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-HOWTO: Get An Avermedia DVB-T working under Linux
- ______________________________________________
-
- Table of Contents
- Assumptions and Introduction
- The Avermedia DVB-T
- Getting the card going
- Receiving DVB-T in Australia
- Known Limitations
- Further Update
-
-Assumptions and Introduction
-
- It is assumed that the reader understands the basic structure
- of the Linux Kernel DVB drivers and the general principles of
- Digital TV.
-
- One significant difference between Digital TV and Analogue TV
- that the unwary (like myself) should consider is that,
- although the component structure of budget DVB-T cards are
- substantially similar to Analogue TV cards, they function in
- substantially different ways.
-
- The purpose of an Analogue TV is to receive and display an
- Analogue Television signal. An Analogue TV signal (otherwise
- known as composite video) is an analogue encoding of a
- sequence of image frames (25 per second) rasterised using an
- interlacing technique. Interlacing takes two fields to
- represent one frame. Computers today are at their best when
- dealing with digital signals, not analogue signals and a
- composite video signal is about as far removed from a digital
- data stream as you can get. Therefore, an Analogue TV card for
- a PC has the following purpose:
-
- * Tune the receiver to receive a broadcast signal
- * demodulate the broadcast signal
- * demultiplex the analogue video signal and analogue audio
- signal (note some countries employ a digital audio signal
- embedded within the modulated composite analogue signal -
- NICAM.)
- * digitize the analogue video signal and make the resulting
- datastream available to the data bus.
-
- The digital datastream from an Analogue TV card is generated
- by circuitry on the card and is often presented uncompressed.
- For a PAL TV signal encoded at a resolution of 768x576 24-bit
- color pixels over 25 frames per second - a fair amount of data
- is generated and must be processed by the PC before it can be
- displayed on the video monitor screen. Some Analogue TV cards
- for PCs have onboard MPEG2 encoders which permit the raw
- digital data stream to be presented to the PC in an encoded
- and compressed form - similar to the form that is used in
- Digital TV.
-
- The purpose of a simple budget digital TV card (DVB-T,C or S)
- is to simply:
-
- * Tune the received to receive a broadcast signal.
- * Extract the encoded digital datastream from the broadcast
- signal.
- * Make the encoded digital datastream (MPEG2) available to
- the data bus.
-
- The significant difference between the two is that the tuner
- on the analogue TV card spits out an Analogue signal, whereas
- the tuner on the digital TV card spits out a compressed
- encoded digital datastream. As the signal is already
- digitised, it is trivial to pass this datastream to the PC
- databus with minimal additional processing and then extract
- the digital video and audio datastreams passing them to the
- appropriate software or hardware for decoding and viewing.
- _________________________________________________________
-
-The Avermedia DVB-T
-
- The Avermedia DVB-T is a budget PCI DVB card. It has 3 inputs:
-
- * RF Tuner Input
- * Composite Video Input (RCA Jack)
- * SVIDEO Input (Mini-DIN)
-
- The RF Tuner Input is the input to the tuner module of the
- card. The Tuner is otherwise known as the "Frontend" . The
- Frontend of the Avermedia DVB-T is a Microtune 7202D. A timely
- post to the linux-dvb mailing list ascertained that the
- Microtune 7202D is supported by the sp887x driver which is
- found in the dvb-hw CVS module.
-
- The DVB-T card is based around the BT878 chip which is a very
- common multimedia bridge and often found on Analogue TV cards.
- There is no on-board MPEG2 decoder, which means that all MPEG2
- decoding must be done in software, or if you have one, on an
- MPEG2 hardware decoding card or chipset.
- _________________________________________________________
-
-Getting the card going
-
- In order to fire up the card, it is necessary to load a number
- of modules from the DVB driver set. Prior to this it will have
- been necessary to download these drivers from the linuxtv CVS
- server and compile them successfully.
-
- Depending on the card's feature set, the Device Driver API for
- DVB under Linux will expose some of the following device files
- in the /dev tree:
-
- * /dev/dvb/adapter0/audio0
- * /dev/dvb/adapter0/ca0
- * /dev/dvb/adapter0/demux0
- * /dev/dvb/adapter0/dvr0
- * /dev/dvb/adapter0/frontend0
- * /dev/dvb/adapter0/net0
- * /dev/dvb/adapter0/osd0
- * /dev/dvb/adapter0/video0
-
- The primary device nodes that we are interested in (at this
- stage) for the Avermedia DVB-T are:
-
- * /dev/dvb/adapter0/dvr0
- * /dev/dvb/adapter0/frontend0
-
- The dvr0 device node is used to read the MPEG2 Data Stream and
- the frontend0 node is used to tune the frontend tuner module.
-
- At this stage, it has not been able to ascertain the
- functionality of the remaining device nodes in respect of the
- Avermedia DVBT. However, full functionality in respect of
- tuning, receiving and supplying the MPEG2 data stream is
- possible with the currently available versions of the driver.
- It may be possible that additional functionality is available
- from the card (i.e. viewing the additional analogue inputs
- that the card presents), but this has not been tested yet. If
- I get around to this, I'll update the document with whatever I
- find.
-
- To power up the card, load the following modules in the
- following order:
-
- * modprobe bttv (normally loaded automatically)
- * modprobe dvb-bt8xx (or place dvb-bt8xx in /etc/modules)
-
- Insertion of these modules into the running kernel will
- activate the appropriate DVB device nodes. It is then possible
- to start accessing the card with utilities such as scan, tzap,
- dvbstream etc.
-
- The frontend module sp887x.o, requires an external firmware.
- Please use the command "get_dvb_firmware sp887x" to download
- it. Then copy it to /usr/lib/hotplug/firmware or /lib/firmware/
- (depending on configuration of firmware hotplug).
-
-Receiving DVB-T in Australia
-
- I have no experience of DVB-T in other countries other than
- Australia, so I will attempt to explain how it works here in
- Melbourne and how this affects the configuration of the DVB-T
- card.
-
- The Digital Broadcasting Australia website has a Reception
- locatortool which provides information on transponder channels
- and frequencies. My local transmitter happens to be Mount
- Dandenong.
-
- The frequencies broadcast by Mount Dandenong are:
-
- Table 1. Transponder Frequencies Mount Dandenong, Vic, Aus.
- Broadcaster Channel Frequency
- ABC VHF 12 226.5 MHz
- TEN VHF 11 219.5 MHz
- NINE VHF 8 191.625 MHz
- SEVEN VHF 6 177.5 MHz
- SBS UHF 29 536.5 MHz
-
- The Scan utility has a set of compiled-in defaults for various
- countries and regions, but if they do not suit, or if you have
- a pre-compiled scan binary, you can specify a data file on the
- command line which contains the transponder frequencies. Here
- is a sample file for the above channel transponders:
-# Data file for DVB scan program
-#
-# C Frequency SymbolRate FEC QAM
-# S Frequency Polarisation SymbolRate FEC
-# T Frequency Bandwidth FEC FEC2 QAM Mode Guard Hier
-T 226500000 7MHz 2/3 NONE QAM64 8k 1/8 NONE
-T 191625000 7MHz 2/3 NONE QAM64 8k 1/8 NONE
-T 219500000 7MHz 2/3 NONE QAM64 8k 1/8 NONE
-T 177500000 7MHz 2/3 NONE QAM64 8k 1/8 NONE
-T 536500000 7MHz 2/3 NONE QAM64 8k 1/8 NONE
-
- The defaults for the transponder frequency and other
- modulation parameters were obtained from www.dba.org.au.
-
- When Scan runs, it will output channels.conf information for
- any channel's transponders which the card's frontend can lock
- onto. (i.e. any whose signal is strong enough at your
- antenna).
-
- Here's my channels.conf file for anyone who's interested:
-ABC HDTV:226500000:INVERSION_OFF:BANDWIDTH_7_MHZ:FEC_3_4:FEC_3_4:QAM_64
-:TRANSMISSION_MODE_8K:GUARD_INTERVAL_1_16:HIERARCHY_NONE:2307:0:560
-ABC TV Melbourne:226500000:INVERSION_OFF:BANDWIDTH_7_MHZ:FEC_3_4:FEC_3_
-4:QAM_64:TRANSMISSION_MODE_8K:GUARD_INTERVAL_1_16:HIERARCHY_NONE:512:65
-0:561
-ABC TV 2:226500000:INVERSION_OFF:BANDWIDTH_7_MHZ:FEC_3_4:FEC_3_4:QAM_64
-:TRANSMISSION_MODE_8K:GUARD_INTERVAL_1_16:HIERARCHY_NONE:512:650:562
-ABC TV 3:226500000:INVERSION_OFF:BANDWIDTH_7_MHZ:FEC_3_4:FEC_3_4:QAM_64
-:TRANSMISSION_MODE_8K:GUARD_INTERVAL_1_16:HIERARCHY_NONE:512:650:563
-ABC TV 4:226500000:INVERSION_OFF:BANDWIDTH_7_MHZ:FEC_3_4:FEC_3_4:QAM_64
-:TRANSMISSION_MODE_8K:GUARD_INTERVAL_1_16:HIERARCHY_NONE:512:650:564
-ABC DiG Radio:226500000:INVERSION_OFF:BANDWIDTH_7_MHZ:FEC_3_4:FEC_3_4:Q
-AM_64:TRANSMISSION_MODE_8K:GUARD_INTERVAL_1_16:HIERARCHY_NONE:0:2311:56
-6
-TEN Digital:219500000:INVERSION_OFF:BANDWIDTH_7_MHZ:FEC_3_4:FEC_1_2:QAM
-_64:TRANSMISSION_MODE_8K:GUARD_INTERVAL_1_16:HIERARCHY_NONE:512:650:158
-5
-TEN Digital 1:219500000:INVERSION_OFF:BANDWIDTH_7_MHZ:FEC_3_4:FEC_1_2:Q
-AM_64:TRANSMISSION_MODE_8K:GUARD_INTERVAL_1_16:HIERARCHY_NONE:512:650:1
-586
-TEN Digital 2:219500000:INVERSION_OFF:BANDWIDTH_7_MHZ:FEC_3_4:FEC_1_2:Q
-AM_64:TRANSMISSION_MODE_8K:GUARD_INTERVAL_1_16:HIERARCHY_NONE:512:650:1
-587
-TEN Digital 3:219500000:INVERSION_OFF:BANDWIDTH_7_MHZ:FEC_3_4:FEC_1_2:Q
-AM_64:TRANSMISSION_MODE_8K:GUARD_INTERVAL_1_16:HIERARCHY_NONE:512:650:1
-588
-TEN Digital:219500000:INVERSION_OFF:BANDWIDTH_7_MHZ:FEC_3_4:FEC_1_2:QAM
-_64:TRANSMISSION_MODE_8K:GUARD_INTERVAL_1_16:HIERARCHY_NONE:512:650:158
-9
-TEN Digital 4:219500000:INVERSION_OFF:BANDWIDTH_7_MHZ:FEC_3_4:FEC_1_2:Q
-AM_64:TRANSMISSION_MODE_8K:GUARD_INTERVAL_1_16:HIERARCHY_NONE:512:650:1
-590
-TEN Digital:219500000:INVERSION_OFF:BANDWIDTH_7_MHZ:FEC_3_4:FEC_1_2:QAM
-_64:TRANSMISSION_MODE_8K:GUARD_INTERVAL_1_16:HIERARCHY_NONE:512:650:159
-1
-TEN HD:219500000:INVERSION_OFF:BANDWIDTH_7_MHZ:FEC_3_4:FEC_1_2:QAM_64:T
-RANSMISSION_MODE_8K:GUARD_INTERVAL_1_16:HIERARCHY_NONE:514:0:1592
-TEN Digital:219500000:INVERSION_OFF:BANDWIDTH_7_MHZ:FEC_3_4:FEC_1_2:QAM
-_64:TRANSMISSION_MODE_8K:GUARD_INTERVAL_1_16:HIERARCHY_NONE:512:650:159
-3
-Nine Digital:191625000:INVERSION_OFF:BANDWIDTH_7_MHZ:FEC_3_4:FEC_1_2:QA
-M_64:TRANSMISSION_MODE_8K:GUARD_INTERVAL_1_16:HIERARCHY_NONE:513:660:10
-72
-Nine Digital HD:191625000:INVERSION_OFF:BANDWIDTH_7_MHZ:FEC_3_4:FEC_1_2
-:QAM_64:TRANSMISSION_MODE_8K:GUARD_INTERVAL_1_16:HIERARCHY_NONE:512:0:1
-073
-Nine Guide:191625000:INVERSION_OFF:BANDWIDTH_7_MHZ:FEC_3_4:FEC_1_2:QAM_
-64:TRANSMISSION_MODE_8K:GUARD_INTERVAL_1_16:HIERARCHY_NONE:514:670:1074
-7 Digital:177500000:INVERSION_OFF:BANDWIDTH_7_MHZ:FEC_2_3:FEC_2_3:QAM_6
-4:TRANSMISSION_MODE_8K:GUARD_INTERVAL_1_8:HIERARCHY_NONE:769:770:1328
-7 Digital 1:177500000:INVERSION_OFF:BANDWIDTH_7_MHZ:FEC_2_3:FEC_2_3:QAM
-_64:TRANSMISSION_MODE_8K:GUARD_INTERVAL_1_8:HIERARCHY_NONE:769:770:1329
-7 Digital 2:177500000:INVERSION_OFF:BANDWIDTH_7_MHZ:FEC_2_3:FEC_2_3:QAM
-_64:TRANSMISSION_MODE_8K:GUARD_INTERVAL_1_8:HIERARCHY_NONE:769:770:1330
-7 Digital 3:177500000:INVERSION_OFF:BANDWIDTH_7_MHZ:FEC_2_3:FEC_2_3:QAM
-_64:TRANSMISSION_MODE_8K:GUARD_INTERVAL_1_8:HIERARCHY_NONE:769:770:1331
-7 HD Digital:177500000:INVERSION_OFF:BANDWIDTH_7_MHZ:FEC_2_3:FEC_2_3:QA
-M_64:TRANSMISSION_MODE_8K:GUARD_INTERVAL_1_8:HIERARCHY_NONE:833:834:133
-2
-7 Program Guide:177500000:INVERSION_OFF:BANDWIDTH_7_MHZ:FEC_2_3:FEC_2_3
-:QAM_64:TRANSMISSION_MODE_8K:GUARD_INTERVAL_1_8:HIERARCHY_NONE:865:866:
-1334
-SBS HD:536500000:INVERSION_OFF:BANDWIDTH_7_MHZ:FEC_2_3:FEC_2_3:QAM_64:T
-RANSMISSION_MODE_8K:GUARD_INTERVAL_1_8:HIERARCHY_NONE:102:103:784
-SBS DIGITAL 1:536500000:INVERSION_OFF:BANDWIDTH_7_MHZ:FEC_2_3:FEC_2_3:Q
-AM_64:TRANSMISSION_MODE_8K:GUARD_INTERVAL_1_8:HIERARCHY_NONE:161:81:785
-SBS DIGITAL 2:536500000:INVERSION_OFF:BANDWIDTH_7_MHZ:FEC_2_3:FEC_2_3:Q
-AM_64:TRANSMISSION_MODE_8K:GUARD_INTERVAL_1_8:HIERARCHY_NONE:162:83:786
-SBS EPG:536500000:INVERSION_OFF:BANDWIDTH_7_MHZ:FEC_2_3:FEC_2_3:QAM_64:
-TRANSMISSION_MODE_8K:GUARD_INTERVAL_1_8:HIERARCHY_NONE:163:85:787
-SBS RADIO 1:536500000:INVERSION_OFF:BANDWIDTH_7_MHZ:FEC_2_3:FEC_2_3:QAM
-_64:TRANSMISSION_MODE_8K:GUARD_INTERVAL_1_8:HIERARCHY_NONE:0:201:798
-SBS RADIO 2:536500000:INVERSION_OFF:BANDWIDTH_7_MHZ:FEC_2_3:FEC_2_3:QAM
-_64:TRANSMISSION_MODE_8K:GUARD_INTERVAL_1_8:HIERARCHY_NONE:0:202:799
- _________________________________________________________
-
-Known Limitations
-
- At present I can say with confidence that the frontend tunes
- via /dev/dvb/adapter{x}/frontend0 and supplies an MPEG2 stream
- via /dev/dvb/adapter{x}/dvr0. I have not tested the
- functionality of any other part of the card yet. I will do so
- over time and update this document.
-
- There are some limitations in the i2c layer due to a returned
- error message inconsistency. Although this generates errors in
- dmesg and the system logs, it does not appear to affect the
- ability of the frontend to function correctly.
- _________________________________________________________
-
-Further Update
-
- dvbstream and VideoLAN Client on windows works a treat with
- DVB, in fact this is currently serving as my main way of
- viewing DVB-T at the moment. Additionally, VLC is happily
- decoding HDTV signals, although the PC is dropping the odd
- frame here and there - I assume due to processing capability -
- as all the decoding is being done under windows in software.
-
- Many thanks to Nigel Pearson for the updates to this document
- since the recent revision of the driver.
-
- February 14th 2006