (jumpers). To load the module
-twice, you need to do the following:
-
-1. Copy the sound modules to a new name. For example
- sb.o could be copied (or symlinked) to sb1.o for the
- second SoundBlaster.
-
-2. Make a second entry in /etc/modprobe.d/*conf, for example,
- sound1 or sb1. This second entry should refer to the
- new module names for example sb1, and should include
- the I/O, etc. for the second sound card.
-
-3. Update your soundon.sh script, etc.
-
-Warning: I have never been able to get two PnP sound cards of the
-same type to load at the same time. I have tried this several times
-with the Soundblaster Vibra 16 cards. OSS has indicated that this
-is a PnP problem.... If anyone has any luck doing this, please
-send me an E-MAIL. PCI sound cards should not have this problem.a
-Since this was originally release, I have received a couple of
-mails from people who have accomplished this!
-
-NOTE: In Linux 2.4 the Sound Blaster driver (and only this one yet)
-supports multiple cards with one module by default.
-Read the file 'Soundblaster' in this directory for details.
-
-
-Sound Problems:
-===============
-
-First RTFM (including the troubleshooting section
-in the Sound-HOWTO).
-
-1) If you are having problems loading the modules (for
- example, if you get device conflict errors) try the
- following:
-
- A) If you have Win95 or NT on the same computer,
- write down what addresses, IRQ, and DMA channels
- those were using for the same hardware. You probably
- can use these addresses, IRQs, and DMA channels.
- You should really do this BEFORE attempting to get
- sound working!
-
- B) Check (cat) /proc/interrupts, /proc/ioports,
- and /proc/dma. Are you trying to use an address,
- IRQ or DMA port that another device is using?
-
- C) Check (cat) /proc/isapnp
-
- D) Inspect your /var/log/messages file. Often that will
- indicate what IRQ or IO port could not be obtained.
-
- E) Try another port or IRQ. Note this may involve
- using the PnP tools to move the sound card to
- another location. Sometimes this is the only way
- and it is more or less trial and error.
-
-2) If you get motor-boating (the same sound or part of a
- sound clip repeated), you probably have either an IRQ
- or DMA conflict. Move the card to another IRQ or DMA
- port. This has happened to me when playing long files
- when I had an IRQ conflict.
-
-3. If you get dropouts or pauses when playing high sample
- rate files such as using mpg123 or x11amp/xmms, you may
- have too slow of a CPU and may have to use the options to
- play the files at 1/2 speed. For example, you may use
- the -2 or -4 option on mpg123. You may also get this
- when trying to play mpeg files stored on a CD-ROM
- (my Toshiba T8000 PII/366 sometimes has this problem).
-
-4. If you get "cannot access device" errors, your /dev/dsp
- files, etc. may be set to owner root, mode 600. You
- may have to use the command:
- chmod 666 /dev/dsp /dev/mixer /dev/audio
-
-5. If you get "device busy" errors, another program has the
- sound device open. For example, if using the Enlightenment
- sound daemon "esd", the "esd" program has the sound device.
- If using "esd", please RTFM the docs on ESD. For example,
- esddsp <program> may be used to play files via a non-esd
- aware program.
-
-6) Ask for help on the sound list or send E-MAIL to the
- sound driver author/maintainer.
-
-7) Turn on debug in drivers/sound/sound_config.h (DEB, DDB, MDB).
-
-8) If the system reports insufficient DMA memory then you may want to
- load sound with the "dmabufs=1" option. Or in /etc/conf.modules add
-
- preinstall sound dmabufs=1
-
- This makes the sound system allocate its buffers and hang onto them.
-
- You may also set persistent DMA when building a 2.4.x kernel.
-
-
-Configuring Sound:
-==================
-
-There are several ways of configuring your sound:
-
-1) On the kernel command line (when using the sound driver(s)
- compiled in the kernel). Check the driver source and
- documentation for details.
-
-2) On the command line when using insmod or in a bash script
- using command line calls to load sound.
-
-3) In /etc/modprobe.d/*conf when using modprobe.
-
-4) Via Red Hat's GPL'd /usr/sbin/sndconfig program (text based).
-
-5) Via the OSS soundconf program (with the commercial version
- of the OSS driver.
-
-6) By just loading the module and let isapnp do everything relevant
- for you. This works only with a few drivers yet and - of course -
- only with isapnp hardware.
-
-And I am sure, several other ways.
-
-Anyone want to write a linuxconf module for configuring sound?
-
-
-Module Loading:
-===============
-
-When a sound card is first referenced and sound is modular, the sound system
-will ask for the sound devices to be loaded. Initially it requests that
-the driver for the sound system is loaded. It then will ask for
-sound-slot-0, where 0 is the first sound card. (sound-slot-1 the second and
-so on). Thus you can do
-
-alias sound-slot-0 sb
-
-To load a soundblaster at this point. If the slot loading does not provide
-the desired device - for example a soundblaster does not directly provide
-a midi synth in all cases then it will request "sound-service-0-n" where n
-is
-
- 0 Mixer
-
- 2 MIDI
-
- 3, 4 DSP audio
-
-
-For example, I use the following to load my Soundblaster PCI 128
-(ES 1371) card first, followed by my SoundBlaster Vibra 16 card,
-then by my TV card:
-
-# Load the Soundblaster PCI 128 as /dev/dsp, /dev/dsp1, /dev/mixer
-alias sound-slot-0 es1371
-
-# Load the Soundblaster Vibra 16 as /dev/dsp2, /dev/mixer1
-alias sound-slot-1 sb
-options sb io=0x240 irq=5 dma=1 dma16=5 mpu_io=0x330
-
-# Load the BTTV (TV card) as /dev/mixer2
-alias sound-slot-2 bttv
-alias sound-service-2-0 tvmixer
-
-pre-install bttv modprobe tuner ; modprobe tvmixer
-pre-install tvmixer modprobe msp3400; modprobe tvaudio
-options tuner debug=0 type=8
-options bttv card=0 radio=0 pll=0
-
-
-For More Information (RTFM):
-============================
-1) Information on kernel modules: manual pages for insmod and modprobe.
-
-2) Information on PnP, RTFM manual pages for isapnp.
-
-3) Sound-HOWTO and Sound-Playing-HOWTO.
-
-4) OSS's WWW site at http://www.opensound.com.
-
-5) All the files in Documentation/sound.
-
-6) The comments and code in linux/drivers/sound.
-
-7) The sndconfig and rhsound documentation from Red Hat.
-
-8) The Linux-sound mailing list: sound-list@redhat.com.
-
-9) Enlightenment documentation (for info on esd)
- http://www.tux.org/~ricdude/EsounD.html.
-
-10) ALSA home page: http://www.alsa-project.org/
-
-
-Contact Information:
-====================
-Wade Hampton: (whampton@staffnet.com)
-