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-** Introduction
-This document describes what I managed to discover about the protocol used to
-specify force effects to I-Force 2.0 devices. None of this information comes
-from Immerse. That's why you should not trust what is written in this
-document. This document is intended to help understanding the protocol.
-This is not a reference. Comments and corrections are welcome. To contact me,
-send an email to: johann.deneux@gmail.com
-
-** WARNING **
-I shall not be held responsible for any damage or harm caused if you try to
-send data to your I-Force device based on what you read in this document.
-
-** Preliminary Notes:
-All values are hexadecimal with big-endian encoding (msb on the left). Beware,
-values inside packets are encoded using little-endian. Bytes whose roles are
-unknown are marked ??? Information that needs deeper inspection is marked (?)
-
-** General form of a packet **
-This is how packets look when the device uses the rs232 to communicate.
-2B OP LEN DATA CS
-CS is the checksum. It is equal to the exclusive or of all bytes.
-
-When using USB:
-OP DATA
-The 2B, LEN and CS fields have disappeared, probably because USB handles frames and
-data corruption is handled or unsignificant.
-
-First, I describe effects that are sent by the device to the computer
-
-** Device input state
-This packet is used to indicate the state of each button and the value of each
-axis
-OP= 01 for a joystick, 03 for a wheel
-LEN= Varies from device to device
-00 X-Axis lsb
-01 X-Axis msb
-02 Y-Axis lsb, or gas pedal for a wheel
-03 Y-Axis msb, or brake pedal for a wheel
-04 Throttle
-05 Buttons
-06 Lower 4 bits: Buttons
- Upper 4 bits: Hat
-07 Rudder
-
-** Device effects states
-OP= 02
-LEN= Varies
-00 ? Bit 1 (Value 2) is the value of the deadman switch
-01 Bit 8 is set if the effect is playing. Bits 0 to 7 are the effect id.
-02 ??
-03 Address of parameter block changed (lsb)
-04 Address of parameter block changed (msb)
-05 Address of second parameter block changed (lsb)
-... depending on the number of parameter blocks updated
-
-** Force effect **
-OP= 01
-LEN= 0e
-00 Channel (when playing several effects at the same time, each must be assigned a channel)
-01 Wave form
- Val 00 Constant
- Val 20 Square
- Val 21 Triangle
- Val 22 Sine
- Val 23 Sawtooth up
- Val 24 Sawtooth down
- Val 40 Spring (Force = f(pos))
- Val 41 Friction (Force = f(velocity)) and Inertia (Force = f(acceleration))
-
-
-02 Axes affected and trigger
- Bits 4-7: Val 2 = effect along one axis. Byte 05 indicates direction
- Val 4 = X axis only. Byte 05 must contain 5a
- Val 8 = Y axis only. Byte 05 must contain b4
- Val c = X and Y axes. Bytes 05 must contain 60
- Bits 0-3: Val 0 = No trigger
- Val x+1 = Button x triggers the effect
- When the whole byte is 0, cancel the previously set trigger
-
-03-04 Duration of effect (little endian encoding, in ms)
-
-05 Direction of effect, if applicable. Else, see 02 for value to assign.
-
-06-07 Minimum time between triggering.
-
-08-09 Address of periodicity or magnitude parameters
-0a-0b Address of attack and fade parameters, or ffff if none.
-*or*
-08-09 Address of interactive parameters for X-axis, or ffff if not applicable
-0a-0b Address of interactive parameters for Y-axis, or ffff if not applicable
-
-0c-0d Delay before execution of effect (little endian encoding, in ms)
-
-
-** Time based parameters **
-
-*** Attack and fade ***
-OP= 02
-LEN= 08
-00-01 Address where to store the parameteres
-02-03 Duration of attack (little endian encoding, in ms)
-04 Level at end of attack. Signed byte.
-05-06 Duration of fade.
-07 Level at end of fade.
-
-*** Magnitude ***
-OP= 03
-LEN= 03
-00-01 Address
-02 Level. Signed byte.
-
-*** Periodicity ***
-OP= 04
-LEN= 07
-00-01 Address
-02 Magnitude. Signed byte.
-03 Offset. Signed byte.
-04 Phase. Val 00 = 0 deg, Val 40 = 90 degs.
-05-06 Period (little endian encoding, in ms)
-
-** Interactive parameters **
-OP= 05
-LEN= 0a
-00-01 Address
-02 Positive Coeff
-03 Negative Coeff
-04+05 Offset (center)
-06+07 Dead band (Val 01F4 = 5000 (decimal))
-08 Positive saturation (Val 0a = 1000 (decimal) Val 64 = 10000 (decimal))
-09 Negative saturation
-
-The encoding is a bit funny here: For coeffs, these are signed values. The
-maximum value is 64 (100 decimal), the min is 9c.
-For the offset, the minimum value is FE0C, the maximum value is 01F4.
-For the deadband, the minimum value is 0, the max is 03E8.
-
-** Controls **
-OP= 41
-LEN= 03
-00 Channel
-01 Start/Stop
- Val 00: Stop
- Val 01: Start and play once.
- Val 41: Start and play n times (See byte 02 below)
-02 Number of iterations n.
-
-** Init **
-
-*** Querying features ***
-OP= ff
-Query command. Length varies according to the query type.
-The general format of this packet is:
-ff 01 QUERY [INDEX] CHECKSUM
-responses are of the same form:
-FF LEN QUERY VALUE_QUERIED CHECKSUM2
-where LEN = 1 + length(VALUE_QUERIED)
-
-**** Query ram size ****
-QUERY = 42 ('B'uffer size)
-The device should reply with the same packet plus two additional bytes
-containing the size of the memory:
-ff 03 42 03 e8 CS would mean that the device has 1000 bytes of ram available.
-
-**** Query number of effects ****
-QUERY = 4e ('N'umber of effects)
-The device should respond by sending the number of effects that can be played
-at the same time (one byte)
-ff 02 4e 14 CS would stand for 20 effects.
-
-**** Vendor's id ****
-QUERY = 4d ('M'anufacturer)
-Query the vendors'id (2 bytes)
-
-**** Product id *****
-QUERY = 50 ('P'roduct)
-Query the product id (2 bytes)
-
-**** Open device ****
-QUERY = 4f ('O'pen)
-No data returned.
-
-**** Close device *****
-QUERY = 43 ('C')lose
-No data returned.
-
-**** Query effect ****
-QUERY = 45 ('E')
-Send effect type.
-Returns nonzero if supported (2 bytes)
-
-**** Firmware Version ****
-QUERY = 56 ('V'ersion)
-Sends back 3 bytes - major, minor, subminor
-
-*** Initialisation of the device ***
-
-**** Set Control ****
-!!! Device dependent, can be different on different models !!!
-OP= 40 <idx> <val> [<val>]
-LEN= 2 or 3
-00 Idx
- Idx 00 Set dead zone (0..2048)
- Idx 01 Ignore Deadman sensor (0..1)
- Idx 02 Enable comm watchdog (0..1)
- Idx 03 Set the strength of the spring (0..100)
- Idx 04 Enable or disable the spring (0/1)
- Idx 05 Set axis saturation threshold (0..2048)
-
-**** Set Effect State ****
-OP= 42 <val>
-LEN= 1
-00 State
- Bit 3 Pause force feedback
- Bit 2 Enable force feedback
- Bit 0 Stop all effects
-
-**** Set overall gain ****
-OP= 43 <val>
-LEN= 1
-00 Gain
- Val 00 = 0%
- Val 40 = 50%
- Val 80 = 100%
-
-** Parameter memory **
-
-Each device has a certain amount of memory to store parameters of effects.
-The amount of RAM may vary, I encountered values from 200 to 1000 bytes. Below
-is the amount of memory apparently needed for every set of parameters:
- - period : 0c
- - magnitude : 02
- - attack and fade : 0e
- - interactive : 08
-
-** Appendix: How to study the protocol ? **
-
-1. Generate effects using the force editor provided with the DirectX SDK, or
-use Immersion Studio (freely available at their web site in the developer section:
-www.immersion.com)
-2. Start a soft spying RS232 or USB (depending on where you connected your
-joystick/wheel). I used ComPortSpy from fCoder (alpha version!)
-3. Play the effect, and watch what happens on the spy screen.
-
-A few words about ComPortSpy:
-At first glance, this software seems, hum, well... buggy. In fact, data appear with a
-few seconds latency. Personally, I restart it every time I play an effect.
-Remember it's free (as in free beer) and alpha!
-
-** URLS **
-Check www.immerse.com for Immersion Studio, and www.fcoder.com for ComPortSpy.
-
-** Author of this document **
-Johann Deneux <johann.deneux@gmail.com>
-Home page at http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://www.esil.univ-mrs.fr
-
-Additions by Vojtech Pavlik.
-
-I-Force is trademark of Immersion Corp.