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-Explaining the dreaded "No init found." boot hang message
-OK, so you've got this pretty unintuitive message (currently located
-in init/main.c) and are wondering what the H*** went wrong.
-Some high-level reasons for failure (listed roughly in order of execution)
-to load the init binary are:
-A) Unable to mount root FS
-B) init binary doesn't exist on rootfs
-C) broken console device
-D) binary exists but dependencies not available
-E) binary cannot be loaded
-Detailed explanations:
-0) Set "debug" kernel parameter (in bootloader config file or CONFIG_CMDLINE)
- to get more detailed kernel messages.
-A) make sure you have the correct root FS type
- (and root= kernel parameter points to the correct partition),
- required drivers such as storage hardware (such as SCSI or USB!)
- and filesystem (ext3, jffs2 etc.) are builtin (alternatively as modules,
- to be pre-loaded by an initrd)
-C) Possibly a conflict in console= setup --> initial console unavailable.
- E.g. some serial consoles are unreliable due to serial IRQ issues (e.g.
- missing interrupt-based configuration).
- Try using a different console= device or e.g. netconsole= .
-D) e.g. required library dependencies of the init binary such as
- /lib/ missing or broken. Use readelf -d <INIT>|grep NEEDED
- to find out which libraries are required.
-E) make sure the binary's architecture matches your hardware.
- E.g. i386 vs. x86_64 mismatch, or trying to load x86 on ARM hardware.
- In case you tried loading a non-binary file here (shell script?),
- you should make sure that the script specifies an interpreter in its shebang
- header line (#!/...) that is fully working (including its library
- dependencies). And before tackling scripts, better first test a simple
- non-script binary such as /bin/sh and confirm its successful execution.
- To find out more, add code to init/main.c to display kernel_execve()s
- return values.
-Please extend this explanation whenever you find new failure causes
-(after all loading the init binary is a CRITICAL and hard transition step
-which needs to be made as painless as possible), then submit patch to LKML.
-Further TODOs:
-- Implement the various run_init_process() invocations via a struct array
- which can then store the kernel_execve() result value and on failure
- log it all by iterating over _all_ results (very important usability fix).
-- try to make the implementation itself more helpful in general,
- e.g. by providing additional error messages at affected places.
-Andreas Mohr <andi at lisas period de>