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-IDE-CD driver documentation
-Originally by scott snyder <snyder@fnald0.fnal.gov> (19 May 1996)
-Carrying on the torch is: Erik Andersen <andersee@debian.org>
-New maintainers (19 Oct 1998): Jens Axboe <axboe@image.dk>
-
-1. Introduction
----------------
-
-The ide-cd driver should work with all ATAPI ver 1.2 to ATAPI 2.6 compliant
-CDROM drives which attach to an IDE interface. Note that some CDROM vendors
-(including Mitsumi, Sony, Creative, Aztech, and Goldstar) have made
-both ATAPI-compliant drives and drives which use a proprietary
-interface. If your drive uses one of those proprietary interfaces,
-this driver will not work with it (but one of the other CDROM drivers
-probably will). This driver will not work with `ATAPI' drives which
-attach to the parallel port. In addition, there is at least one drive
-(CyCDROM CR520ie) which attaches to the IDE port but is not ATAPI;
-this driver will not work with drives like that either (but see the
-aztcd driver).
-
-This driver provides the following features:
-
- - Reading from data tracks, and mounting ISO 9660 filesystems.
-
- - Playing audio tracks. Most of the CDROM player programs floating
- around should work; I usually use Workman.
-
- - Multisession support.
-
- - On drives which support it, reading digital audio data directly
- from audio tracks. The program cdda2wav can be used for this.
- Note, however, that only some drives actually support this.
-
- - There is now support for CDROM changers which comply with the
- ATAPI 2.6 draft standard (such as the NEC CDR-251). This additional
- functionality includes a function call to query which slot is the
- currently selected slot, a function call to query which slots contain
- CDs, etc. A sample program which demonstrates this functionality is
- appended to the end of this file. The Sanyo 3-disc changer
- (which does not conform to the standard) is also now supported.
- Please note the driver refers to the first CD as slot # 0.
-
-
-2. Installation
----------------
-
-0. The ide-cd relies on the ide disk driver. See
- Documentation/ide/ide.txt for up-to-date information on the ide
- driver.
-
-1. Make sure that the ide and ide-cd drivers are compiled into the
- kernel you're using. When configuring the kernel, in the section
- entitled "Floppy, IDE, and other block devices", say either `Y'
- (which will compile the support directly into the kernel) or `M'
- (to compile support as a module which can be loaded and unloaded)
- to the options:
-
- Enhanced IDE/MFM/RLL disk/cdrom/tape/floppy support
- Include IDE/ATAPI CDROM support
-
- and `no' to
-
- Use old disk-only driver on primary interface
-
- Depending on what type of IDE interface you have, you may need to
- specify additional configuration options. See
- Documentation/ide/ide.txt.
-
-2. You should also ensure that the iso9660 filesystem is either
- compiled into the kernel or available as a loadable module. You
- can see if a filesystem is known to the kernel by catting
- /proc/filesystems.
-
-3. The CDROM drive should be connected to the host on an IDE
- interface. Each interface on a system is defined by an I/O port
- address and an IRQ number, the standard assignments being
- 0x1f0 and 14 for the primary interface and 0x170 and 15 for the
- secondary interface. Each interface can control up to two devices,
- where each device can be a hard drive, a CDROM drive, a floppy drive,
- or a tape drive. The two devices on an interface are called `master'
- and `slave'; this is usually selectable via a jumper on the drive.
-
- Linux names these devices as follows. The master and slave devices
- on the primary IDE interface are called `hda' and `hdb',
- respectively. The drives on the secondary interface are called
- `hdc' and `hdd'. (Interfaces at other locations get other letters
- in the third position; see Documentation/ide/ide.txt.)
-
- If you want your CDROM drive to be found automatically by the
- driver, you should make sure your IDE interface uses either the
- primary or secondary addresses mentioned above. In addition, if
- the CDROM drive is the only device on the IDE interface, it should
- be jumpered as `master'. (If for some reason you cannot configure
- your system in this manner, you can probably still use the driver.
- You may have to pass extra configuration information to the kernel
- when you boot, however. See Documentation/ide/ide.txt for more
- information.)
-
-4. Boot the system. If the drive is recognized, you should see a
- message which looks like
-
- hdb: NEC CD-ROM DRIVE:260, ATAPI CDROM drive
-
- If you do not see this, see section 5 below.
-
-5. You may want to create a symbolic link /dev/cdrom pointing to the
- actual device. You can do this with the command
-
- ln -s /dev/hdX /dev/cdrom
-
- where X should be replaced by the letter indicating where your
- drive is installed.
-
-6. You should be able to see any error messages from the driver with
- the `dmesg' command.
-
-
-3. Basic usage
---------------
-
-An ISO 9660 CDROM can be mounted by putting the disc in the drive and
-typing (as root)
-
- mount -t iso9660 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom
-
-where it is assumed that /dev/cdrom is a link pointing to the actual
-device (as described in step 5 of the last section) and /mnt/cdrom is
-an empty directory. You should now be able to see the contents of the
-CDROM under the /mnt/cdrom directory. If you want to eject the CDROM,
-you must first dismount it with a command like
-
- umount /mnt/cdrom
-
-Note that audio CDs cannot be mounted.
-
-Some distributions set up /etc/fstab to always try to mount a CDROM
-filesystem on bootup. It is not required to mount the CDROM in this
-manner, though, and it may be a nuisance if you change CDROMs often.
-You should feel free to remove the cdrom line from /etc/fstab and
-mount CDROMs manually if that suits you better.
-
-Multisession and photocd discs should work with no special handling.
-The hpcdtoppm package (ftp.gwdg.de:/pub/linux/hpcdtoppm/) may be
-useful for reading photocds.
-
-To play an audio CD, you should first unmount and remove any data
-CDROM. Any of the CDROM player programs should then work (workman,
-workbone, cdplayer, etc.).
-
-On a few drives, you can read digital audio directly using a program
-such as cdda2wav. The only types of drive which I've heard support
-this are Sony and Toshiba drives. You will get errors if you try to
-use this function on a drive which does not support it.
-
-For supported changers, you can use the `cdchange' program (appended to
-the end of this file) to switch between changer slots. Note that the
-drive should be unmounted before attempting this. The program takes
-two arguments: the CDROM device, and the slot number to which you wish
-to change. If the slot number is -1, the drive is unloaded.
-
-
-4. Common problems
-------------------
-
-This section discusses some common problems encountered when trying to
-use the driver, and some possible solutions. Note that if you are
-experiencing problems, you should probably also review
-Documentation/ide/ide.txt for current information about the underlying
-IDE support code. Some of these items apply only to earlier versions
-of the driver, but are mentioned here for completeness.
-
-In most cases, you should probably check with `dmesg' for any errors
-from the driver.
-
-a. Drive is not detected during booting.
-
- - Review the configuration instructions above and in
- Documentation/ide/ide.txt, and check how your hardware is
- configured.
-
- - If your drive is the only device on an IDE interface, it should
- be jumpered as master, if at all possible.
-
- - If your IDE interface is not at the standard addresses of 0x170
- or 0x1f0, you'll need to explicitly inform the driver using a
- lilo option. See Documentation/ide/ide.txt. (This feature was
- added around kernel version 1.3.30.)
-
- - If the autoprobing is not finding your drive, you can tell the
- driver to assume that one exists by using a lilo option of the
- form `hdX=cdrom', where X is the drive letter corresponding to
- where your drive is installed. Note that if you do this and you
- see a boot message like
-
- hdX: ATAPI cdrom (?)
-
- this does _not_ mean that the driver has successfully detected
- the drive; rather, it means that the driver has not detected a
- drive, but is assuming there's one there anyway because you told
- it so. If you actually try to do I/O to a drive defined at a
- nonexistent or nonresponding I/O address, you'll probably get
- errors with a status value of 0xff.
-
- - Some IDE adapters require a nonstandard initialization sequence
- before they'll function properly. (If this is the case, there
- will often be a separate MS-DOS driver just for the controller.)
- IDE interfaces on sound cards often fall into this category.
-
- Support for some interfaces needing extra initialization is
- provided in later 1.3.x kernels. You may need to turn on
- additional kernel configuration options to get them to work;
- see Documentation/ide/ide.txt.
-
- Even if support is not available for your interface, you may be
- able to get it to work with the following procedure. First boot
- MS-DOS and load the appropriate drivers. Then warm-boot linux
- (i.e., without powering off). If this works, it can be automated
- by running loadlin from the MS-DOS autoexec.
-
-
-b. Timeout/IRQ errors.
-
- - If you always get timeout errors, interrupts from the drive are
- probably not making it to the host.
-
- - IRQ problems may also be indicated by the message
- `IRQ probe failed (<n>)' while booting. If <n> is zero, that
- means that the system did not see an interrupt from the drive when
- it was expecting one (on any feasible IRQ). If <n> is negative,
- that means the system saw interrupts on multiple IRQ lines, when
- it was expecting to receive just one from the CDROM drive.
-
- - Double-check your hardware configuration to make sure that the IRQ
- number of your IDE interface matches what the driver expects.
- (The usual assignments are 14 for the primary (0x1f0) interface
- and 15 for the secondary (0x170) interface.) Also be sure that
- you don't have some other hardware which might be conflicting with
- the IRQ you're using. Also check the BIOS setup for your system;
- some have the ability to disable individual IRQ levels, and I've
- had one report of a system which was shipped with IRQ 15 disabled
- by default.
-
- - Note that many MS-DOS CDROM drivers will still function even if
- there are hardware problems with the interrupt setup; they
- apparently don't use interrupts.
-
- - If you own a Pioneer DR-A24X, you _will_ get nasty error messages
- on boot such as "irq timeout: status=0x50 { DriveReady SeekComplete }"
- The Pioneer DR-A24X CDROM drives are fairly popular these days.
- Unfortunately, these drives seem to become very confused when we perform
- the standard Linux ATA disk drive probe. If you own one of these drives,
- you can bypass the ATA probing which confuses these CDROM drives, by
- adding `append="hdX=noprobe hdX=cdrom"' to your lilo.conf file and running
- lilo (again where X is the drive letter corresponding to where your drive
- is installed.)
-
-c. System hangups.
-
- - If the system locks up when you try to access the CDROM, the most
- likely cause is that you have a buggy IDE adapter which doesn't
- properly handle simultaneous transactions on multiple interfaces.
- The most notorious of these is the CMD640B chip. This problem can
- be worked around by specifying the `serialize' option when
- booting. Recent kernels should be able to detect the need for
- this automatically in most cases, but the detection is not
- foolproof. See Documentation/ide/ide.txt for more information
- about the `serialize' option and the CMD640B.
-
- - Note that many MS-DOS CDROM drivers will work with such buggy
- hardware, apparently because they never attempt to overlap CDROM
- operations with other disk activity.
-
-
-d. Can't mount a CDROM.
-
- - If you get errors from mount, it may help to check `dmesg' to see
- if there are any more specific errors from the driver or from the
- filesystem.
-
- - Make sure there's a CDROM loaded in the drive, and that's it's an
- ISO 9660 disc. You can't mount an audio CD.
-
- - With the CDROM in the drive and unmounted, try something like
-
- cat /dev/cdrom | od | more
-
- If you see a dump, then the drive and driver are probably working
- OK, and the problem is at the filesystem level (i.e., the CDROM is
- not ISO 9660 or has errors in the filesystem structure).
-
- - If you see `not a block device' errors, check that the definitions
- of the device special files are correct. They should be as
- follows:
-
- brw-rw---- 1 root disk 3, 0 Nov 11 18:48 /dev/hda
- brw-rw---- 1 root disk 3, 64 Nov 11 18:48 /dev/hdb
- brw-rw---- 1 root disk 22, 0 Nov 11 18:48 /dev/hdc
- brw-rw---- 1 root disk 22, 64 Nov 11 18:48 /dev/hdd
-
- Some early Slackware releases had these defined incorrectly. If
- these are wrong, you can remake them by running the script
- scripts/MAKEDEV.ide. (You may have to make it executable
- with chmod first.)
-
- If you have a /dev/cdrom symbolic link, check that it is pointing
- to the correct device file.
-
- If you hear people talking of the devices `hd1a' and `hd1b', these
- were old names for what are now called hdc and hdd. Those names
- should be considered obsolete.
-
- - If mount is complaining that the iso9660 filesystem is not
- available, but you know it is (check /proc/filesystems), you
- probably need a newer version of mount. Early versions would not
- always give meaningful error messages.
-
-
-e. Directory listings are unpredictably truncated, and `dmesg' shows
- `buffer botch' error messages from the driver.
-
- - There was a bug in the version of the driver in 1.2.x kernels
- which could cause this. It was fixed in 1.3.0. If you can't
- upgrade, you can probably work around the problem by specifying a
- blocksize of 2048 when mounting. (Note that you won't be able to
- directly execute binaries off the CDROM in that case.)
-
- If you see this in kernels later than 1.3.0, please report it as a
- bug.
-
-
-f. Data corruption.
-
- - Random data corruption was occasionally observed with the Hitachi
- CDR-7730 CDROM. If you experience data corruption, using "hdx=slow"
- as a command line parameter may work around the problem, at the
- expense of low system performance.
-
-
-5. cdchange.c
--------------
-
-/*
- * cdchange.c [-v] <device> [<slot>]
- *
- * This loads a CDROM from a specified slot in a changer, and displays
- * information about the changer status. The drive should be unmounted before
- * using this program.
- *
- * Changer information is displayed if either the -v flag is specified
- * or no slot was specified.
- *
- * Based on code originally from Gerhard Zuber <zuber@berlin.snafu.de>.
- * Changer status information, and rewrite for the new Uniform CDROM driver
- * interface by Erik Andersen <andersee@debian.org>.
- */
-
-#include <stdio.h>
-#include <stdlib.h>
-#include <errno.h>
-#include <string.h>
-#include <unistd.h>
-#include <fcntl.h>
-#include <sys/ioctl.h>
-#include <linux/cdrom.h>
-
-
-int
-main (int argc, char **argv)
-{
- char *program;
- char *device;
- int fd; /* file descriptor for CD-ROM device */
- int status; /* return status for system calls */
- int verbose = 0;
- int slot=-1, x_slot;
- int total_slots_available;
-
- program = argv[0];
-
- ++argv;
- --argc;
-
- if (argc < 1 || argc > 3) {
- fprintf (stderr, "usage: %s [-v] <device> [<slot>]\n",
- program);
- fprintf (stderr, " Slots are numbered 1 -- n.\n");
- exit (1);
- }
-
- if (strcmp (argv[0], "-v") == 0) {
- verbose = 1;
- ++argv;
- --argc;
- }
-
- device = argv[0];
-
- if (argc == 2)
- slot = atoi (argv[1]) - 1;
-
- /* open device */
- fd = open(device, O_RDONLY | O_NONBLOCK);
- if (fd < 0) {
- fprintf (stderr, "%s: open failed for `%s': %s\n",
- program, device, strerror (errno));
- exit (1);
- }
-
- /* Check CD player status */
- total_slots_available = ioctl (fd, CDROM_CHANGER_NSLOTS);
- if (total_slots_available <= 1 ) {
- fprintf (stderr, "%s: Device `%s' is not an ATAPI "
- "compliant CD changer.\n", program, device);
- exit (1);
- }
-
- if (slot >= 0) {
- if (slot >= total_slots_available) {
- fprintf (stderr, "Bad slot number. "
- "Should be 1 -- %d.\n",
- total_slots_available);
- exit (1);
- }
-
- /* load */
- slot=ioctl (fd, CDROM_SELECT_DISC, slot);
- if (slot<0) {
- fflush(stdout);
- perror ("CDROM_SELECT_DISC ");
- exit(1);
- }
- }
-
- if (slot < 0 || verbose) {
-
- status=ioctl (fd, CDROM_SELECT_DISC, CDSL_CURRENT);
- if (status<0) {
- fflush(stdout);
- perror (" CDROM_SELECT_DISC");
- exit(1);
- }
- slot=status;
-
- printf ("Current slot: %d\n", slot+1);
- printf ("Total slots available: %d\n",
- total_slots_available);
-
- printf ("Drive status: ");
- status = ioctl (fd, CDROM_DRIVE_STATUS, CDSL_CURRENT);
- if (status<0) {
- perror(" CDROM_DRIVE_STATUS");
- } else switch(status) {
- case CDS_DISC_OK:
- printf ("Ready.\n");
- break;
- case CDS_TRAY_OPEN:
- printf ("Tray Open.\n");
- break;
- case CDS_DRIVE_NOT_READY:
- printf ("Drive Not Ready.\n");
- break;
- default:
- printf ("This Should not happen!\n");
- break;
- }
-
- for (x_slot=0; x_slot<total_slots_available; x_slot++) {
- printf ("Slot %2d: ", x_slot+1);
- status = ioctl (fd, CDROM_DRIVE_STATUS, x_slot);
- if (status<0) {
- perror(" CDROM_DRIVE_STATUS");
- } else switch(status) {
- case CDS_DISC_OK:
- printf ("Disc present.");
- break;
- case CDS_NO_DISC:
- printf ("Empty slot.");
- break;
- case CDS_TRAY_OPEN:
- printf ("CD-ROM tray open.\n");
- break;
- case CDS_DRIVE_NOT_READY:
- printf ("CD-ROM drive not ready.\n");
- break;
- case CDS_NO_INFO:
- printf ("No Information available.");
- break;
- default:
- printf ("This Should not happen!\n");
- break;
- }
- if (slot == x_slot) {
- status = ioctl (fd, CDROM_DISC_STATUS);
- if (status<0) {
- perror(" CDROM_DISC_STATUS");
- }
- switch (status) {
- case CDS_AUDIO:
- printf ("\tAudio disc.\t");
- break;
- case CDS_DATA_1:
- case CDS_DATA_2:
- printf ("\tData disc type %d.\t", status-CDS_DATA_1+1);
- break;
- case CDS_XA_2_1:
- case CDS_XA_2_2:
- printf ("\tXA data disc type %d.\t", status-CDS_XA_2_1+1);
- break;
- default:
- printf ("\tUnknown disc type 0x%x!\t", status);
- break;
- }
- }
- status = ioctl (fd, CDROM_MEDIA_CHANGED, x_slot);
- if (status<0) {
- perror(" CDROM_MEDIA_CHANGED");
- }
- switch (status) {
- case 1:
- printf ("Changed.\n");
- break;
- default:
- printf ("\n");
- break;
- }
- }
- }
-
- /* close device */
- status = close (fd);
- if (status != 0) {
- fprintf (stderr, "%s: close failed for `%s': %s\n",
- program, device, strerror (errno));
- exit (1);
- }
-
- exit (0);
-}