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- Linux Joystick parport drivers v2.0
- (c) 1998-2000 Vojtech Pavlik <vojtech@ucw.cz>
- (c) 1998 Andree Borrmann <a.borrmann@tu-bs.de>
- Sponsored by SuSE
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-
-0. Disclaimer
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~
- Any information in this file is provided as-is, without any guarantee that
-it will be true. So, use it at your own risk. The possible damages that can
-happen include burning your parallel port, and/or the sticks and joystick
-and maybe even more. Like when a lightning kills you it is not our problem.
-
-1. Intro
-~~~~~~~~
- The joystick parport drivers are used for joysticks and gamepads not
-originally designed for PCs and other computers Linux runs on. Because of
-that, PCs usually lack the right ports to connect these devices to. Parallel
-port, because of its ability to change single bits at will, and providing
-both output and input bits is the most suitable port on the PC for
-connecting such devices.
-
-2. Devices supported
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
- Many console and 8-bit computer gamepads and joysticks are supported. The
-following subsections discuss usage of each.
-
-2.1 NES and SNES
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
- The Nintendo Entertainment System and Super Nintendo Entertainment System
-gamepads are widely available, and easy to get. Also, they are quite easy to
-connect to a PC, and don't need much processing speed (108 us for NES and
-165 us for SNES, compared to about 1000 us for PC gamepads) to communicate
-with them.
-
- All NES and SNES use the same synchronous serial protocol, clocked from
-the computer's side (and thus timing insensitive). To allow up to 5 NES
-and/or SNES gamepads and/or SNES mice connected to the parallel port at once,
-the output lines of the parallel port are shared, while one of 5 available
-input lines is assigned to each gamepad.
-
- This protocol is handled by the gamecon.c driver, so that's the one
-you'll use for NES, SNES gamepads and SNES mice.
-
- The main problem with PC parallel ports is that they don't have +5V power
-source on any of their pins. So, if you want a reliable source of power
-for your pads, use either keyboard or joystick port, and make a pass-through
-cable. You can also pull the power directly from the power supply (the red
-wire is +5V).
-
- If you want to use the parallel port only, you can take the power is from
-some data pin. For most gamepad and parport implementations only one pin is
-needed, and I'd recommend pin 9 for that, the highest data bit. On the other
-hand, if you are not planning to use anything else than NES / SNES on the
-port, anything between and including pin 4 and pin 9 will work.
-
-(pin 9) -----> Power
-
- Unfortunately, there are pads that need a lot more of power, and parallel
-ports that can't give much current through the data pins. If this is your
-case, you'll need to use diodes (as a prevention of destroying your parallel
-port), and combine the currents of two or more data bits together.
-
- Diodes
-(pin 9) ----|>|-------+------> Power
- |
-(pin 8) ----|>|-------+
- |
-(pin 7) ----|>|-------+
- |
- <and so on> :
- |
-(pin 4) ----|>|-------+
-
- Ground is quite easy. On PC's parallel port the ground is on any of the
-pins from pin 18 to pin 25. So use any pin of these you like for the ground.
-
-(pin 18) -----> Ground
-
- NES and SNES pads have two input bits, Clock and Latch, which drive the
-serial transfer. These are connected to pins 2 and 3 of the parallel port,
-respectively.
-
-(pin 2) -----> Clock
-(pin 3) -----> Latch
-
- And the last thing is the NES / SNES data wire. Only that isn't shared and
-each pad needs its own data pin. The parallel port pins are:
-
-(pin 10) -----> Pad 1 data
-(pin 11) -----> Pad 2 data
-(pin 12) -----> Pad 3 data
-(pin 13) -----> Pad 4 data
-(pin 15) -----> Pad 5 data
-
- Note that pin 14 is not used, since it is not an input pin on the parallel
-port.
-
- This is everything you need on the PC's side of the connection, now on to
-the gamepads side. The NES and SNES have different connectors. Also, there
-are quite a lot of NES clones, and because Nintendo used proprietary
-connectors for their machines, the cloners couldn't and used standard D-Cannon
-connectors. Anyway, if you've got a gamepad, and it has buttons A, B, Turbo
-A, Turbo B, Select and Start, and is connected through 5 wires, then it is
-either a NES or NES clone and will work with this connection. SNES gamepads
-also use 5 wires, but have more buttons. They will work as well, of course.
-
-Pinout for NES gamepads Pinout for SNES gamepads and mice
-
- +----> Power +-----------------------\
- | 7 | o o o o | x x o | 1
- 5 +---------+ 7 +-----------------------/
- | x x o \ | | | | |
- | o o o o | | | | | +-> Ground
- 4 +------------+ 1 | | | +------------> Data
- | | | | | | +---------------> Latch
- | | | +-> Ground | +------------------> Clock
- | | +----> Clock +---------------------> Power
- | +-------> Latch
- +----------> Data
-
-Pinout for NES clone (db9) gamepads Pinout for NES clone (db15) gamepads
-
- +---------> Clock +-----------------> Data
- | +-------> Latch | +---> Ground
- | | +-----> Data | |
- | | | ___________________
- _____________ 8 \ o x x x x x x o / 1
- 5 \ x o o o x / 1 \ o x x o x x o /
- \ x o x o / 15 `~~~~~~~~~~~~~' 9
- 9 `~~~~~~~' 6 | | |
- | | | | +----> Clock
- | +----> Power | +----------> Latch
- +--------> Ground +----------------> Power
-
-2.2 Multisystem joysticks
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
- In the era of 8-bit machines, there was something like de-facto standard
-for joystick ports. They were all digital, and all used D-Cannon 9 pin
-connectors (db9). Because of that, a single joystick could be used without
-hassle on Atari (130, 800XE, 800XL, 2600, 7200), Amiga, Commodore C64,
-Amstrad CPC, Sinclair ZX Spectrum and many other machines. That's why these
-joysticks are called "Multisystem".
-
- Now their pinout:
-
- +---------> Right
- | +-------> Left
- | | +-----> Down
- | | | +---> Up
- | | | |
- _____________
-5 \ x o o o o / 1
- \ x o x o /
- 9 `~~~~~~~' 6
- | |
- | +----> Button
- +--------> Ground
-
- However, as time passed, extensions to this standard developed, and these
-were not compatible with each other:
-
-
- Atari 130, 800/XL/XE MSX
-
- +-----------> Power
- +---------> Right | +---------> Right
- | +-------> Left | | +-------> Left
- | | +-----> Down | | | +-----> Down
- | | | +---> Up | | | | +---> Up
- | | | | | | | | |
- _____________ _____________
-5 \ x o o o o / 1 5 \ o o o o o / 1
- \ x o o o / \ o o o o /
- 9 `~~~~~~~' 6 9 `~~~~~~~' 6
- | | | | | | |
- | | +----> Button | | | +----> Button 1
- | +------> Power | | +------> Button 2
- +--------> Ground | +--------> Output 3
- +----------> Ground
-
- Amstrad CPC Commodore C64
-
- +-----------> Analog Y
- +---------> Right | +---------> Right
- | +-------> Left | | +-------> Left
- | | +-----> Down | | | +-----> Down
- | | | +---> Up | | | | +---> Up
- | | | | | | | | |
- _____________ _____________
-5 \ x o o o o / 1 5 \ o o o o o / 1
- \ x o o o / \ o o o o /
- 9 `~~~~~~~' 6 9 `~~~~~~~' 6
- | | | | | | |
- | | +----> Button 1 | | | +----> Button
- | +------> Button 2 | | +------> Power
- +--------> Ground | +--------> Ground
- +----------> Analog X
-
- Sinclair Spectrum +2A/+3 Amiga 1200
-
- +-----------> Up +-----------> Button 3
- | +---------> Fire | +---------> Right
- | | | | +-------> Left
- | | +-----> Ground | | | +-----> Down
- | | | | | | | +---> Up
- | | | | | | | |
- _____________ _____________
-5 \ o o x o x / 1 5 \ o o o o o / 1
- \ o o o o / \ o o o o /
- 9 `~~~~~~~' 6 9 `~~~~~~~' 6
- | | | | | | | |
- | | | +----> Right | | | +----> Button 1
- | | +------> Left | | +------> Power
- | +--------> Ground | +--------> Ground
- +----------> Down +----------> Button 2
-
- And there were many others.
-
-2.2.1 Multisystem joysticks using db9.c
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
- For the Multisystem joysticks, and their derivatives, the db9.c driver
-was written. It allows only one joystick / gamepad per parallel port, but
-the interface is easy to build and works with almost anything.
-
- For the basic 1-button Multisystem joystick you connect its wires to the
-parallel port like this:
-
-(pin 1) -----> Power
-(pin 18) -----> Ground
-
-(pin 2) -----> Up
-(pin 3) -----> Down
-(pin 4) -----> Left
-(pin 5) -----> Right
-(pin 6) -----> Button 1
-
- However, if the joystick is switch based (eg. clicks when you move it),
-you might or might not, depending on your parallel port, need 10 kOhm pullup
-resistors on each of the direction and button signals, like this:
-
-(pin 2) ------------+------> Up
- Resistor |
-(pin 1) --[10kOhm]--+
-
- Try without, and if it doesn't work, add them. For TTL based joysticks /
-gamepads the pullups are not needed.
-
- For joysticks with two buttons you connect the second button to pin 7 on
-the parallel port.
-
-(pin 7) -----> Button 2
-
- And that's it.
-
- On a side note, if you have already built a different adapter for use with
-the digital joystick driver 0.8.0.2, this is also supported by the db9.c
-driver, as device type 8. (See section 3.2)
-
-2.2.2 Multisystem joysticks using gamecon.c
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
- For some people just one joystick per parallel port is not enough, and/or
-want to use them on one parallel port together with NES/SNES/PSX pads. This is
-possible using the gamecon.c. It supports up to 5 devices of the above types,
-including 1 and 2 buttons Multisystem joysticks.
-
- However, there is nothing for free. To allow more sticks to be used at
-once, you need the sticks to be purely switch based (that is non-TTL), and
-not to need power. Just a plain simple six switches inside. If your
-joystick can do more (eg. turbofire) you'll need to disable it totally first
-if you want to use gamecon.c.
-
- Also, the connection is a bit more complex. You'll need a bunch of diodes,
-and one pullup resistor. First, you connect the Directions and the button
-the same as for db9, however with the diodes between.
-
- Diodes
-(pin 2) -----|<|----> Up
-(pin 3) -----|<|----> Down
-(pin 4) -----|<|----> Left
-(pin 5) -----|<|----> Right
-(pin 6) -----|<|----> Button 1
-
- For two button sticks you also connect the other button.
-
-(pin 7) -----|<|----> Button 2
-
- And finally, you connect the Ground wire of the joystick, like done in
-this little schematic to Power and Data on the parallel port, as described
-for the NES / SNES pads in section 2.1 of this file - that is, one data pin
-for each joystick. The power source is shared.
-
-Data ------------+-----> Ground
- Resistor |
-Power --[10kOhm]--+
-
- And that's all, here we go!
-
-2.2.3 Multisystem joysticks using turbografx.c
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
- The TurboGraFX interface, designed by
-
- Steffen Schwenke <schwenke@burg-halle.de>
-
- allows up to 7 Multisystem joysticks connected to the parallel port. In
-Steffen's version, there is support for up to 5 buttons per joystick. However,
-since this doesn't work reliably on all parallel ports, the turbografx.c driver
-supports only one button per joystick. For more information on how to build the
-interface, see
-
- http://www2.burg-halle.de/~schwenke/parport.html
-
-2.3 Sony Playstation
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-
- The PSX controller is supported by the gamecon.c. Pinout of the PSX
-controller (compatible with DirectPadPro):
-
- +---------+---------+---------+
-9 | o o o | o o o | o o o | 1 parallel
- \________|_________|________/ port pins
- | | | | | |
- | | | | | +--------> Clock --- (4)
- | | | | +------------> Select --- (3)
- | | | +---------------> Power --- (5-9)
- | | +------------------> Ground --- (18-25)
- | +-------------------------> Command --- (2)
- +----------------------------> Data --- (one of 10,11,12,13,15)
-
- The driver supports these controllers:
-
- * Standard PSX Pad
- * NegCon PSX Pad
- * Analog PSX Pad (red mode)
- * Analog PSX Pad (green mode)
- * PSX Rumble Pad
- * PSX DDR Pad
-
-2.4 Sega
-~~~~~~~~
- All the Sega controllers are more or less based on the standard 2-button
-Multisystem joystick. However, since they don't use switches and use TTL
-logic, the only driver usable with them is the db9.c driver.
-
-2.4.1 Sega Master System
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
- The SMS gamepads are almost exactly the same as normal 2-button
-Multisystem joysticks. Set the driver to Multi2 mode, use the corresponding
-parallel port pins, and the following schematic:
-
- +-----------> Power
- | +---------> Right
- | | +-------> Left
- | | | +-----> Down
- | | | | +---> Up
- | | | | |
- _____________
-5 \ o o o o o / 1
- \ o o x o /
- 9 `~~~~~~~' 6
- | | |
- | | +----> Button 1
- | +--------> Ground
- +----------> Button 2
-
-2.4.2 Sega Genesis aka MegaDrive
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
- The Sega Genesis (in Europe sold as Sega MegaDrive) pads are an extension
-to the Sega Master System pads. They use more buttons (3+1, 5+1, 6+1). Use
-the following schematic:
-
- +-----------> Power
- | +---------> Right
- | | +-------> Left
- | | | +-----> Down
- | | | | +---> Up
- | | | | |
- _____________
-5 \ o o o o o / 1
- \ o o o o /
- 9 `~~~~~~~' 6
- | | | |
- | | | +----> Button 1
- | | +------> Select
- | +--------> Ground
- +----------> Button 2
-
- The Select pin goes to pin 14 on the parallel port.
-
-(pin 14) -----> Select
-
- The rest is the same as for Multi2 joysticks using db9.c
-
-2.4.3 Sega Saturn
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
- Sega Saturn has eight buttons, and to transfer that, without hacks like
-Genesis 6 pads use, it needs one more select pin. Anyway, it is still
-handled by the db9.c driver. Its pinout is very different from anything
-else. Use this schematic:
-
- +-----------> Select 1
- | +---------> Power
- | | +-------> Up
- | | | +-----> Down
- | | | | +---> Ground
- | | | | |
- _____________
-5 \ o o o o o / 1
- \ o o o o /
- 9 `~~~~~~~' 6
- | | | |
- | | | +----> Select 2
- | | +------> Right
- | +--------> Left
- +----------> Power
-
- Select 1 is pin 14 on the parallel port, Select 2 is pin 16 on the
-parallel port.
-
-(pin 14) -----> Select 1
-(pin 16) -----> Select 2
-
- The other pins (Up, Down, Right, Left, Power, Ground) are the same as for
-Multi joysticks using db9.c
-
-3. The drivers
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
- There are three drivers for the parallel port interfaces. Each, as
-described above, allows to connect a different group of joysticks and pads.
-Here are described their command lines:
-
-3.1 gamecon.c
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~
- Using gamecon.c you can connect up to five devices to one parallel port. It
-uses the following kernel/module command line:
-
- gamecon.map=port,pad1,pad2,pad3,pad4,pad5
-
- Where 'port' the number of the parport interface (eg. 0 for parport0).
-
- And 'pad1' to 'pad5' are pad types connected to different data input pins
-(10,11,12,13,15), as described in section 2.1 of this file.
-
- The types are:
-
- Type | Joystick/Pad
- --------------------
- 0 | None
- 1 | SNES pad
- 2 | NES pad
- 4 | Multisystem 1-button joystick
- 5 | Multisystem 2-button joystick
- 6 | N64 pad
- 7 | Sony PSX controller
- 8 | Sony PSX DDR controller
- 9 | SNES mouse
-
- The exact type of the PSX controller type is autoprobed when used, so
-hot swapping should work (but is not recommended).
-
- Should you want to use more than one of parallel ports at once, you can use
-gamecon.map2 and gamecon.map3 as additional command line parameters for two
-more parallel ports.
-
- There are two options specific to PSX driver portion. gamecon.psx_delay sets
-the command delay when talking to the controllers. The default of 25 should
-work but you can try lowering it for better performance. If your pads don't
-respond try raising it until they work. Setting the type to 8 allows the
-driver to be used with Dance Dance Revolution or similar games. Arrow keys are
-registered as key presses instead of X and Y axes.
-
-3.2 db9.c
-~~~~~~~~~
- Apart from making an interface, there is nothing difficult on using the
-db9.c driver. It uses the following kernel/module command line:
-
- db9.dev=port,type
-
- Where 'port' is the number of the parport interface (eg. 0 for parport0).
-
- Caveat here: This driver only works on bidirectional parallel ports. If
-your parallel port is recent enough, you should have no trouble with this.
-Old parallel ports may not have this feature.
-
- 'Type' is the type of joystick or pad attached:
-
- Type | Joystick/Pad
- --------------------
- 0 | None
- 1 | Multisystem 1-button joystick
- 2 | Multisystem 2-button joystick
- 3 | Genesis pad (3+1 buttons)
- 5 | Genesis pad (5+1 buttons)
- 6 | Genesis pad (6+2 buttons)
- 7 | Saturn pad (8 buttons)
- 8 | Multisystem 1-button joystick (v0.8.0.2 pin-out)
- 9 | Two Multisystem 1-button joysticks (v0.8.0.2 pin-out)
- 10 | Amiga CD32 pad
-
- Should you want to use more than one of these joysticks/pads at once, you
-can use db9.dev2 and db9.dev3 as additional command line parameters for two
-more joysticks/pads.
-
-3.3 turbografx.c
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
- The turbografx.c driver uses a very simple kernel/module command line:
-
- turbografx.map=port,js1,js2,js3,js4,js5,js6,js7
-
- Where 'port' is the number of the parport interface (eg. 0 for parport0).
-
- 'jsX' is the number of buttons the Multisystem joysticks connected to the
-interface ports 1-7 have. For a standard multisystem joystick, this is 1.
-
- Should you want to use more than one of these interfaces at once, you can
-use turbografx.map2 and turbografx.map3 as additional command line parameters
-for two more interfaces.
-
-3.4 PC parallel port pinout
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
- .----------------------------------------.
- At the PC: \ 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 /
- \ 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 /
- ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-
- Pin | Name | Description
- ~~~~~~|~~~~~~~~~|~~~~~~~~~~
- 1 | /STROBE | Strobe
- 2-9 | D0-D7 | Data Bit 0-7
- 10 | /ACK | Acknowledge
- 11 | BUSY | Busy
- 12 | PE | Paper End
- 13 | SELIN | Select In
- 14 | /AUTOFD | Autofeed
- 15 | /ERROR | Error
- 16 | /INIT | Initialize
- 17 | /SEL | Select
- 18-25 | GND | Signal Ground
-
-3.5 End
-~~~~~~~
- That's all, folks! Have fun!