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- Linux DECnet Networking Layer Information
- ===========================================
-
-1) Other documentation....
-
- o Project Home Pages
- http://www.chygwyn.com/ - Kernel info
- http://linux-decnet.sourceforge.net/ - Userland tools
- http://www.sourceforge.net/projects/linux-decnet/ - Status page
-
-2) Configuring the kernel
-
-Be sure to turn on the following options:
-
- CONFIG_DECNET (obviously)
- CONFIG_PROC_FS (to see what's going on)
- CONFIG_SYSCTL (for easy configuration)
-
-if you want to try out router support (not properly debugged yet)
-you'll need the following options as well...
-
- CONFIG_DECNET_ROUTER (to be able to add/delete routes)
- CONFIG_NETFILTER (will be required for the DECnet routing daemon)
-
- CONFIG_DECNET_ROUTE_FWMARK is optional
-
-Don't turn on SIOCGIFCONF support for DECnet unless you are really sure
-that you need it, in general you won't and it can cause ifconfig to
-malfunction.
-
-Run time configuration has changed slightly from the 2.4 system. If you
-want to configure an endnode, then the simplified procedure is as follows:
-
- o Set the MAC address on your ethernet card before starting _any_ other
- network protocols.
-
-As soon as your network card is brought into the UP state, DECnet should
-start working. If you need something more complicated or are unsure how
-to set the MAC address, see the next section. Also all configurations which
-worked with 2.4 will work under 2.5 with no change.
-
-3) Command line options
-
-You can set a DECnet address on the kernel command line for compatibility
-with the 2.4 configuration procedure, but in general it's not needed any more.
-If you do st a DECnet address on the command line, it has only one purpose
-which is that its added to the addresses on the loopback device.
-
-With 2.4 kernels, DECnet would only recognise addresses as local if they
-were added to the loopback device. In 2.5, any local interface address
-can be used to loop back to the local machine. Of course this does not
-prevent you adding further addresses to the loopback device if you
-want to.
-
-N.B. Since the address list of an interface determines the addresses for
-which "hello" messages are sent, if you don't set an address on the loopback
-interface then you won't see any entries in /proc/net/neigh for the local
-host until such time as you start a connection. This doesn't affect the
-operation of the local communications in any other way though.
-
-The kernel command line takes options looking like the following:
-
- decnet.addr=1,2
-
-the two numbers are the node address 1,2 = 1.2 For 2.2.xx kernels
-and early 2.3.xx kernels, you must use a comma when specifying the
-DECnet address like this. For more recent 2.3.xx kernels, you may
-use almost any character except space, although a `.` would be the most
-obvious choice :-)
-
-There used to be a third number specifying the node type. This option
-has gone away in favour of a per interface node type. This is now set
-using /proc/sys/net/decnet/conf/<dev>/forwarding. This file can be
-set with a single digit, 0=EndNode, 1=L1 Router and 2=L2 Router.
-
-There are also equivalent options for modules. The node address can
-also be set through the /proc/sys/net/decnet/ files, as can other system
-parameters.
-
-Currently the only supported devices are ethernet and ip_gre. The
-ethernet address of your ethernet card has to be set according to the DECnet
-address of the node in order for it to be autoconfigured (and then appear in
-/proc/net/decnet_dev). There is a utility available at the above
-FTP sites called dn2ethaddr which can compute the correct ethernet
-address to use. The address can be set by ifconfig either before or
-at the time the device is brought up. If you are using RedHat you can
-add the line:
-
- MACADDR=AA:00:04:00:03:04
-
-or something similar, to /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 or
-wherever your network card's configuration lives. Setting the MAC address
-of your ethernet card to an address starting with "hi-ord" will cause a
-DECnet address which matches to be added to the interface (which you can
-verify with iproute2).
-
-The default device for routing can be set through the /proc filesystem
-by setting /proc/sys/net/decnet/default_device to the
-device you want DECnet to route packets out of when no specific route
-is available. Usually this will be eth0, for example:
-
- echo -n "eth0" >/proc/sys/net/decnet/default_device
-
-If you don't set the default device, then it will default to the first
-ethernet card which has been autoconfigured as described above. You can
-confirm that by looking in the default_device file of course.
-
-There is a list of what the other files under /proc/sys/net/decnet/ do
-on the kernel patch web site (shown above).
-
-4) Run time kernel configuration
-
-This is either done through the sysctl/proc interface (see the kernel web
-pages for details on what the various options do) or through the iproute2
-package in the same way as IPv4/6 configuration is performed.
-
-Documentation for iproute2 is included with the package, although there is
-as yet no specific section on DECnet, most of the features apply to both
-IP and DECnet, albeit with DECnet addresses instead of IP addresses and
-a reduced functionality.
-
-If you want to configure a DECnet router you'll need the iproute2 package
-since its the _only_ way to add and delete routes currently. Eventually
-there will be a routing daemon to send and receive routing messages for
-each interface and update the kernel routing tables accordingly. The
-routing daemon will use netfilter to listen to routing packets, and
-rtnetlink to update the kernels routing tables.
-
-The DECnet raw socket layer has been removed since it was there purely
-for use by the routing daemon which will now use netfilter (a much cleaner
-and more generic solution) instead.
-
-5) How can I tell if its working ?
-
-Here is a quick guide of what to look for in order to know if your DECnet
-kernel subsystem is working.
-
- - Is the node address set (see /proc/sys/net/decnet/node_address)
- - Is the node of the correct type
- (see /proc/sys/net/decnet/conf/<dev>/forwarding)
- - Is the Ethernet MAC address of each Ethernet card set to match
- the DECnet address. If in doubt use the dn2ethaddr utility available
- at the ftp archive.
- - If the previous two steps are satisfied, and the Ethernet card is up,
- you should find that it is listed in /proc/net/decnet_dev and also
- that it appears as a directory in /proc/sys/net/decnet/conf/. The
- loopback device (lo) should also appear and is required to communicate
- within a node.
- - If you have any DECnet routers on your network, they should appear
- in /proc/net/decnet_neigh, otherwise this file will only contain the
- entry for the node itself (if it doesn't check to see if lo is up).
- - If you want to send to any node which is not listed in the
- /proc/net/decnet_neigh file, you'll need to set the default device
- to point to an Ethernet card with connection to a router. This is
- again done with the /proc/sys/net/decnet/default_device file.
- - Try starting a simple server and client, like the dnping/dnmirror
- over the loopback interface. With luck they should communicate.
- For this step and those after, you'll need the DECnet library
- which can be obtained from the above ftp sites as well as the
- actual utilities themselves.
- - If this seems to work, then try talking to a node on your local
- network, and see if you can obtain the same results.
- - At this point you are on your own... :-)
-
-6) How to send a bug report
-
-If you've found a bug and want to report it, then there are several things
-you can do to help me work out exactly what it is that is wrong. Useful
-information (_most_ of which _is_ _essential_) includes:
-
- - What kernel version are you running ?
- - What version of the patch are you running ?
- - How far though the above set of tests can you get ?
- - What is in the /proc/decnet* files and /proc/sys/net/decnet/* files ?
- - Which services are you running ?
- - Which client caused the problem ?
- - How much data was being transferred ?
- - Was the network congested ?
- - How can the problem be reproduced ?
- - Can you use tcpdump to get a trace ? (N.B. Most (all?) versions of
- tcpdump don't understand how to dump DECnet properly, so including
- the hex listing of the packet contents is _essential_, usually the -x flag.
- You may also need to increase the length grabbed with the -s flag. The
- -e flag also provides very useful information (ethernet MAC addresses))
-
-7) MAC FAQ
-
-A quick FAQ on ethernet MAC addresses to explain how Linux and DECnet
-interact and how to get the best performance from your hardware.
-
-Ethernet cards are designed to normally only pass received network frames
-to a host computer when they are addressed to it, or to the broadcast address.
-
-Linux has an interface which allows the setting of extra addresses for
-an ethernet card to listen to. If the ethernet card supports it, the
-filtering operation will be done in hardware, if not the extra unwanted packets
-received will be discarded by the host computer. In the latter case,
-significant processor time and bus bandwidth can be used up on a busy
-network (see the NAPI documentation for a longer explanation of these
-effects).
-
-DECnet makes use of this interface to allow running DECnet on an ethernet
-card which has already been configured using TCP/IP (presumably using the
-built in MAC address of the card, as usual) and/or to allow multiple DECnet
-addresses on each physical interface. If you do this, be aware that if your
-ethernet card doesn't support perfect hashing in its MAC address filter
-then your computer will be doing more work than required. Some cards
-will simply set themselves into promiscuous mode in order to receive
-packets from the DECnet specified addresses. So if you have one of these
-cards its better to set the MAC address of the card as described above
-to gain the best efficiency. Better still is to use a card which supports
-NAPI as well.
-
-
-8) Mailing list
-
-If you are keen to get involved in development, or want to ask questions
-about configuration, or even just report bugs, then there is a mailing
-list that you can join, details are at:
-
-http://sourceforge.net/mail/?group_id=4993
-
-9) Legal Info
-
-The Linux DECnet project team have placed their code under the GPL. The
-software is provided "as is" and without warranty express or implied.
-DECnet is a trademark of Compaq. This software is not a product of
-Compaq. We acknowledge the help of people at Compaq in providing extra
-documentation above and beyond what was previously publicly available.
-
-Steve Whitehouse <SteveW@ACM.org>
-