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- d) Xilinx IP cores
-
- The Xilinx EDK toolchain ships with a set of IP cores (devices) for use
- in Xilinx Spartan and Virtex FPGAs. The devices cover the whole range
- of standard device types (network, serial, etc.) and miscellaneous
- devices (gpio, LCD, spi, etc). Also, since these devices are
- implemented within the fpga fabric every instance of the device can be
- synthesised with different options that change the behaviour.
-
- Each IP-core has a set of parameters which the FPGA designer can use to
- control how the core is synthesized. Historically, the EDK tool would
- extract the device parameters relevant to device drivers and copy them
- into an 'xparameters.h' in the form of #define symbols. This tells the
- device drivers how the IP cores are configured, but it requires the kernel
- to be recompiled every time the FPGA bitstream is resynthesized.
-
- The new approach is to export the parameters into the device tree and
- generate a new device tree each time the FPGA bitstream changes. The
- parameters which used to be exported as #defines will now become
- properties of the device node. In general, device nodes for IP-cores
- will take the following form:
-
- (name): (generic-name)@(base-address) {
- compatible = "xlnx,(ip-core-name)-(HW_VER)"
- [, (list of compatible devices), ...];
- reg = <(baseaddr) (size)>;
- interrupt-parent = <&interrupt-controller-phandle>;
- interrupts = < ... >;
- xlnx,(parameter1) = "(string-value)";
- xlnx,(parameter2) = <(int-value)>;
- };
-
- (generic-name): an open firmware-style name that describes the
- generic class of device. Preferably, this is one word, such
- as 'serial' or 'ethernet'.
- (ip-core-name): the name of the ip block (given after the BEGIN
- directive in system.mhs). Should be in lowercase
- and all underscores '_' converted to dashes '-'.
- (name): is derived from the "PARAMETER INSTANCE" value.
- (parameter#): C_* parameters from system.mhs. The C_ prefix is
- dropped from the parameter name, the name is converted
- to lowercase and all underscore '_' characters are
- converted to dashes '-'.
- (baseaddr): the baseaddr parameter value (often named C_BASEADDR).
- (HW_VER): from the HW_VER parameter.
- (size): the address range size (often C_HIGHADDR - C_BASEADDR + 1).
-
- Typically, the compatible list will include the exact IP core version
- followed by an older IP core version which implements the same
- interface or any other device with the same interface.
-
- 'reg', 'interrupt-parent' and 'interrupts' are all optional properties.
-
- For example, the following block from system.mhs:
-
- BEGIN opb_uartlite
- PARAMETER INSTANCE = opb_uartlite_0
- PARAMETER HW_VER = 1.00.b
- PARAMETER C_BAUDRATE = 115200
- PARAMETER C_DATA_BITS = 8
- PARAMETER C_ODD_PARITY = 0
- PARAMETER C_USE_PARITY = 0
- PARAMETER C_CLK_FREQ = 50000000
- PARAMETER C_BASEADDR = 0xEC100000
- PARAMETER C_HIGHADDR = 0xEC10FFFF
- BUS_INTERFACE SOPB = opb_7
- PORT OPB_Clk = CLK_50MHz
- PORT Interrupt = opb_uartlite_0_Interrupt
- PORT RX = opb_uartlite_0_RX
- PORT TX = opb_uartlite_0_TX
- PORT OPB_Rst = sys_bus_reset_0
- END
-
- becomes the following device tree node:
-
- opb_uartlite_0: serial@ec100000 {
- device_type = "serial";
- compatible = "xlnx,opb-uartlite-1.00.b";
- reg = <ec100000 10000>;
- interrupt-parent = <&opb_intc_0>;
- interrupts = <1 0>; // got this from the opb_intc parameters
- current-speed = <d#115200>; // standard serial device prop
- clock-frequency = <d#50000000>; // standard serial device prop
- xlnx,data-bits = <8>;
- xlnx,odd-parity = <0>;
- xlnx,use-parity = <0>;
- };
-
- Some IP cores actually implement 2 or more logical devices. In
- this case, the device should still describe the whole IP core with
- a single node and add a child node for each logical device. The
- ranges property can be used to translate from parent IP-core to the
- registers of each device. In addition, the parent node should be
- compatible with the bus type 'xlnx,compound', and should contain
- #address-cells and #size-cells, as with any other bus. (Note: this
- makes the assumption that both logical devices have the same bus
- binding. If this is not true, then separate nodes should be used
- for each logical device). The 'cell-index' property can be used to
- enumerate logical devices within an IP core. For example, the
- following is the system.mhs entry for the dual ps2 controller found
- on the ml403 reference design.
-
- BEGIN opb_ps2_dual_ref
- PARAMETER INSTANCE = opb_ps2_dual_ref_0
- PARAMETER HW_VER = 1.00.a
- PARAMETER C_BASEADDR = 0xA9000000
- PARAMETER C_HIGHADDR = 0xA9001FFF
- BUS_INTERFACE SOPB = opb_v20_0
- PORT Sys_Intr1 = ps2_1_intr
- PORT Sys_Intr2 = ps2_2_intr
- PORT Clkin1 = ps2_clk_rx_1
- PORT Clkin2 = ps2_clk_rx_2
- PORT Clkpd1 = ps2_clk_tx_1
- PORT Clkpd2 = ps2_clk_tx_2
- PORT Rx1 = ps2_d_rx_1
- PORT Rx2 = ps2_d_rx_2
- PORT Txpd1 = ps2_d_tx_1
- PORT Txpd2 = ps2_d_tx_2
- END
-
- It would result in the following device tree nodes:
-
- opb_ps2_dual_ref_0: opb-ps2-dual-ref@a9000000 {
- #address-cells = <1>;
- #size-cells = <1>;
- compatible = "xlnx,compound";
- ranges = <0 a9000000 2000>;
- // If this device had extra parameters, then they would
- // go here.
- ps2@0 {
- compatible = "xlnx,opb-ps2-dual-ref-1.00.a";
- reg = <0 40>;
- interrupt-parent = <&opb_intc_0>;
- interrupts = <3 0>;
- cell-index = <0>;
- };
- ps2@1000 {
- compatible = "xlnx,opb-ps2-dual-ref-1.00.a";
- reg = <1000 40>;
- interrupt-parent = <&opb_intc_0>;
- interrupts = <3 0>;
- cell-index = <0>;
- };
- };
-
- Also, the system.mhs file defines bus attachments from the processor
- to the devices. The device tree structure should reflect the bus
- attachments. Again an example; this system.mhs fragment:
-
- BEGIN ppc405_virtex4
- PARAMETER INSTANCE = ppc405_0
- PARAMETER HW_VER = 1.01.a
- BUS_INTERFACE DPLB = plb_v34_0
- BUS_INTERFACE IPLB = plb_v34_0
- END
-
- BEGIN opb_intc
- PARAMETER INSTANCE = opb_intc_0
- PARAMETER HW_VER = 1.00.c
- PARAMETER C_BASEADDR = 0xD1000FC0
- PARAMETER C_HIGHADDR = 0xD1000FDF
- BUS_INTERFACE SOPB = opb_v20_0
- END
-
- BEGIN opb_uart16550
- PARAMETER INSTANCE = opb_uart16550_0
- PARAMETER HW_VER = 1.00.d
- PARAMETER C_BASEADDR = 0xa0000000
- PARAMETER C_HIGHADDR = 0xa0001FFF
- BUS_INTERFACE SOPB = opb_v20_0
- END
-
- BEGIN plb_v34
- PARAMETER INSTANCE = plb_v34_0
- PARAMETER HW_VER = 1.02.a
- END
-
- BEGIN plb_bram_if_cntlr
- PARAMETER INSTANCE = plb_bram_if_cntlr_0
- PARAMETER HW_VER = 1.00.b
- PARAMETER C_BASEADDR = 0xFFFF0000
- PARAMETER C_HIGHADDR = 0xFFFFFFFF
- BUS_INTERFACE SPLB = plb_v34_0
- END
-
- BEGIN plb2opb_bridge
- PARAMETER INSTANCE = plb2opb_bridge_0
- PARAMETER HW_VER = 1.01.a
- PARAMETER C_RNG0_BASEADDR = 0x20000000
- PARAMETER C_RNG0_HIGHADDR = 0x3FFFFFFF
- PARAMETER C_RNG1_BASEADDR = 0x60000000
- PARAMETER C_RNG1_HIGHADDR = 0x7FFFFFFF
- PARAMETER C_RNG2_BASEADDR = 0x80000000
- PARAMETER C_RNG2_HIGHADDR = 0xBFFFFFFF
- PARAMETER C_RNG3_BASEADDR = 0xC0000000
- PARAMETER C_RNG3_HIGHADDR = 0xDFFFFFFF
- BUS_INTERFACE SPLB = plb_v34_0
- BUS_INTERFACE MOPB = opb_v20_0
- END
-
- Gives this device tree (some properties removed for clarity):
-
- plb@0 {
- #address-cells = <1>;
- #size-cells = <1>;
- compatible = "xlnx,plb-v34-1.02.a";
- device_type = "ibm,plb";
- ranges; // 1:1 translation
-
- plb_bram_if_cntrl_0: bram@ffff0000 {
- reg = <ffff0000 10000>;
- }
-
- opb@20000000 {
- #address-cells = <1>;
- #size-cells = <1>;
- ranges = <20000000 20000000 20000000
- 60000000 60000000 20000000
- 80000000 80000000 40000000
- c0000000 c0000000 20000000>;
-
- opb_uart16550_0: serial@a0000000 {
- reg = <a00000000 2000>;
- };
-
- opb_intc_0: interrupt-controller@d1000fc0 {
- reg = <d1000fc0 20>;
- };
- };
- };
-
- That covers the general approach to binding xilinx IP cores into the
- device tree. The following are bindings for specific devices:
-
- i) Xilinx ML300 Framebuffer
-
- Simple framebuffer device from the ML300 reference design (also on the
- ML403 reference design as well as others).
-
- Optional properties:
- - resolution = <xres yres> : pixel resolution of framebuffer. Some
- implementations use a different resolution.
- Default is <d#640 d#480>
- - virt-resolution = <xvirt yvirt> : Size of framebuffer in memory.
- Default is <d#1024 d#480>.
- - rotate-display (empty) : rotate display 180 degrees.
-
- ii) Xilinx SystemACE
-
- The Xilinx SystemACE device is used to program FPGAs from an FPGA
- bitstream stored on a CF card. It can also be used as a generic CF
- interface device.
-
- Optional properties:
- - 8-bit (empty) : Set this property for SystemACE in 8 bit mode
-
- iii) Xilinx EMAC and Xilinx TEMAC
-
- Xilinx Ethernet devices. In addition to general xilinx properties
- listed above, nodes for these devices should include a phy-handle
- property, and may include other common network device properties
- like local-mac-address.
-
- iv) Xilinx Uartlite
-
- Xilinx uartlite devices are simple fixed speed serial ports.
-
- Required properties:
- - current-speed : Baud rate of uartlite
-
- v) Xilinx hwicap
-
- Xilinx hwicap devices provide access to the configuration logic
- of the FPGA through the Internal Configuration Access Port
- (ICAP). The ICAP enables partial reconfiguration of the FPGA,
- readback of the configuration information, and some control over
- 'warm boots' of the FPGA fabric.
-
- Required properties:
- - xlnx,family : The family of the FPGA, necessary since the
- capabilities of the underlying ICAP hardware
- differ between different families. May be
- 'virtex2p', 'virtex4', or 'virtex5'.
-
- vi) Xilinx Uart 16550
-
- Xilinx UART 16550 devices are very similar to the NS16550 but with
- different register spacing and an offset from the base address.
-
- Required properties:
- - clock-frequency : Frequency of the clock input
- - reg-offset : A value of 3 is required
- - reg-shift : A value of 2 is required
-
- vii) Xilinx USB Host controller
-
- The Xilinx USB host controller is EHCI compatible but with a different
- base address for the EHCI registers, and it is always a big-endian
- USB Host controller. The hardware can be configured as high speed only,
- or high speed/full speed hybrid.
-
- Required properties:
- - xlnx,support-usb-fs: A value 0 means the core is built as high speed
- only. A value 1 means the core also supports
- full speed devices.
-