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-rw-r--r--Documentation/blockdev/00-INDEX18
-rw-r--r--Documentation/blockdev/README.DAC960756
-rw-r--r--Documentation/blockdev/cciss.txt194
-rw-r--r--Documentation/blockdev/cpqarray.txt93
-rw-r--r--Documentation/blockdev/drbd/DRBD-8.3-data-packets.svg588
-rw-r--r--Documentation/blockdev/drbd/DRBD-data-packets.svg459
-rw-r--r--Documentation/blockdev/drbd/README.txt16
-rw-r--r--Documentation/blockdev/drbd/conn-states-8.dot18
-rw-r--r--Documentation/blockdev/drbd/disk-states-8.dot16
-rw-r--r--Documentation/blockdev/drbd/drbd-connection-state-overview.dot85
-rw-r--r--Documentation/blockdev/drbd/node-states-8.dot14
-rw-r--r--Documentation/blockdev/floppy.txt245
-rw-r--r--Documentation/blockdev/mflash.txt84
-rw-r--r--Documentation/blockdev/nbd.txt47
-rw-r--r--Documentation/blockdev/paride.txt417
-rw-r--r--Documentation/blockdev/ramdisk.txt165
16 files changed, 0 insertions, 3215 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/blockdev/00-INDEX b/Documentation/blockdev/00-INDEX
deleted file mode 100644
index c08df56dd91..00000000000
--- a/Documentation/blockdev/00-INDEX
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,18 +0,0 @@
-00-INDEX
- - this file
-README.DAC960
- - info on Mylex DAC960/DAC1100 PCI RAID Controller Driver for Linux.
-cciss.txt
- - info, major/minor #'s for Compaq's SMART Array Controllers.
-cpqarray.txt
- - info on using Compaq's SMART2 Intelligent Disk Array Controllers.
-floppy.txt
- - notes and driver options for the floppy disk driver.
-mflash.txt
- - info on mGine m(g)flash driver for linux.
-nbd.txt
- - info on a TCP implementation of a network block device.
-paride.txt
- - information about the parallel port IDE subsystem.
-ramdisk.txt
- - short guide on how to set up and use the RAM disk.
diff --git a/Documentation/blockdev/README.DAC960 b/Documentation/blockdev/README.DAC960
deleted file mode 100644
index bd85fb9dc6e..00000000000
--- a/Documentation/blockdev/README.DAC960
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,756 +0,0 @@
- Linux Driver for Mylex DAC960/AcceleRAID/eXtremeRAID PCI RAID Controllers
-
- Version 2.2.11 for Linux 2.2.19
- Version 2.4.11 for Linux 2.4.12
-
- PRODUCTION RELEASE
-
- 11 October 2001
-
- Leonard N. Zubkoff
- Dandelion Digital
- lnz@dandelion.com
-
- Copyright 1998-2001 by Leonard N. Zubkoff <lnz@dandelion.com>
-
-
- INTRODUCTION
-
-Mylex, Inc. designs and manufactures a variety of high performance PCI RAID
-controllers. Mylex Corporation is located at 34551 Ardenwood Blvd., Fremont,
-California 94555, USA and can be reached at 510.796.6100 or on the World Wide
-Web at http://www.mylex.com. Mylex Technical Support can be reached by
-electronic mail at mylexsup@us.ibm.com, by voice at 510.608.2400, or by FAX at
-510.745.7715. Contact information for offices in Europe and Japan is available
-on their Web site.
-
-The latest information on Linux support for DAC960 PCI RAID Controllers, as
-well as the most recent release of this driver, will always be available from
-my Linux Home Page at URL "http://www.dandelion.com/Linux/". The Linux DAC960
-driver supports all current Mylex PCI RAID controllers including the new
-eXtremeRAID 2000/3000 and AcceleRAID 352/170/160 models which have an entirely
-new firmware interface from the older eXtremeRAID 1100, AcceleRAID 150/200/250,
-and DAC960PJ/PG/PU/PD/PL. See below for a complete controller list as well as
-minimum firmware version requirements. For simplicity, in most places this
-documentation refers to DAC960 generically rather than explicitly listing all
-the supported models.
-
-Driver bug reports should be sent via electronic mail to "lnz@dandelion.com".
-Please include with the bug report the complete configuration messages reported
-by the driver at startup, along with any subsequent system messages relevant to
-the controller's operation, and a detailed description of your system's
-hardware configuration. Driver bugs are actually quite rare; if you encounter
-problems with disks being marked offline, for example, please contact Mylex
-Technical Support as the problem is related to the hardware configuration
-rather than the Linux driver.
-
-Please consult the RAID controller documentation for detailed information
-regarding installation and configuration of the controllers. This document
-primarily provides information specific to the Linux support.
-
-
- DRIVER FEATURES
-
-The DAC960 RAID controllers are supported solely as high performance RAID
-controllers, not as interfaces to arbitrary SCSI devices. The Linux DAC960
-driver operates at the block device level, the same level as the SCSI and IDE
-drivers. Unlike other RAID controllers currently supported on Linux, the
-DAC960 driver is not dependent on the SCSI subsystem, and hence avoids all the
-complexity and unnecessary code that would be associated with an implementation
-as a SCSI driver. The DAC960 driver is designed for as high a performance as
-possible with no compromises or extra code for compatibility with lower
-performance devices. The DAC960 driver includes extensive error logging and
-online configuration management capabilities. Except for initial configuration
-of the controller and adding new disk drives, most everything can be handled
-from Linux while the system is operational.
-
-The DAC960 driver is architected to support up to 8 controllers per system.
-Each DAC960 parallel SCSI controller can support up to 15 disk drives per
-channel, for a maximum of 60 drives on a four channel controller; the fibre
-channel eXtremeRAID 3000 controller supports up to 125 disk drives per loop for
-a total of 250 drives. The drives installed on a controller are divided into
-one or more "Drive Groups", and then each Drive Group is subdivided further
-into 1 to 32 "Logical Drives". Each Logical Drive has a specific RAID Level
-and caching policy associated with it, and it appears to Linux as a single
-block device. Logical Drives are further subdivided into up to 7 partitions
-through the normal Linux and PC disk partitioning schemes. Logical Drives are
-also known as "System Drives", and Drive Groups are also called "Packs". Both
-terms are in use in the Mylex documentation; I have chosen to standardize on
-the more generic "Logical Drive" and "Drive Group".
-
-DAC960 RAID disk devices are named in the style of the obsolete Device File
-System (DEVFS). The device corresponding to Logical Drive D on Controller C
-is referred to as /dev/rd/cCdD, and the partitions are called /dev/rd/cCdDp1
-through /dev/rd/cCdDp7. For example, partition 3 of Logical Drive 5 on
-Controller 2 is referred to as /dev/rd/c2d5p3. Note that unlike with SCSI
-disks the device names will not change in the event of a disk drive failure.
-The DAC960 driver is assigned major numbers 48 - 55 with one major number per
-controller. The 8 bits of minor number are divided into 5 bits for the Logical
-Drive and 3 bits for the partition.
-
-
- SUPPORTED DAC960/AcceleRAID/eXtremeRAID PCI RAID CONTROLLERS
-
-The following list comprises the supported DAC960, AcceleRAID, and eXtremeRAID
-PCI RAID Controllers as of the date of this document. It is recommended that
-anyone purchasing a Mylex PCI RAID Controller not in the following table
-contact the author beforehand to verify that it is or will be supported.
-
-eXtremeRAID 3000
- 1 Wide Ultra-2/LVD SCSI channel
- 2 External Fibre FC-AL channels
- 233MHz StrongARM SA 110 Processor
- 64 Bit 33MHz PCI (backward compatible with 32 Bit PCI slots)
- 32MB/64MB ECC SDRAM Memory
-
-eXtremeRAID 2000
- 4 Wide Ultra-160 LVD SCSI channels
- 233MHz StrongARM SA 110 Processor
- 64 Bit 33MHz PCI (backward compatible with 32 Bit PCI slots)
- 32MB/64MB ECC SDRAM Memory
-
-AcceleRAID 352
- 2 Wide Ultra-160 LVD SCSI channels
- 100MHz Intel i960RN RISC Processor
- 64 Bit 33MHz PCI (backward compatible with 32 Bit PCI slots)
- 32MB/64MB ECC SDRAM Memory
-
-AcceleRAID 170
- 1 Wide Ultra-160 LVD SCSI channel
- 100MHz Intel i960RM RISC Processor
- 16MB/32MB/64MB ECC SDRAM Memory
-
-AcceleRAID 160 (AcceleRAID 170LP)
- 1 Wide Ultra-160 LVD SCSI channel
- 100MHz Intel i960RS RISC Processor
- Built in 16M ECC SDRAM Memory
- PCI Low Profile Form Factor - fit for 2U height
-
-eXtremeRAID 1100 (DAC1164P)
- 3 Wide Ultra-2/LVD SCSI channels
- 233MHz StrongARM SA 110 Processor
- 64 Bit 33MHz PCI (backward compatible with 32 Bit PCI slots)
- 16MB/32MB/64MB Parity SDRAM Memory with Battery Backup
-
-AcceleRAID 250 (DAC960PTL1)
- Uses onboard Symbios SCSI chips on certain motherboards
- Also includes one onboard Wide Ultra-2/LVD SCSI Channel
- 66MHz Intel i960RD RISC Processor
- 4MB/8MB/16MB/32MB/64MB/128MB ECC EDO Memory
-
-AcceleRAID 200 (DAC960PTL0)
- Uses onboard Symbios SCSI chips on certain motherboards
- Includes no onboard SCSI Channels
- 66MHz Intel i960RD RISC Processor
- 4MB/8MB/16MB/32MB/64MB/128MB ECC EDO Memory
-
-AcceleRAID 150 (DAC960PRL)
- Uses onboard Symbios SCSI chips on certain motherboards
- Also includes one onboard Wide Ultra-2/LVD SCSI Channel
- 33MHz Intel i960RP RISC Processor
- 4MB Parity EDO Memory
-
-DAC960PJ 1/2/3 Wide Ultra SCSI-3 Channels
- 66MHz Intel i960RD RISC Processor
- 4MB/8MB/16MB/32MB/64MB/128MB ECC EDO Memory
-
-DAC960PG 1/2/3 Wide Ultra SCSI-3 Channels
- 33MHz Intel i960RP RISC Processor
- 4MB/8MB ECC EDO Memory
-
-DAC960PU 1/2/3 Wide Ultra SCSI-3 Channels
- Intel i960CF RISC Processor
- 4MB/8MB EDRAM or 2MB/4MB/8MB/16MB/32MB DRAM Memory
-
-DAC960PD 1/2/3 Wide Fast SCSI-2 Channels
- Intel i960CF RISC Processor
- 4MB/8MB EDRAM or 2MB/4MB/8MB/16MB/32MB DRAM Memory
-
-DAC960PL 1/2/3 Wide Fast SCSI-2 Channels
- Intel i960 RISC Processor
- 2MB/4MB/8MB/16MB/32MB DRAM Memory
-
-DAC960P 1/2/3 Wide Fast SCSI-2 Channels
- Intel i960 RISC Processor
- 2MB/4MB/8MB/16MB/32MB DRAM Memory
-
-For the eXtremeRAID 2000/3000 and AcceleRAID 352/170/160, firmware version
-6.00-01 or above is required.
-
-For the eXtremeRAID 1100, firmware version 5.06-0-52 or above is required.
-
-For the AcceleRAID 250, 200, and 150, firmware version 4.06-0-57 or above is
-required.
-
-For the DAC960PJ and DAC960PG, firmware version 4.06-0-00 or above is required.
-
-For the DAC960PU, DAC960PD, DAC960PL, and DAC960P, either firmware version
-3.51-0-04 or above is required (for dual Flash ROM controllers), or firmware
-version 2.73-0-00 or above is required (for single Flash ROM controllers)
-
-Please note that not all SCSI disk drives are suitable for use with DAC960
-controllers, and only particular firmware versions of any given model may
-actually function correctly. Similarly, not all motherboards have a BIOS that
-properly initializes the AcceleRAID 250, AcceleRAID 200, AcceleRAID 150,
-DAC960PJ, and DAC960PG because the Intel i960RD/RP is a multi-function device.
-If in doubt, contact Mylex RAID Technical Support (mylexsup@us.ibm.com) to
-verify compatibility. Mylex makes available a hard disk compatibility list at
-http://www.mylex.com/support/hdcomp/hd-lists.html.
-
-
- DRIVER INSTALLATION
-
-This distribution was prepared for Linux kernel version 2.2.19 or 2.4.12.
-
-To install the DAC960 RAID driver, you may use the following commands,
-replacing "/usr/src" with wherever you keep your Linux kernel source tree:
-
- cd /usr/src
- tar -xvzf DAC960-2.2.11.tar.gz (or DAC960-2.4.11.tar.gz)
- mv README.DAC960 linux/Documentation
- mv DAC960.[ch] linux/drivers/block
- patch -p0 < DAC960.patch (if DAC960.patch is included)
- cd linux
- make config
- make bzImage (or zImage)
-
-Then install "arch/x86/boot/bzImage" or "arch/x86/boot/zImage" as your
-standard kernel, run lilo if appropriate, and reboot.
-
-To create the necessary devices in /dev, the "make_rd" script included in
-"DAC960-Utilities.tar.gz" from http://www.dandelion.com/Linux/ may be used.
-LILO 21 and FDISK v2.9 include DAC960 support; also included in this archive
-are patches to LILO 20 and FDISK v2.8 that add DAC960 support, along with
-statically linked executables of LILO and FDISK. This modified version of LILO
-will allow booting from a DAC960 controller and/or mounting the root file
-system from a DAC960.
-
-Red Hat Linux 6.0 and SuSE Linux 6.1 include support for Mylex PCI RAID
-controllers. Installing directly onto a DAC960 may be problematic from other
-Linux distributions until their installation utilities are updated.
-
-
- INSTALLATION NOTES
-
-Before installing Linux or adding DAC960 logical drives to an existing Linux
-system, the controller must first be configured to provide one or more logical
-drives using the BIOS Configuration Utility or DACCF. Please note that since
-there are only at most 6 usable partitions on each logical drive, systems
-requiring more partitions should subdivide a drive group into multiple logical
-drives, each of which can have up to 6 usable partitions. Also, note that with
-large disk arrays it is advisable to enable the 8GB BIOS Geometry (255/63)
-rather than accepting the default 2GB BIOS Geometry (128/32); failing to so do
-will cause the logical drive geometry to have more than 65535 cylinders which
-will make it impossible for FDISK to be used properly. The 8GB BIOS Geometry
-can be enabled by configuring the DAC960 BIOS, which is accessible via Alt-M
-during the BIOS initialization sequence.
-
-For maximum performance and the most efficient E2FSCK performance, it is
-recommended that EXT2 file systems be built with a 4KB block size and 16 block
-stride to match the DAC960 controller's 64KB default stripe size. The command
-"mke2fs -b 4096 -R stride=16 <device>" is appropriate. Unless there will be a
-large number of small files on the file systems, it is also beneficial to add
-the "-i 16384" option to increase the bytes per inode parameter thereby
-reducing the file system metadata. Finally, on systems that will only be run
-with Linux 2.2 or later kernels it is beneficial to enable sparse superblocks
-with the "-s 1" option.
-
-
- DAC960 ANNOUNCEMENTS MAILING LIST
-
-The DAC960 Announcements Mailing List provides a forum for informing Linux
-users of new driver releases and other announcements regarding Linux support
-for DAC960 PCI RAID Controllers. To join the mailing list, send a message to
-"dac960-announce-request@dandelion.com" with the line "subscribe" in the
-message body.
-
-
- CONTROLLER CONFIGURATION AND STATUS MONITORING
-
-The DAC960 RAID controllers running firmware 4.06 or above include a Background
-Initialization facility so that system downtime is minimized both for initial
-installation and subsequent configuration of additional storage. The BIOS
-Configuration Utility (accessible via Alt-R during the BIOS initialization
-sequence) is used to quickly configure the controller, and then the logical
-drives that have been created are available for immediate use even while they
-are still being initialized by the controller. The primary need for online
-configuration and status monitoring is then to avoid system downtime when disk
-drives fail and must be replaced. Mylex's online monitoring and configuration
-utilities are being ported to Linux and will become available at some point in
-the future. Note that with a SAF-TE (SCSI Accessed Fault-Tolerant Enclosure)
-enclosure, the controller is able to rebuild failed drives automatically as
-soon as a drive replacement is made available.
-
-The primary interfaces for controller configuration and status monitoring are
-special files created in the /proc/rd/... hierarchy along with the normal
-system console logging mechanism. Whenever the system is operating, the DAC960
-driver queries each controller for status information every 10 seconds, and
-checks for additional conditions every 60 seconds. The initial status of each
-controller is always available for controller N in /proc/rd/cN/initial_status,
-and the current status as of the last status monitoring query is available in
-/proc/rd/cN/current_status. In addition, status changes are also logged by the
-driver to the system console and will appear in the log files maintained by
-syslog. The progress of asynchronous rebuild or consistency check operations
-is also available in /proc/rd/cN/current_status, and progress messages are
-logged to the system console at most every 60 seconds.
-
-Starting with the 2.2.3/2.0.3 versions of the driver, the status information
-available in /proc/rd/cN/initial_status and /proc/rd/cN/current_status has been
-augmented to include the vendor, model, revision, and serial number (if
-available) for each physical device found connected to the controller:
-
-***** DAC960 RAID Driver Version 2.2.3 of 19 August 1999 *****
-Copyright 1998-1999 by Leonard N. Zubkoff <lnz@dandelion.com>
-Configuring Mylex DAC960PRL PCI RAID Controller
- Firmware Version: 4.07-0-07, Channels: 1, Memory Size: 16MB
- PCI Bus: 1, Device: 4, Function: 1, I/O Address: Unassigned
- PCI Address: 0xFE300000 mapped at 0xA0800000, IRQ Channel: 21
- Controller Queue Depth: 128, Maximum Blocks per Command: 128
- Driver Queue Depth: 127, Maximum Scatter/Gather Segments: 33
- Stripe Size: 64KB, Segment Size: 8KB, BIOS Geometry: 255/63
- SAF-TE Enclosure Management Enabled
- Physical Devices:
- 0:0 Vendor: IBM Model: DRVS09D Revision: 0270
- Serial Number: 68016775HA
- Disk Status: Online, 17928192 blocks
- 0:1 Vendor: IBM Model: DRVS09D Revision: 0270
- Serial Number: 68004E53HA
- Disk Status: Online, 17928192 blocks
- 0:2 Vendor: IBM Model: DRVS09D Revision: 0270
- Serial Number: 13013935HA
- Disk Status: Online, 17928192 blocks
- 0:3 Vendor: IBM Model: DRVS09D Revision: 0270
- Serial Number: 13016897HA
- Disk Status: Online, 17928192 blocks
- 0:4 Vendor: IBM Model: DRVS09D Revision: 0270
- Serial Number: 68019905HA
- Disk Status: Online, 17928192 blocks
- 0:5 Vendor: IBM Model: DRVS09D Revision: 0270
- Serial Number: 68012753HA
- Disk Status: Online, 17928192 blocks
- 0:6 Vendor: ESG-SHV Model: SCA HSBP M6 Revision: 0.61
- Logical Drives:
- /dev/rd/c0d0: RAID-5, Online, 89640960 blocks, Write Thru
- No Rebuild or Consistency Check in Progress
-
-To simplify the monitoring process for custom software, the special file
-/proc/rd/status returns "OK" when all DAC960 controllers in the system are
-operating normally and no failures have occurred, or "ALERT" if any logical
-drives are offline or critical or any non-standby physical drives are dead.
-
-Configuration commands for controller N are available via the special file
-/proc/rd/cN/user_command. A human readable command can be written to this
-special file to initiate a configuration operation, and the results of the
-operation can then be read back from the special file in addition to being
-logged to the system console. The shell command sequence
-
- echo "<configuration-command>" > /proc/rd/c0/user_command
- cat /proc/rd/c0/user_command
-
-is typically used to execute configuration commands. The configuration
-commands are:
-
- flush-cache
-
- The "flush-cache" command flushes the controller's cache. The system
- automatically flushes the cache at shutdown or if the driver module is
- unloaded, so this command is only needed to be certain a write back cache
- is flushed to disk before the system is powered off by a command to a UPS.
- Note that the flush-cache command also stops an asynchronous rebuild or
- consistency check, so it should not be used except when the system is being
- halted.
-
- kill <channel>:<target-id>
-
- The "kill" command marks the physical drive <channel>:<target-id> as DEAD.
- This command is provided primarily for testing, and should not be used
- during normal system operation.
-
- make-online <channel>:<target-id>
-
- The "make-online" command changes the physical drive <channel>:<target-id>
- from status DEAD to status ONLINE. In cases where multiple physical drives
- have been killed simultaneously, this command may be used to bring all but
- one of them back online, after which a rebuild to the final drive is
- necessary.
-
- Warning: make-online should only be used on a dead physical drive that is
- an active part of a drive group, never on a standby drive. The command
- should never be used on a dead drive that is part of a critical logical
- drive; rebuild should be used if only a single drive is dead.
-
- make-standby <channel>:<target-id>
-
- The "make-standby" command changes physical drive <channel>:<target-id>
- from status DEAD to status STANDBY. It should only be used in cases where
- a dead drive was replaced after an automatic rebuild was performed onto a
- standby drive. It cannot be used to add a standby drive to the controller
- configuration if one was not created initially; the BIOS Configuration
- Utility must be used for that currently.
-
- rebuild <channel>:<target-id>
-
- The "rebuild" command initiates an asynchronous rebuild onto physical drive
- <channel>:<target-id>. It should only be used when a dead drive has been
- replaced.
-
- check-consistency <logical-drive-number>
-
- The "check-consistency" command initiates an asynchronous consistency check
- of <logical-drive-number> with automatic restoration. It can be used
- whenever it is desired to verify the consistency of the redundancy
- information.
-
- cancel-rebuild
- cancel-consistency-check
-
- The "cancel-rebuild" and "cancel-consistency-check" commands cancel any
- rebuild or consistency check operations previously initiated.
-
-
- EXAMPLE I - DRIVE FAILURE WITHOUT A STANDBY DRIVE
-
-The following annotated logs demonstrate the controller configuration and and
-online status monitoring capabilities of the Linux DAC960 Driver. The test
-configuration comprises 6 1GB Quantum Atlas I disk drives on two channels of a
-DAC960PJ controller. The physical drives are configured into a single drive
-group without a standby drive, and the drive group has been configured into two
-logical drives, one RAID-5 and one RAID-6. Note that these logs are from an
-earlier version of the driver and the messages have changed somewhat with newer
-releases, but the functionality remains similar. First, here is the current
-status of the RAID configuration:
-
-gwynedd:/u/lnz# cat /proc/rd/c0/current_status
-***** DAC960 RAID Driver Version 2.0.0 of 23 March 1999 *****
-Copyright 1998-1999 by Leonard N. Zubkoff <lnz@dandelion.com>
-Configuring Mylex DAC960PJ PCI RAID Controller
- Firmware Version: 4.06-0-08, Channels: 3, Memory Size: 8MB
- PCI Bus: 0, Device: 19, Function: 1, I/O Address: Unassigned
- PCI Address: 0xFD4FC000 mapped at 0x8807000, IRQ Channel: 9
- Controller Queue Depth: 128, Maximum Blocks per Command: 128
- Driver Queue Depth: 127, Maximum Scatter/Gather Segments: 33
- Stripe Size: 64KB, Segment Size: 8KB, BIOS Geometry: 255/63
- Physical Devices:
- 0:1 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 0:2 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 0:3 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 1:1 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 1:2 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 1:3 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- Logical Drives:
- /dev/rd/c0d0: RAID-5, Online, 5498880 blocks, Write Thru
- /dev/rd/c0d1: RAID-6, Online, 3305472 blocks, Write Thru
- No Rebuild or Consistency Check in Progress
-
-gwynedd:/u/lnz# cat /proc/rd/status
-OK
-
-The above messages indicate that everything is healthy, and /proc/rd/status
-returns "OK" indicating that there are no problems with any DAC960 controller
-in the system. For demonstration purposes, while I/O is active Physical Drive
-1:1 is now disconnected, simulating a drive failure. The failure is noted by
-the driver within 10 seconds of the controller's having detected it, and the
-driver logs the following console status messages indicating that Logical
-Drives 0 and 1 are now CRITICAL as a result of Physical Drive 1:1 being DEAD:
-
-DAC960#0: Physical Drive 1:2 Error Log: Sense Key = 6, ASC = 29, ASCQ = 02
-DAC960#0: Physical Drive 1:3 Error Log: Sense Key = 6, ASC = 29, ASCQ = 02
-DAC960#0: Physical Drive 1:1 killed because of timeout on SCSI command
-DAC960#0: Physical Drive 1:1 is now DEAD
-DAC960#0: Logical Drive 0 (/dev/rd/c0d0) is now CRITICAL
-DAC960#0: Logical Drive 1 (/dev/rd/c0d1) is now CRITICAL
-
-The Sense Keys logged here are just Check Condition / Unit Attention conditions
-arising from a SCSI bus reset that is forced by the controller during its error
-recovery procedures. Concurrently with the above, the driver status available
-from /proc/rd also reflects the drive failure. The status message in
-/proc/rd/status has changed from "OK" to "ALERT":
-
-gwynedd:/u/lnz# cat /proc/rd/status
-ALERT
-
-and /proc/rd/c0/current_status has been updated:
-
-gwynedd:/u/lnz# cat /proc/rd/c0/current_status
- ...
- Physical Devices:
- 0:1 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 0:2 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 0:3 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 1:1 - Disk: Dead, 2201600 blocks
- 1:2 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 1:3 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- Logical Drives:
- /dev/rd/c0d0: RAID-5, Critical, 5498880 blocks, Write Thru
- /dev/rd/c0d1: RAID-6, Critical, 3305472 blocks, Write Thru
- No Rebuild or Consistency Check in Progress
-
-Since there are no standby drives configured, the system can continue to access
-the logical drives in a performance degraded mode until the failed drive is
-replaced and a rebuild operation completed to restore the redundancy of the
-logical drives. Once Physical Drive 1:1 is replaced with a properly
-functioning drive, or if the physical drive was killed without having failed
-(e.g., due to electrical problems on the SCSI bus), the user can instruct the
-controller to initiate a rebuild operation onto the newly replaced drive:
-
-gwynedd:/u/lnz# echo "rebuild 1:1" > /proc/rd/c0/user_command
-gwynedd:/u/lnz# cat /proc/rd/c0/user_command
-Rebuild of Physical Drive 1:1 Initiated
-
-The echo command instructs the controller to initiate an asynchronous rebuild
-operation onto Physical Drive 1:1, and the status message that results from the
-operation is then available for reading from /proc/rd/c0/user_command, as well
-as being logged to the console by the driver.
-
-Within 10 seconds of this command the driver logs the initiation of the
-asynchronous rebuild operation:
-
-DAC960#0: Rebuild of Physical Drive 1:1 Initiated
-DAC960#0: Physical Drive 1:1 Error Log: Sense Key = 6, ASC = 29, ASCQ = 01
-DAC960#0: Physical Drive 1:1 is now WRITE-ONLY
-DAC960#0: Rebuild in Progress: Logical Drive 0 (/dev/rd/c0d0) 1% completed
-
-and /proc/rd/c0/current_status is updated:
-
-gwynedd:/u/lnz# cat /proc/rd/c0/current_status
- ...
- Physical Devices:
- 0:1 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 0:2 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 0:3 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 1:1 - Disk: Write-Only, 2201600 blocks
- 1:2 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 1:3 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- Logical Drives:
- /dev/rd/c0d0: RAID-5, Critical, 5498880 blocks, Write Thru
- /dev/rd/c0d1: RAID-6, Critical, 3305472 blocks, Write Thru
- Rebuild in Progress: Logical Drive 0 (/dev/rd/c0d0) 6% completed
-
-As the rebuild progresses, the current status in /proc/rd/c0/current_status is
-updated every 10 seconds:
-
-gwynedd:/u/lnz# cat /proc/rd/c0/current_status
- ...
- Physical Devices:
- 0:1 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 0:2 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 0:3 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 1:1 - Disk: Write-Only, 2201600 blocks
- 1:2 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 1:3 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- Logical Drives:
- /dev/rd/c0d0: RAID-5, Critical, 5498880 blocks, Write Thru
- /dev/rd/c0d1: RAID-6, Critical, 3305472 blocks, Write Thru
- Rebuild in Progress: Logical Drive 0 (/dev/rd/c0d0) 15% completed
-
-and every minute a progress message is logged to the console by the driver:
-
-DAC960#0: Rebuild in Progress: Logical Drive 0 (/dev/rd/c0d0) 32% completed
-DAC960#0: Rebuild in Progress: Logical Drive 0 (/dev/rd/c0d0) 63% completed
-DAC960#0: Rebuild in Progress: Logical Drive 0 (/dev/rd/c0d0) 94% completed
-DAC960#0: Rebuild in Progress: Logical Drive 1 (/dev/rd/c0d1) 94% completed
-
-Finally, the rebuild completes successfully. The driver logs the status of the
-logical and physical drives and the rebuild completion:
-
-DAC960#0: Rebuild Completed Successfully
-DAC960#0: Physical Drive 1:1 is now ONLINE
-DAC960#0: Logical Drive 0 (/dev/rd/c0d0) is now ONLINE
-DAC960#0: Logical Drive 1 (/dev/rd/c0d1) is now ONLINE
-
-/proc/rd/c0/current_status is updated:
-
-gwynedd:/u/lnz# cat /proc/rd/c0/current_status
- ...
- Physical Devices:
- 0:1 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 0:2 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 0:3 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 1:1 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 1:2 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 1:3 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- Logical Drives:
- /dev/rd/c0d0: RAID-5, Online, 5498880 blocks, Write Thru
- /dev/rd/c0d1: RAID-6, Online, 3305472 blocks, Write Thru
- Rebuild Completed Successfully
-
-and /proc/rd/status indicates that everything is healthy once again:
-
-gwynedd:/u/lnz# cat /proc/rd/status
-OK
-
-
- EXAMPLE II - DRIVE FAILURE WITH A STANDBY DRIVE
-
-The following annotated logs demonstrate the controller configuration and and
-online status monitoring capabilities of the Linux DAC960 Driver. The test
-configuration comprises 6 1GB Quantum Atlas I disk drives on two channels of a
-DAC960PJ controller. The physical drives are configured into a single drive
-group with a standby drive, and the drive group has been configured into two
-logical drives, one RAID-5 and one RAID-6. Note that these logs are from an
-earlier version of the driver and the messages have changed somewhat with newer
-releases, but the functionality remains similar. First, here is the current
-status of the RAID configuration:
-
-gwynedd:/u/lnz# cat /proc/rd/c0/current_status
-***** DAC960 RAID Driver Version 2.0.0 of 23 March 1999 *****
-Copyright 1998-1999 by Leonard N. Zubkoff <lnz@dandelion.com>
-Configuring Mylex DAC960PJ PCI RAID Controller
- Firmware Version: 4.06-0-08, Channels: 3, Memory Size: 8MB
- PCI Bus: 0, Device: 19, Function: 1, I/O Address: Unassigned
- PCI Address: 0xFD4FC000 mapped at 0x8807000, IRQ Channel: 9
- Controller Queue Depth: 128, Maximum Blocks per Command: 128
- Driver Queue Depth: 127, Maximum Scatter/Gather Segments: 33
- Stripe Size: 64KB, Segment Size: 8KB, BIOS Geometry: 255/63
- Physical Devices:
- 0:1 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 0:2 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 0:3 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 1:1 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 1:2 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 1:3 - Disk: Standby, 2201600 blocks
- Logical Drives:
- /dev/rd/c0d0: RAID-5, Online, 4399104 blocks, Write Thru
- /dev/rd/c0d1: RAID-6, Online, 2754560 blocks, Write Thru
- No Rebuild or Consistency Check in Progress
-
-gwynedd:/u/lnz# cat /proc/rd/status
-OK
-
-The above messages indicate that everything is healthy, and /proc/rd/status
-returns "OK" indicating that there are no problems with any DAC960 controller
-in the system. For demonstration purposes, while I/O is active Physical Drive
-1:2 is now disconnected, simulating a drive failure. The failure is noted by
-the driver within 10 seconds of the controller's having detected it, and the
-driver logs the following console status messages:
-
-DAC960#0: Physical Drive 1:1 Error Log: Sense Key = 6, ASC = 29, ASCQ = 02
-DAC960#0: Physical Drive 1:3 Error Log: Sense Key = 6, ASC = 29, ASCQ = 02
-DAC960#0: Physical Drive 1:2 killed because of timeout on SCSI command
-DAC960#0: Physical Drive 1:2 is now DEAD
-DAC960#0: Physical Drive 1:2 killed because it was removed
-DAC960#0: Logical Drive 0 (/dev/rd/c0d0) is now CRITICAL
-DAC960#0: Logical Drive 1 (/dev/rd/c0d1) is now CRITICAL
-
-Since a standby drive is configured, the controller automatically begins
-rebuilding onto the standby drive:
-
-DAC960#0: Physical Drive 1:3 is now WRITE-ONLY
-DAC960#0: Rebuild in Progress: Logical Drive 0 (/dev/rd/c0d0) 4% completed
-
-Concurrently with the above, the driver status available from /proc/rd also
-reflects the drive failure and automatic rebuild. The status message in
-/proc/rd/status has changed from "OK" to "ALERT":
-
-gwynedd:/u/lnz# cat /proc/rd/status
-ALERT
-
-and /proc/rd/c0/current_status has been updated:
-
-gwynedd:/u/lnz# cat /proc/rd/c0/current_status
- ...
- Physical Devices:
- 0:1 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 0:2 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 0:3 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 1:1 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 1:2 - Disk: Dead, 2201600 blocks
- 1:3 - Disk: Write-Only, 2201600 blocks
- Logical Drives:
- /dev/rd/c0d0: RAID-5, Critical, 4399104 blocks, Write Thru
- /dev/rd/c0d1: RAID-6, Critical, 2754560 blocks, Write Thru
- Rebuild in Progress: Logical Drive 0 (/dev/rd/c0d0) 4% completed
-
-As the rebuild progresses, the current status in /proc/rd/c0/current_status is
-updated every 10 seconds:
-
-gwynedd:/u/lnz# cat /proc/rd/c0/current_status
- ...
- Physical Devices:
- 0:1 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 0:2 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 0:3 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 1:1 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 1:2 - Disk: Dead, 2201600 blocks
- 1:3 - Disk: Write-Only, 2201600 blocks
- Logical Drives:
- /dev/rd/c0d0: RAID-5, Critical, 4399104 blocks, Write Thru
- /dev/rd/c0d1: RAID-6, Critical, 2754560 blocks, Write Thru
- Rebuild in Progress: Logical Drive 0 (/dev/rd/c0d0) 40% completed
-
-and every minute a progress message is logged on the console by the driver:
-
-DAC960#0: Rebuild in Progress: Logical Drive 0 (/dev/rd/c0d0) 40% completed
-DAC960#0: Rebuild in Progress: Logical Drive 0 (/dev/rd/c0d0) 76% completed
-DAC960#0: Rebuild in Progress: Logical Drive 1 (/dev/rd/c0d1) 66% completed
-DAC960#0: Rebuild in Progress: Logical Drive 1 (/dev/rd/c0d1) 84% completed
-
-Finally, the rebuild completes successfully. The driver logs the status of the
-logical and physical drives and the rebuild completion:
-
-DAC960#0: Rebuild Completed Successfully
-DAC960#0: Physical Drive 1:3 is now ONLINE
-DAC960#0: Logical Drive 0 (/dev/rd/c0d0) is now ONLINE
-DAC960#0: Logical Drive 1 (/dev/rd/c0d1) is now ONLINE
-
-/proc/rd/c0/current_status is updated:
-
-***** DAC960 RAID Driver Version 2.0.0 of 23 March 1999 *****
-Copyright 1998-1999 by Leonard N. Zubkoff <lnz@dandelion.com>
-Configuring Mylex DAC960PJ PCI RAID Controller
- Firmware Version: 4.06-0-08, Channels: 3, Memory Size: 8MB
- PCI Bus: 0, Device: 19, Function: 1, I/O Address: Unassigned
- PCI Address: 0xFD4FC000 mapped at 0x8807000, IRQ Channel: 9
- Controller Queue Depth: 128, Maximum Blocks per Command: 128
- Driver Queue Depth: 127, Maximum Scatter/Gather Segments: 33
- Stripe Size: 64KB, Segment Size: 8KB, BIOS Geometry: 255/63
- Physical Devices:
- 0:1 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 0:2 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 0:3 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 1:1 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 1:2 - Disk: Dead, 2201600 blocks
- 1:3 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- Logical Drives:
- /dev/rd/c0d0: RAID-5, Online, 4399104 blocks, Write Thru
- /dev/rd/c0d1: RAID-6, Online, 2754560 blocks, Write Thru
- Rebuild Completed Successfully
-
-and /proc/rd/status indicates that everything is healthy once again:
-
-gwynedd:/u/lnz# cat /proc/rd/status
-OK
-
-Note that the absence of a viable standby drive does not create an "ALERT"
-status. Once dead Physical Drive 1:2 has been replaced, the controller must be
-told that this has occurred and that the newly replaced drive should become the
-new standby drive:
-
-gwynedd:/u/lnz# echo "make-standby 1:2" > /proc/rd/c0/user_command
-gwynedd:/u/lnz# cat /proc/rd/c0/user_command
-Make Standby of Physical Drive 1:2 Succeeded
-
-The echo command instructs the controller to make Physical Drive 1:2 into a
-standby drive, and the status message that results from the operation is then
-available for reading from /proc/rd/c0/user_command, as well as being logged to
-the console by the driver. Within 60 seconds of this command the driver logs:
-
-DAC960#0: Physical Drive 1:2 Error Log: Sense Key = 6, ASC = 29, ASCQ = 01
-DAC960#0: Physical Drive 1:2 is now STANDBY
-DAC960#0: Make Standby of Physical Drive 1:2 Succeeded
-
-and /proc/rd/c0/current_status is updated:
-
-gwynedd:/u/lnz# cat /proc/rd/c0/current_status
- ...
- Physical Devices:
- 0:1 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 0:2 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 0:3 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 1:1 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- 1:2 - Disk: Standby, 2201600 blocks
- 1:3 - Disk: Online, 2201600 blocks
- Logical Drives:
- /dev/rd/c0d0: RAID-5, Online, 4399104 blocks, Write Thru
- /dev/rd/c0d1: RAID-6, Online, 2754560 blocks, Write Thru
- Rebuild Completed Successfully
diff --git a/Documentation/blockdev/cciss.txt b/Documentation/blockdev/cciss.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index b79d0a13e7c..00000000000
--- a/Documentation/blockdev/cciss.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,194 +0,0 @@
-This driver is for Compaq's SMART Array Controllers.
-
-Supported Cards:
-----------------
-
-This driver is known to work with the following cards:
-
- * SA 5300
- * SA 5i
- * SA 532
- * SA 5312
- * SA 641
- * SA 642
- * SA 6400
- * SA 6400 U320 Expansion Module
- * SA 6i
- * SA P600
- * SA P800
- * SA E400
- * SA P400i
- * SA E200
- * SA E200i
- * SA E500
- * SA P700m
- * SA P212
- * SA P410
- * SA P410i
- * SA P411
- * SA P812
- * SA P712m
- * SA P711m
-
-Detecting drive failures:
--------------------------
-
-To get the status of logical volumes and to detect physical drive
-failures, you can use the cciss_vol_status program found here:
-http://cciss.sourceforge.net/#cciss_utils
-
-Device Naming:
---------------
-
-If nodes are not already created in the /dev/cciss directory, run as root:
-
-# cd /dev
-# ./MAKEDEV cciss
-
-You need some entries in /dev for the cciss device. The MAKEDEV script
-can make device nodes for you automatically. Currently the device setup
-is as follows:
-
-Major numbers:
- 104 cciss0
- 105 cciss1
- 106 cciss2
- 105 cciss3
- 108 cciss4
- 109 cciss5
- 110 cciss6
- 111 cciss7
-
-Minor numbers:
- b7 b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 b1 b0
- |----+----| |----+----|
- | |
- | +-------- Partition ID (0=wholedev, 1-15 partition)
- |
- +-------------------- Logical Volume number
-
-The device naming scheme is:
-/dev/cciss/c0d0 Controller 0, disk 0, whole device
-/dev/cciss/c0d0p1 Controller 0, disk 0, partition 1
-/dev/cciss/c0d0p2 Controller 0, disk 0, partition 2
-/dev/cciss/c0d0p3 Controller 0, disk 0, partition 3
-
-/dev/cciss/c1d1 Controller 1, disk 1, whole device
-/dev/cciss/c1d1p1 Controller 1, disk 1, partition 1
-/dev/cciss/c1d1p2 Controller 1, disk 1, partition 2
-/dev/cciss/c1d1p3 Controller 1, disk 1, partition 3
-
-CCISS simple mode support
--------------------------
-
-The "cciss_simple_mode=1" boot parameter may be used to prevent the driver
-from putting the controller into "performant" mode. The difference is that
-with simple mode, each command completion requires an interrupt, while with
-"performant mode" (the default, and ordinarily better performing) it is
-possible to have multiple command completions indicated by a single
-interrupt.
-
-SCSI tape drive and medium changer support
-------------------------------------------
-
-SCSI sequential access devices and medium changer devices are supported and
-appropriate device nodes are automatically created. (e.g.
-/dev/st0, /dev/st1, etc. See the "st" man page for more details.)
-You must enable "SCSI tape drive support for Smart Array 5xxx" and
-"SCSI support" in your kernel configuration to be able to use SCSI
-tape drives with your Smart Array 5xxx controller.
-
-Additionally, note that the driver will engage the SCSI core at init
-time if any tape drives or medium changers are detected. The driver may
-also be directed to dynamically engage the SCSI core via the /proc filesystem
-entry which the "block" side of the driver creates as
-/proc/driver/cciss/cciss* at runtime. This is best done via a script.
-
-For example:
-
- for x in /proc/driver/cciss/cciss[0-9]*
- do
- echo "engage scsi" > $x
- done
-
-Once the SCSI core is engaged by the driver, it cannot be disengaged
-(except by unloading the driver, if it happens to be linked as a module.)
-
-Note also that if no sequential access devices or medium changers are
-detected, the SCSI core will not be engaged by the action of the above
-script.
-
-Hot plug support for SCSI tape drives
--------------------------------------
-
-Hot plugging of SCSI tape drives is supported, with some caveats.
-The cciss driver must be informed that changes to the SCSI bus
-have been made. This may be done via the /proc filesystem.
-For example:
-
- echo "rescan" > /proc/scsi/cciss0/1
-
-This causes the driver to query the adapter about changes to the
-physical SCSI buses and/or fibre channel arbitrated loop and the
-driver to make note of any new or removed sequential access devices
-or medium changers. The driver will output messages indicating what
-devices have been added or removed and the controller, bus, target and
-lun used to address the device. It then notifies the SCSI mid layer
-of these changes.
-
-Note that the naming convention of the /proc filesystem entries
-contains a number in addition to the driver name. (E.g. "cciss0"
-instead of just "cciss" which you might expect.)
-
-Note: ONLY sequential access devices and medium changers are presented
-as SCSI devices to the SCSI mid layer by the cciss driver. Specifically,
-physical SCSI disk drives are NOT presented to the SCSI mid layer. The
-physical SCSI disk drives are controlled directly by the array controller
-hardware and it is important to prevent the kernel from attempting to directly
-access these devices too, as if the array controller were merely a SCSI
-controller in the same way that we are allowing it to access SCSI tape drives.
-
-SCSI error handling for tape drives and medium changers
--------------------------------------------------------
-
-The linux SCSI mid layer provides an error handling protocol which
-kicks into gear whenever a SCSI command fails to complete within a
-certain amount of time (which can vary depending on the command).
-The cciss driver participates in this protocol to some extent. The
-normal protocol is a four step process. First the device is told
-to abort the command. If that doesn't work, the device is reset.
-If that doesn't work, the SCSI bus is reset. If that doesn't work
-the host bus adapter is reset. Because the cciss driver is a block
-driver as well as a SCSI driver and only the tape drives and medium
-changers are presented to the SCSI mid layer, and unlike more
-straightforward SCSI drivers, disk i/o continues through the block
-side during the SCSI error recovery process, the cciss driver only
-implements the first two of these actions, aborting the command, and
-resetting the device. Additionally, most tape drives will not oblige
-in aborting commands, and sometimes it appears they will not even
-obey a reset command, though in most circumstances they will. In
-the case that the command cannot be aborted and the device cannot be
-reset, the device will be set offline.
-
-In the event the error handling code is triggered and a tape drive is
-successfully reset or the tardy command is successfully aborted, the
-tape drive may still not allow i/o to continue until some command
-is issued which positions the tape to a known position. Typically you
-must rewind the tape (by issuing "mt -f /dev/st0 rewind" for example)
-before i/o can proceed again to a tape drive which was reset.
-
-There is a cciss_tape_cmds module parameter which can be used to make cciss
-allocate more commands for use by tape drives. Ordinarily only a few commands
-(6) are allocated for tape drives because tape drives are slow and
-infrequently used and the primary purpose of Smart Array controllers is to
-act as a RAID controller for disk drives, so the vast majority of commands
-are allocated for disk devices. However, if you have more than a few tape
-drives attached to a smart array, the default number of commands may not be
-enought (for example, if you have 8 tape drives, you could only rewind 6
-at one time with the default number of commands.) The cciss_tape_cmds module
-parameter allows more commands (up to 16 more) to be allocated for use by
-tape drives. For example:
-
- insmod cciss.ko cciss_tape_cmds=16
-
-Or, as a kernel boot parameter passed in via grub: cciss.cciss_tape_cmds=8
diff --git a/Documentation/blockdev/cpqarray.txt b/Documentation/blockdev/cpqarray.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index c7154e20ef5..00000000000
--- a/Documentation/blockdev/cpqarray.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,93 +0,0 @@
-This driver is for Compaq's SMART2 Intelligent Disk Array Controllers.
-
-Supported Cards:
-----------------
-
-This driver is known to work with the following cards:
-
- * SMART (EISA)
- * SMART-2/E (EISA)
- * SMART-2/P
- * SMART-2DH
- * SMART-2SL
- * SMART-221
- * SMART-3100ES
- * SMART-3200
- * Integrated Smart Array Controller
- * SA 4200
- * SA 4250ES
- * SA 431
- * RAID LC2 Controller
-
-It should also work with some really old Disk array adapters, but I am
-unable to test against these cards:
-
- * IDA
- * IDA-2
- * IAES
-
-
-EISA Controllers:
------------------
-
-If you want to use an EISA controller you'll have to supply some
-modprobe/lilo parameters. If the driver is compiled into the kernel, must
-give it the controller's IO port address at boot time (it is not
-necessary to specify the IRQ). For example, if you had two SMART-2/E
-controllers, in EISA slots 1 and 2 you'd give it a boot argument like
-this:
-
- smart2=0x1000,0x2000
-
-If you were loading the driver as a module, you'd give load it like this:
-
- modprobe cpqarray eisa=0x1000,0x2000
-
-You can use EISA and PCI adapters at the same time.
-
-
-Device Naming:
---------------
-
-You need some entries in /dev for the ida device. MAKEDEV in the /dev
-directory can make device nodes for you automatically. The device setup is
-as follows:
-
-Major numbers:
- 72 ida0
- 73 ida1
- 74 ida2
- 75 ida3
- 76 ida4
- 77 ida5
- 78 ida6
- 79 ida7
-
-Minor numbers:
- b7 b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 b1 b0
- |----+----| |----+----|
- | |
- | +-------- Partition ID (0=wholedev, 1-15 partition)
- |
- +-------------------- Logical Volume number
-
-The device naming scheme is:
-/dev/ida/c0d0 Controller 0, disk 0, whole device
-/dev/ida/c0d0p1 Controller 0, disk 0, partition 1
-/dev/ida/c0d0p2 Controller 0, disk 0, partition 2
-/dev/ida/c0d0p3 Controller 0, disk 0, partition 3
-
-/dev/ida/c1d1 Controller 1, disk 1, whole device
-/dev/ida/c1d1p1 Controller 1, disk 1, partition 1
-/dev/ida/c1d1p2 Controller 1, disk 1, partition 2
-/dev/ida/c1d1p3 Controller 1, disk 1, partition 3
-
-
-Changelog:
-==========
-
-10-28-2004 : General cleanup, syntax fixes for in-kernel driver version.
- James Nelson <james4765@gmail.com>
-
-
-1999 : Original Document
diff --git a/Documentation/blockdev/drbd/DRBD-8.3-data-packets.svg b/Documentation/blockdev/drbd/DRBD-8.3-data-packets.svg
deleted file mode 100644
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- <text
- id="text1293"
- style="font-size:318px;font-weight:400;fill:#000000;visibility:visible;font-family:Helvetica embedded">
- <tspan
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-</svg>
diff --git a/Documentation/blockdev/drbd/DRBD-data-packets.svg b/Documentation/blockdev/drbd/DRBD-data-packets.svg
deleted file mode 100644
index 48a1e2165fe..00000000000
--- a/Documentation/blockdev/drbd/DRBD-data-packets.svg
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,459 +0,0 @@
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- <tspan
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- <tspan
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- <tspan
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- <desc
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- <tspan
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diff --git a/Documentation/blockdev/drbd/README.txt b/Documentation/blockdev/drbd/README.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index 627b0a1bf35..00000000000
--- a/Documentation/blockdev/drbd/README.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,16 +0,0 @@
-Description
-
- DRBD is a shared-nothing, synchronously replicated block device. It
- is designed to serve as a building block for high availability
- clusters and in this context, is a "drop-in" replacement for shared
- storage. Simplistically, you could see it as a network RAID 1.
-
- Please visit http://www.drbd.org to find out more.
-
-The here included files are intended to help understand the implementation
-
-DRBD-8.3-data-packets.svg, DRBD-data-packets.svg
- relates some functions, and write packets.
-
-conn-states-8.dot, disk-states-8.dot, node-states-8.dot
- The sub graphs of DRBD's state transitions
diff --git a/Documentation/blockdev/drbd/conn-states-8.dot b/Documentation/blockdev/drbd/conn-states-8.dot
deleted file mode 100644
index 025e8cf5e64..00000000000
--- a/Documentation/blockdev/drbd/conn-states-8.dot
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,18 +0,0 @@
-digraph conn_states {
- StandAllone -> WFConnection [ label = "ioctl_set_net()" ]
- WFConnection -> Unconnected [ label = "unable to bind()" ]
- WFConnection -> WFReportParams [ label = "in connect() after accept" ]
- WFReportParams -> StandAllone [ label = "checks in receive_param()" ]
- WFReportParams -> Connected [ label = "in receive_param()" ]
- WFReportParams -> WFBitMapS [ label = "sync_handshake()" ]
- WFReportParams -> WFBitMapT [ label = "sync_handshake()" ]
- WFBitMapS -> SyncSource [ label = "receive_bitmap()" ]
- WFBitMapT -> SyncTarget [ label = "receive_bitmap()" ]
- SyncSource -> Connected
- SyncTarget -> Connected
- SyncSource -> PausedSyncS
- SyncTarget -> PausedSyncT
- PausedSyncS -> SyncSource
- PausedSyncT -> SyncTarget
- Connected -> WFConnection [ label = "* on network error" ]
-}
diff --git a/Documentation/blockdev/drbd/disk-states-8.dot b/Documentation/blockdev/drbd/disk-states-8.dot
deleted file mode 100644
index d06cfb46fb9..00000000000
--- a/Documentation/blockdev/drbd/disk-states-8.dot
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,16 +0,0 @@
-digraph disk_states {
- Diskless -> Inconsistent [ label = "ioctl_set_disk()" ]
- Diskless -> Consistent [ label = "ioctl_set_disk()" ]
- Diskless -> Outdated [ label = "ioctl_set_disk()" ]
- Consistent -> Outdated [ label = "receive_param()" ]
- Consistent -> UpToDate [ label = "receive_param()" ]
- Consistent -> Inconsistent [ label = "start resync" ]
- Outdated -> Inconsistent [ label = "start resync" ]
- UpToDate -> Inconsistent [ label = "ioctl_replicate" ]
- Inconsistent -> UpToDate [ label = "resync completed" ]
- Consistent -> Failed [ label = "io completion error" ]
- Outdated -> Failed [ label = "io completion error" ]
- UpToDate -> Failed [ label = "io completion error" ]
- Inconsistent -> Failed [ label = "io completion error" ]
- Failed -> Diskless [ label = "sending notify to peer" ]
-}
diff --git a/Documentation/blockdev/drbd/drbd-connection-state-overview.dot b/Documentation/blockdev/drbd/drbd-connection-state-overview.dot
deleted file mode 100644
index 6d9cf0a7b11..00000000000
--- a/Documentation/blockdev/drbd/drbd-connection-state-overview.dot
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,85 +0,0 @@
-// vim: set sw=2 sts=2 :
-digraph {
- rankdir=BT
- bgcolor=white
-
- node [shape=plaintext]
- node [fontcolor=black]
-
- StandAlone [ style=filled,fillcolor=gray,label=StandAlone ]
-
- node [fontcolor=lightgray]
-
- Unconnected [ label=Unconnected ]
-
- CommTrouble [ shape=record,
- label="{communication loss|{Timeout|BrokenPipe|NetworkFailure}}" ]
-
- node [fontcolor=gray]
-
- subgraph cluster_try_connect {
- label="try to connect, handshake"
- rank=max
- WFConnection [ label=WFConnection ]
- WFReportParams [ label=WFReportParams ]
- }
-
- TearDown [ label=TearDown ]
-
- Connected [ label=Connected,style=filled,fillcolor=green,fontcolor=black ]
-
- node [fontcolor=lightblue]
-
- StartingSyncS [ label=StartingSyncS ]
- StartingSyncT [ label=StartingSyncT ]
-
- subgraph cluster_bitmap_exchange {
- node [fontcolor=red]
- fontcolor=red
- label="new application (WRITE?) requests blocked\lwhile bitmap is exchanged"
-
- WFBitMapT [ label=WFBitMapT ]
- WFSyncUUID [ label=WFSyncUUID ]
- WFBitMapS [ label=WFBitMapS ]
- }
-
- node [fontcolor=blue]
-
- cluster_resync [ shape=record,label="{<any>resynchronisation process running\l'concurrent' application requests allowed|{{<T>PausedSyncT\nSyncTarget}|{<S>PausedSyncS\nSyncSource}}}" ]
-
- node [shape=box,fontcolor=black]
-
- // drbdadm [label="drbdadm connect"]
- // handshake [label="drbd_connect()\ndrbd_do_handshake\ndrbd_sync_handshake() etc."]
- // comm_error [label="communication trouble"]
-
- //
- // edges
- // --------------------------------------
-
- StandAlone -> Unconnected [ label="drbdadm connect" ]
- Unconnected -> StandAlone [ label="drbdadm disconnect\lor serious communication trouble" ]
- Unconnected -> WFConnection [ label="receiver thread is started" ]
- WFConnection -> WFReportParams [ headlabel="accept()\land/or \lconnect()\l" ]
-
- WFReportParams -> StandAlone [ label="during handshake\lpeers do not agree\labout something essential" ]
- WFReportParams -> Connected [ label="data identical\lno sync needed",color=green,fontcolor=green ]
-
- WFReportParams -> WFBitMapS
- WFReportParams -> WFBitMapT
- WFBitMapT -> WFSyncUUID [minlen=0.1,constraint=false]
-
- WFBitMapS -> cluster_resync:S
- WFSyncUUID -> cluster_resync:T
-
- edge [color=green]
- cluster_resync:any -> Connected [ label="resnyc done",fontcolor=green ]
-
- edge [color=red]
- WFReportParams -> CommTrouble
- Connected -> CommTrouble
- cluster_resync:any -> CommTrouble
- edge [color=black]
- CommTrouble -> Unconnected [label="receiver thread is stopped" ]
-
-}
diff --git a/Documentation/blockdev/drbd/node-states-8.dot b/Documentation/blockdev/drbd/node-states-8.dot
deleted file mode 100644
index 4a2b00c2354..00000000000
--- a/Documentation/blockdev/drbd/node-states-8.dot
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,14 +0,0 @@
-digraph node_states {
- Secondary -> Primary [ label = "ioctl_set_state()" ]
- Primary -> Secondary [ label = "ioctl_set_state()" ]
-}
-
-digraph peer_states {
- Secondary -> Primary [ label = "recv state packet" ]
- Primary -> Secondary [ label = "recv state packet" ]
- Primary -> Unknown [ label = "connection lost" ]
- Secondary -> Unknown [ label = "connection lost" ]
- Unknown -> Primary [ label = "connected" ]
- Unknown -> Secondary [ label = "connected" ]
-}
-
diff --git a/Documentation/blockdev/floppy.txt b/Documentation/blockdev/floppy.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index 470fe4b5e37..00000000000
--- a/Documentation/blockdev/floppy.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,245 +0,0 @@
-This file describes the floppy driver.
-
-FAQ list:
-=========
-
- A FAQ list may be found in the fdutils package (see below), and also
-at <http://fdutils.linux.lu/faq.html>.
-
-
-LILO configuration options (Thinkpad users, read this)
-======================================================
-
- The floppy driver is configured using the 'floppy=' option in
-lilo. This option can be typed at the boot prompt, or entered in the
-lilo configuration file.
-
- Example: If your kernel is called linux-2.6.9, type the following line
-at the lilo boot prompt (if you have a thinkpad):
-
- linux-2.6.9 floppy=thinkpad
-
-You may also enter the following line in /etc/lilo.conf, in the description
-of linux-2.6.9:
-
- append = "floppy=thinkpad"
-
- Several floppy related options may be given, example:
-
- linux-2.6.9 floppy=daring floppy=two_fdc
- append = "floppy=daring floppy=two_fdc"
-
- If you give options both in the lilo config file and on the boot
-prompt, the option strings of both places are concatenated, the boot
-prompt options coming last. That's why there are also options to
-restore the default behavior.
-
-
-Module configuration options
-============================
-
- If you use the floppy driver as a module, use the following syntax:
-modprobe floppy <options>
-
-Example:
- modprobe floppy omnibook messages
-
- If you need certain options enabled every time you load the floppy driver,
-you can put:
-
- options floppy omnibook messages
-
-in a configuration file in /etc/modprobe.d/.
-
-
- The floppy driver related options are:
-
- floppy=asus_pci
- Sets the bit mask to allow only units 0 and 1. (default)
-
- floppy=daring
- Tells the floppy driver that you have a well behaved floppy controller.
- This allows more efficient and smoother operation, but may fail on
- certain controllers. This may speed up certain operations.
-
- floppy=0,daring
- Tells the floppy driver that your floppy controller should be used
- with caution.
-
- floppy=one_fdc
- Tells the floppy driver that you have only one floppy controller.
- (default)
-
- floppy=two_fdc
- floppy=<address>,two_fdc
- Tells the floppy driver that you have two floppy controllers.
- The second floppy controller is assumed to be at <address>.
- This option is not needed if the second controller is at address
- 0x370, and if you use the 'cmos' option.
-
- floppy=thinkpad
- Tells the floppy driver that you have a Thinkpad. Thinkpads use an
- inverted convention for the disk change line.
-
- floppy=0,thinkpad
- Tells the floppy driver that you don't have a Thinkpad.
-
- floppy=omnibook
- floppy=nodma
- Tells the floppy driver not to use Dma for data transfers.
- This is needed on HP Omnibooks, which don't have a workable
- DMA channel for the floppy driver. This option is also useful
- if you frequently get "Unable to allocate DMA memory" messages.
- Indeed, dma memory needs to be continuous in physical memory,
- and is thus harder to find, whereas non-dma buffers may be
- allocated in virtual memory. However, I advise against this if
- you have an FDC without a FIFO (8272A or 82072). 82072A and
- later are OK. You also need at least a 486 to use nodma.
- If you use nodma mode, I suggest you also set the FIFO
- threshold to 10 or lower, in order to limit the number of data
- transfer interrupts.
-
- If you have a FIFO-able FDC, the floppy driver automatically
- falls back on non DMA mode if no DMA-able memory can be found.
- If you want to avoid this, explicitly ask for 'yesdma'.
-
- floppy=yesdma
- Tells the floppy driver that a workable DMA channel is available.
- (default)
-
- floppy=nofifo
- Disables the FIFO entirely. This is needed if you get "Bus
- master arbitration error" messages from your Ethernet card (or
- from other devices) while accessing the floppy.
-
- floppy=usefifo
- Enables the FIFO. (default)
-
- floppy=<threshold>,fifo_depth
- Sets the FIFO threshold. This is mostly relevant in DMA
- mode. If this is higher, the floppy driver tolerates more
- interrupt latency, but it triggers more interrupts (i.e. it
- imposes more load on the rest of the system). If this is
- lower, the interrupt latency should be lower too (faster
- processor). The benefit of a lower threshold is less
- interrupts.
-
- To tune the fifo threshold, switch on over/underrun messages
- using 'floppycontrol --messages'. Then access a floppy
- disk. If you get a huge amount of "Over/Underrun - retrying"
- messages, then the fifo threshold is too low. Try with a
- higher value, until you only get an occasional Over/Underrun.
- It is a good idea to compile the floppy driver as a module
- when doing this tuning. Indeed, it allows to try different
- fifo values without rebooting the machine for each test. Note
- that you need to do 'floppycontrol --messages' every time you
- re-insert the module.
-
- Usually, tuning the fifo threshold should not be needed, as
- the default (0xa) is reasonable.
-
- floppy=<drive>,<type>,cmos
- Sets the CMOS type of <drive> to <type>. This is mandatory if
- you have more than two floppy drives (only two can be
- described in the physical CMOS), or if your BIOS uses
- non-standard CMOS types. The CMOS types are:
-
- 0 - Use the value of the physical CMOS
- 1 - 5 1/4 DD
- 2 - 5 1/4 HD
- 3 - 3 1/2 DD
- 4 - 3 1/2 HD
- 5 - 3 1/2 ED
- 6 - 3 1/2 ED
- 16 - unknown or not installed
-
- (Note: there are two valid types for ED drives. This is because 5 was
- initially chosen to represent floppy *tapes*, and 6 for ED drives.
- AMI ignored this, and used 5 for ED drives. That's why the floppy
- driver handles both.)
-
- floppy=unexpected_interrupts
- Print a warning message when an unexpected interrupt is received.
- (default)
-
- floppy=no_unexpected_interrupts
- floppy=L40SX
- Don't print a message when an unexpected interrupt is received. This
- is needed on IBM L40SX laptops in certain video modes. (There seems
- to be an interaction between video and floppy. The unexpected
- interrupts affect only performance, and can be safely ignored.)
-
- floppy=broken_dcl
- Don't use the disk change line, but assume that the disk was
- changed whenever the device node is reopened. Needed on some
- boxes where the disk change line is broken or unsupported.
- This should be regarded as a stopgap measure, indeed it makes
- floppy operation less efficient due to unneeded cache
- flushings, and slightly more unreliable. Please verify your
- cable, connection and jumper settings if you have any DCL
- problems. However, some older drives, and also some laptops
- are known not to have a DCL.
-
- floppy=debug
- Print debugging messages.
-
- floppy=messages
- Print informational messages for some operations (disk change
- notifications, warnings about over and underruns, and about
- autodetection).
-
- floppy=silent_dcl_clear
- Uses a less noisy way to clear the disk change line (which
- doesn't involve seeks). Implied by 'daring' option.
-
- floppy=<nr>,irq
- Sets the floppy IRQ to <nr> instead of 6.
-
- floppy=<nr>,dma
- Sets the floppy DMA channel to <nr> instead of 2.
-
- floppy=slow
- Use PS/2 stepping rate:
- " PS/2 floppies have much slower step rates than regular floppies.
- It's been recommended that take about 1/4 of the default speed
- in some more extreme cases."
-
-
-Supporting utilities and additional documentation:
-==================================================
-
- Additional parameters of the floppy driver can be configured at
-runtime. Utilities which do this can be found in the fdutils package.
-This package also contains a new version of mtools which allows to
-access high capacity disks (up to 1992K on a high density 3 1/2 disk!).
-It also contains additional documentation about the floppy driver.
-
-The latest version can be found at fdutils homepage:
- http://fdutils.linux.lu
-
-The fdutils releases can be found at:
- http://fdutils.linux.lu/download.html
- http://www.tux.org/pub/knaff/fdutils/
- ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/utils/disk-management/
-
-Reporting problems about the floppy driver
-==========================================
-
- If you have a question or a bug report about the floppy driver, mail
-me at Alain.Knaff@poboxes.com . If you post to Usenet, preferably use
-comp.os.linux.hardware. As the volume in these groups is rather high,
-be sure to include the word "floppy" (or "FLOPPY") in the subject
-line. If the reported problem happens when mounting floppy disks, be
-sure to mention also the type of the filesystem in the subject line.
-
- Be sure to read the FAQ before mailing/posting any bug reports!
-
- Alain
-
-Changelog
-=========
-
-10-30-2004 : Cleanup, updating, add reference to module configuration.
- James Nelson <james4765@gmail.com>
-
-6-3-2000 : Original Document
diff --git a/Documentation/blockdev/mflash.txt b/Documentation/blockdev/mflash.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index 1f610ecf698..00000000000
--- a/Documentation/blockdev/mflash.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,84 +0,0 @@
-This document describes m[g]flash support in linux.
-
-Contents
- 1. Overview
- 2. Reserved area configuration
- 3. Example of mflash platform driver registration
-
-1. Overview
-
-Mflash and gflash are embedded flash drive. The only difference is mflash is
-MCP(Multi Chip Package) device. These two device operate exactly same way.
-So the rest mflash repersents mflash and gflash altogether.
-
-Internally, mflash has nand flash and other hardware logics and supports
-2 different operation (ATA, IO) modes. ATA mode doesn't need any new
-driver and currently works well under standard IDE subsystem. Actually it's
-one chip SSD. IO mode is ATA-like custom mode for the host that doesn't have
-IDE interface.
-
-Followings are brief descriptions about IO mode.
-A. IO mode based on ATA protocol and uses some custom command. (read confirm,
-write confirm)
-B. IO mode uses SRAM bus interface.
-C. IO mode supports 4kB boot area, so host can boot from mflash.
-
-2. Reserved area configuration
-If host boot from mflash, usually needs raw area for boot loader image. All of
-the mflash's block device operation will be taken this value as start offset.
-Note that boot loader's size of reserved area and kernel configuration value
-must be same.
-
-3. Example of mflash platform driver registration
-Working mflash is very straight forward. Adding platform device stuff to board
-configuration file is all. Here is some pseudo example.
-
-static struct mg_drv_data mflash_drv_data = {
- /* If you want to polling driver set to 1 */
- .use_polling = 0,
- /* device attribution */
- .dev_attr = MG_BOOT_DEV
-};
-
-static struct resource mg_mflash_rsc[] = {
- /* Base address of mflash */
- [0] = {
- .start = 0x08000000,
- .end = 0x08000000 + SZ_64K - 1,
- .flags = IORESOURCE_MEM
- },
- /* mflash interrupt pin */
- [1] = {
- .start = IRQ_GPIO(84),
- .end = IRQ_GPIO(84),
- .flags = IORESOURCE_IRQ
- },
- /* mflash reset pin */
- [2] = {
- .start = 43,
- .end = 43,
- .name = MG_RST_PIN,
- .flags = IORESOURCE_IO
- },
- /* mflash reset-out pin
- * If you use mflash as storage device (i.e. other than MG_BOOT_DEV),
- * should assign this */
- [3] = {
- .start = 51,
- .end = 51,
- .name = MG_RSTOUT_PIN,
- .flags = IORESOURCE_IO
- }
-};
-
-static struct platform_device mflash_dev = {
- .name = MG_DEV_NAME,
- .id = -1,
- .dev = {
- .platform_data = &mflash_drv_data,
- },
- .num_resources = ARRAY_SIZE(mg_mflash_rsc),
- .resource = mg_mflash_rsc
-};
-
-platform_device_register(&mflash_dev);
diff --git a/Documentation/blockdev/nbd.txt b/Documentation/blockdev/nbd.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index aeb93ffe641..00000000000
--- a/Documentation/blockdev/nbd.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,47 +0,0 @@
- Network Block Device (TCP version)
-
- What is it: With this compiled in the kernel (or as a module), Linux
- can use a remote server as one of its block devices. So every time
- the client computer wants to read, e.g., /dev/nb0, it sends a
- request over TCP to the server, which will reply with the data read.
- This can be used for stations with low disk space (or even diskless -
- if you boot from floppy) to borrow disk space from another computer.
- Unlike NFS, it is possible to put any filesystem on it, etc. It should
- even be possible to use NBD as a root filesystem (I've never tried),
- but it requires a user-level program to be in the initrd to start.
- It also allows you to run block-device in user land (making server
- and client physically the same computer, communicating using loopback).
-
- Current state: It currently works. Network block device is stable.
- I originally thought that it was impossible to swap over TCP. It
- turned out not to be true - swapping over TCP now works and seems
- to be deadlock-free, but it requires heavy patches into Linux's
- network layer.
-
- For more information, or to download the nbd-client and nbd-server
- tools, go to http://nbd.sf.net/.
-
- Howto: To setup nbd, you can simply do the following:
-
- First, serve a device or file from a remote server:
-
- nbd-server <port-number> <device-or-file-to-serve-to-client>
-
- e.g.,
- root@server1 # nbd-server 1234 /dev/sdb1
-
- (serves sdb1 partition on TCP port 1234)
-
- Then, on the local (client) system:
-
- nbd-client <server-name-or-IP> <server-port-number> /dev/nb[0-n]
-
- e.g.,
- root@client1 # nbd-client server1 1234 /dev/nb0
-
- (creates the nb0 device on client1)
-
- The nbd kernel module need only be installed on the client
- system, as the nbd-server is completely in userspace. In fact,
- the nbd-server has been successfully ported to other operating
- systems, including Windows.
diff --git a/Documentation/blockdev/paride.txt b/Documentation/blockdev/paride.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index ee6717e3771..00000000000
--- a/Documentation/blockdev/paride.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,417 +0,0 @@
-
- Linux and parallel port IDE devices
-
-PARIDE v1.03 (c) 1997-8 Grant Guenther <grant@torque.net>
-
-1. Introduction
-
-Owing to the simplicity and near universality of the parallel port interface
-to personal computers, many external devices such as portable hard-disk,
-CD-ROM, LS-120 and tape drives use the parallel port to connect to their
-host computer. While some devices (notably scanners) use ad-hoc methods
-to pass commands and data through the parallel port interface, most
-external devices are actually identical to an internal model, but with
-a parallel-port adapter chip added in. Some of the original parallel port
-adapters were little more than mechanisms for multiplexing a SCSI bus.
-(The Iomega PPA-3 adapter used in the ZIP drives is an example of this
-approach). Most current designs, however, take a different approach.
-The adapter chip reproduces a small ISA or IDE bus in the external device
-and the communication protocol provides operations for reading and writing
-device registers, as well as data block transfer functions. Sometimes,
-the device being addressed via the parallel cable is a standard SCSI
-controller like an NCR 5380. The "ditto" family of external tape
-drives use the ISA replicator to interface a floppy disk controller,
-which is then connected to a floppy-tape mechanism. The vast majority
-of external parallel port devices, however, are now based on standard
-IDE type devices, which require no intermediate controller. If one
-were to open up a parallel port CD-ROM drive, for instance, one would
-find a standard ATAPI CD-ROM drive, a power supply, and a single adapter
-that interconnected a standard PC parallel port cable and a standard
-IDE cable. It is usually possible to exchange the CD-ROM device with
-any other device using the IDE interface.
-
-The document describes the support in Linux for parallel port IDE
-devices. It does not cover parallel port SCSI devices, "ditto" tape
-drives or scanners. Many different devices are supported by the
-parallel port IDE subsystem, including:
-
- MicroSolutions backpack CD-ROM
- MicroSolutions backpack PD/CD
- MicroSolutions backpack hard-drives
- MicroSolutions backpack 8000t tape drive
- SyQuest EZ-135, EZ-230 & SparQ drives
- Avatar Shark
- Imation Superdisk LS-120
- Maxell Superdisk LS-120
- FreeCom Power CD
- Hewlett-Packard 5GB and 8GB tape drives
- Hewlett-Packard 7100 and 7200 CD-RW drives
-
-as well as most of the clone and no-name products on the market.
-
-To support such a wide range of devices, PARIDE, the parallel port IDE
-subsystem, is actually structured in three parts. There is a base
-paride module which provides a registry and some common methods for
-accessing the parallel ports. The second component is a set of
-high-level drivers for each of the different types of supported devices:
-
- pd IDE disk
- pcd ATAPI CD-ROM
- pf ATAPI disk
- pt ATAPI tape
- pg ATAPI generic
-
-(Currently, the pg driver is only used with CD-R drives).
-
-The high-level drivers function according to the relevant standards.
-The third component of PARIDE is a set of low-level protocol drivers
-for each of the parallel port IDE adapter chips. Thanks to the interest
-and encouragement of Linux users from many parts of the world,
-support is available for almost all known adapter protocols:
-
- aten ATEN EH-100 (HK)
- bpck Microsolutions backpack (US)
- comm DataStor (old-type) "commuter" adapter (TW)
- dstr DataStor EP-2000 (TW)
- epat Shuttle EPAT (UK)
- epia Shuttle EPIA (UK)
- fit2 FIT TD-2000 (US)
- fit3 FIT TD-3000 (US)
- friq Freecom IQ cable (DE)
- frpw Freecom Power (DE)
- kbic KingByte KBIC-951A and KBIC-971A (TW)
- ktti KT Technology PHd adapter (SG)
- on20 OnSpec 90c20 (US)
- on26 OnSpec 90c26 (US)
-
-
-2. Using the PARIDE subsystem
-
-While configuring the Linux kernel, you may choose either to build
-the PARIDE drivers into your kernel, or to build them as modules.
-
-In either case, you will need to select "Parallel port IDE device support"
-as well as at least one of the high-level drivers and at least one
-of the parallel port communication protocols. If you do not know
-what kind of parallel port adapter is used in your drive, you could
-begin by checking the file names and any text files on your DOS
-installation floppy. Alternatively, you can look at the markings on
-the adapter chip itself. That's usually sufficient to identify the
-correct device.
-
-You can actually select all the protocol modules, and allow the PARIDE
-subsystem to try them all for you.
-
-For the "brand-name" products listed above, here are the protocol
-and high-level drivers that you would use:
-
- Manufacturer Model Driver Protocol
-
- MicroSolutions CD-ROM pcd bpck
- MicroSolutions PD drive pf bpck
- MicroSolutions hard-drive pd bpck
- MicroSolutions 8000t tape pt bpck
- SyQuest EZ, SparQ pd epat
- Imation Superdisk pf epat
- Maxell Superdisk pf friq
- Avatar Shark pd epat
- FreeCom CD-ROM pcd frpw
- Hewlett-Packard 5GB Tape pt epat
- Hewlett-Packard 7200e (CD) pcd epat
- Hewlett-Packard 7200e (CD-R) pg epat
-
-2.1 Configuring built-in drivers
-
-We recommend that you get to know how the drivers work and how to
-configure them as loadable modules, before attempting to compile a
-kernel with the drivers built-in.
-
-If you built all of your PARIDE support directly into your kernel,
-and you have just a single parallel port IDE device, your kernel should
-locate it automatically for you. If you have more than one device,
-you may need to give some command line options to your bootloader
-(eg: LILO), how to do that is beyond the scope of this document.
-
-The high-level drivers accept a number of command line parameters, all
-of which are documented in the source files in linux/drivers/block/paride.
-By default, each driver will automatically try all parallel ports it
-can find, and all protocol types that have been installed, until it finds
-a parallel port IDE adapter. Once it finds one, the probe stops. So,
-if you have more than one device, you will need to tell the drivers
-how to identify them. This requires specifying the port address, the
-protocol identification number and, for some devices, the drive's
-chain ID. While your system is booting, a number of messages are
-displayed on the console. Like all such messages, they can be
-reviewed with the 'dmesg' command. Among those messages will be
-some lines like:
-
- paride: bpck registered as protocol 0
- paride: epat registered as protocol 1
-
-The numbers will always be the same until you build a new kernel with
-different protocol selections. You should note these numbers as you
-will need them to identify the devices.
-
-If you happen to be using a MicroSolutions backpack device, you will
-also need to know the unit ID number for each drive. This is usually
-the last two digits of the drive's serial number (but read MicroSolutions'
-documentation about this).
-
-As an example, let's assume that you have a MicroSolutions PD/CD drive
-with unit ID number 36 connected to the parallel port at 0x378, a SyQuest
-EZ-135 connected to the chained port on the PD/CD drive and also an
-Imation Superdisk connected to port 0x278. You could give the following
-options on your boot command:
-
- pd.drive0=0x378,1 pf.drive0=0x278,1 pf.drive1=0x378,0,36
-
-In the last option, pf.drive1 configures device /dev/pf1, the 0x378
-is the parallel port base address, the 0 is the protocol registration
-number and 36 is the chain ID.
-
-Please note: while PARIDE will work both with and without the
-PARPORT parallel port sharing system that is included by the
-"Parallel port support" option, PARPORT must be included and enabled
-if you want to use chains of devices on the same parallel port.
-
-2.2 Loading and configuring PARIDE as modules
-
-It is much faster and simpler to get to understand the PARIDE drivers
-if you use them as loadable kernel modules.
-
-Note 1: using these drivers with the "kerneld" automatic module loading
-system is not recommended for beginners, and is not documented here.
-
-Note 2: if you build PARPORT support as a loadable module, PARIDE must
-also be built as loadable modules, and PARPORT must be loaded before the
-PARIDE modules.
-
-To use PARIDE, you must begin by
-
- insmod paride
-
-this loads a base module which provides a registry for the protocols,
-among other tasks.
-
-Then, load as many of the protocol modules as you think you might need.
-As you load each module, it will register the protocols that it supports,
-and print a log message to your kernel log file and your console. For
-example:
-
- # insmod epat
- paride: epat registered as protocol 0
- # insmod kbic
- paride: k951 registered as protocol 1
- paride: k971 registered as protocol 2
-
-Finally, you can load high-level drivers for each kind of device that
-you have connected. By default, each driver will autoprobe for a single
-device, but you can support up to four similar devices by giving their
-individual co-ordinates when you load the driver.
-
-For example, if you had two no-name CD-ROM drives both using the
-KingByte KBIC-951A adapter, one on port 0x378 and the other on 0x3bc
-you could give the following command:
-
- # insmod pcd drive0=0x378,1 drive1=0x3bc,1
-
-For most adapters, giving a port address and protocol number is sufficient,
-but check the source files in linux/drivers/block/paride for more
-information. (Hopefully someone will write some man pages one day !).
-
-As another example, here's what happens when PARPORT is installed, and
-a SyQuest EZ-135 is attached to port 0x378:
-
- # insmod paride
- paride: version 1.0 installed
- # insmod epat
- paride: epat registered as protocol 0
- # insmod pd
- pd: pd version 1.0, major 45, cluster 64, nice 0
- pda: Sharing parport1 at 0x378
- pda: epat 1.0, Shuttle EPAT chip c3 at 0x378, mode 5 (EPP-32), delay 1
- pda: SyQuest EZ135A, 262144 blocks [128M], (512/16/32), removable media
- pda: pda1
-
-Note that the last line is the output from the generic partition table
-scanner - in this case it reports that it has found a disk with one partition.
-
-2.3 Using a PARIDE device
-
-Once the drivers have been loaded, you can access PARIDE devices in the
-same way as their traditional counterparts. You will probably need to
-create the device "special files". Here is a simple script that you can
-cut to a file and execute:
-
-#!/bin/bash
-#
-# mkd -- a script to create the device special files for the PARIDE subsystem
-#
-function mkdev {
- mknod $1 $2 $3 $4 ; chmod 0660 $1 ; chown root:disk $1
-}
-#
-function pd {
- D=$( printf \\$( printf "x%03x" $[ $1 + 97 ] ) )
- mkdev pd$D b 45 $[ $1 * 16 ]
- for P in 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
- do mkdev pd$D$P b 45 $[ $1 * 16 + $P ]
- done
-}
-#
-cd /dev
-#
-for u in 0 1 2 3 ; do pd $u ; done
-for u in 0 1 2 3 ; do mkdev pcd$u b 46 $u ; done
-for u in 0 1 2 3 ; do mkdev pf$u b 47 $u ; done
-for u in 0 1 2 3 ; do mkdev pt$u c 96 $u ; done
-for u in 0 1 2 3 ; do mkdev npt$u c 96 $[ $u + 128 ] ; done
-for u in 0 1 2 3 ; do mkdev pg$u c 97 $u ; done
-#
-# end of mkd
-
-With the device files and drivers in place, you can access PARIDE devices
-like any other Linux device. For example, to mount a CD-ROM in pcd0, use:
-
- mount /dev/pcd0 /cdrom
-
-If you have a fresh Avatar Shark cartridge, and the drive is pda, you
-might do something like:
-
- fdisk /dev/pda -- make a new partition table with
- partition 1 of type 83
-
- mke2fs /dev/pda1 -- to build the file system
-
- mkdir /shark -- make a place to mount the disk
-
- mount /dev/pda1 /shark
-
-Devices like the Imation superdisk work in the same way, except that
-they do not have a partition table. For example to make a 120MB
-floppy that you could share with a DOS system:
-
- mkdosfs /dev/pf0
- mount /dev/pf0 /mnt
-
-
-2.4 The pf driver
-
-The pf driver is intended for use with parallel port ATAPI disk
-devices. The most common devices in this category are PD drives
-and LS-120 drives. Traditionally, media for these devices are not
-partitioned. Consequently, the pf driver does not support partitioned
-media. This may be changed in a future version of the driver.
-
-2.5 Using the pt driver
-
-The pt driver for parallel port ATAPI tape drives is a minimal driver.
-It does not yet support many of the standard tape ioctl operations.
-For best performance, a block size of 32KB should be used. You will
-probably want to set the parallel port delay to 0, if you can.
-
-2.6 Using the pg driver
-
-The pg driver can be used in conjunction with the cdrecord program
-to create CD-ROMs. Please get cdrecord version 1.6.1 or later
-from ftp://ftp.fokus.gmd.de/pub/unix/cdrecord/ . To record CD-R media
-your parallel port should ideally be set to EPP mode, and the "port delay"
-should be set to 0. With those settings it is possible to record at 2x
-speed without any buffer underruns. If you cannot get the driver to work
-in EPP mode, try to use "bidirectional" or "PS/2" mode and 1x speeds only.
-
-
-3. Troubleshooting
-
-3.1 Use EPP mode if you can
-
-The most common problems that people report with the PARIDE drivers
-concern the parallel port CMOS settings. At this time, none of the
-PARIDE protocol modules support ECP mode, or any ECP combination modes.
-If you are able to do so, please set your parallel port into EPP mode
-using your CMOS setup procedure.
-
-3.2 Check the port delay
-
-Some parallel ports cannot reliably transfer data at full speed. To
-offset the errors, the PARIDE protocol modules introduce a "port
-delay" between each access to the i/o ports. Each protocol sets
-a default value for this delay. In most cases, the user can override
-the default and set it to 0 - resulting in somewhat higher transfer
-rates. In some rare cases (especially with older 486 systems) the
-default delays are not long enough. if you experience corrupt data
-transfers, or unexpected failures, you may wish to increase the
-port delay. The delay can be programmed using the "driveN" parameters
-to each of the high-level drivers. Please see the notes above, or
-read the comments at the beginning of the driver source files in
-linux/drivers/block/paride.
-
-3.3 Some drives need a printer reset
-
-There appear to be a number of "noname" external drives on the market
-that do not always power up correctly. We have noticed this with some
-drives based on OnSpec and older Freecom adapters. In these rare cases,
-the adapter can often be reinitialised by issuing a "printer reset" on
-the parallel port. As the reset operation is potentially disruptive in
-multiple device environments, the PARIDE drivers will not do it
-automatically. You can however, force a printer reset by doing:
-
- insmod lp reset=1
- rmmod lp
-
-If you have one of these marginal cases, you should probably build
-your paride drivers as modules, and arrange to do the printer reset
-before loading the PARIDE drivers.
-
-3.4 Use the verbose option and dmesg if you need help
-
-While a lot of testing has gone into these drivers to make them work
-as smoothly as possible, problems will arise. If you do have problems,
-please check all the obvious things first: does the drive work in
-DOS with the manufacturer's drivers ? If that doesn't yield any useful
-clues, then please make sure that only one drive is hooked to your system,
-and that either (a) PARPORT is enabled or (b) no other device driver
-is using your parallel port (check in /proc/ioports). Then, load the
-appropriate drivers (you can load several protocol modules if you want)
-as in:
-
- # insmod paride
- # insmod epat
- # insmod bpck
- # insmod kbic
- ...
- # insmod pd verbose=1
-
-(using the correct driver for the type of device you have, of course).
-The verbose=1 parameter will cause the drivers to log a trace of their
-activity as they attempt to locate your drive.
-
-Use 'dmesg' to capture a log of all the PARIDE messages (any messages
-beginning with paride:, a protocol module's name or a driver's name) and
-include that with your bug report. You can submit a bug report in one
-of two ways. Either send it directly to the author of the PARIDE suite,
-by e-mail to grant@torque.net, or join the linux-parport mailing list
-and post your report there.
-
-3.5 For more information or help
-
-You can join the linux-parport mailing list by sending a mail message
-to
- linux-parport-request@torque.net
-
-with the single word
-
- subscribe
-
-in the body of the mail message (not in the subject line). Please be
-sure that your mail program is correctly set up when you do this, as
-the list manager is a robot that will subscribe you using the reply
-address in your mail headers. REMOVE any anti-spam gimmicks you may
-have in your mail headers, when sending mail to the list server.
-
-You might also find some useful information on the linux-parport
-web pages (although they are not always up to date) at
-
- http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://www.torque.net/parport/
-
-
diff --git a/Documentation/blockdev/ramdisk.txt b/Documentation/blockdev/ramdisk.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index fa72e97dd66..00000000000
--- a/Documentation/blockdev/ramdisk.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,165 +0,0 @@
-Using the RAM disk block device with Linux
-------------------------------------------
-
-Contents:
-
- 1) Overview
- 2) Kernel Command Line Parameters
- 3) Using "rdev -r"
- 4) An Example of Creating a Compressed RAM Disk
-
-
-1) Overview
------------
-
-The RAM disk driver is a way to use main system memory as a block device. It
-is required for initrd, an initial filesystem used if you need to load modules
-in order to access the root filesystem (see Documentation/initrd.txt). It can
-also be used for a temporary filesystem for crypto work, since the contents
-are erased on reboot.
-
-The RAM disk dynamically grows as more space is required. It does this by using
-RAM from the buffer cache. The driver marks the buffers it is using as dirty
-so that the VM subsystem does not try to reclaim them later.
-
-The RAM disk supports up to 16 RAM disks by default, and can be reconfigured
-to support an unlimited number of RAM disks (at your own risk). Just change
-the configuration symbol BLK_DEV_RAM_COUNT in the Block drivers config menu
-and (re)build the kernel.
-
-To use RAM disk support with your system, run './MAKEDEV ram' from the /dev
-directory. RAM disks are all major number 1, and start with minor number 0
-for /dev/ram0, etc. If used, modern kernels use /dev/ram0 for an initrd.
-
-The new RAM disk also has the ability to load compressed RAM disk images,
-allowing one to squeeze more programs onto an average installation or
-rescue floppy disk.
-
-
-2) Kernel Command Line Parameters
----------------------------------
-
- ramdisk_size=N
- ==============
-
-This parameter tells the RAM disk driver to set up RAM disks of N k size. The
-default is 4096 (4 MB) (8192 (8 MB) on S390).
-
- ramdisk_blocksize=N
- ===================
-
-This parameter tells the RAM disk driver how many bytes to use per block. The
-default is 1024 (BLOCK_SIZE).
-
-
-3) Using "rdev -r"
-------------------
-
-The usage of the word (two bytes) that "rdev -r" sets in the kernel image is
-as follows. The low 11 bits (0 -> 10) specify an offset (in 1 k blocks) of up
-to 2 MB (2^11) of where to find the RAM disk (this used to be the size). Bit
-14 indicates that a RAM disk is to be loaded, and bit 15 indicates whether a
-prompt/wait sequence is to be given before trying to read the RAM disk. Since
-the RAM disk dynamically grows as data is being written into it, a size field
-is not required. Bits 11 to 13 are not currently used and may as well be zero.
-These numbers are no magical secrets, as seen below:
-
-./arch/x86/kernel/setup.c:#define RAMDISK_IMAGE_START_MASK 0x07FF
-./arch/x86/kernel/setup.c:#define RAMDISK_PROMPT_FLAG 0x8000
-./arch/x86/kernel/setup.c:#define RAMDISK_LOAD_FLAG 0x4000
-
-Consider a typical two floppy disk setup, where you will have the
-kernel on disk one, and have already put a RAM disk image onto disk #2.
-
-Hence you want to set bits 0 to 13 as 0, meaning that your RAM disk
-starts at an offset of 0 kB from the beginning of the floppy.
-The command line equivalent is: "ramdisk_start=0"
-
-You want bit 14 as one, indicating that a RAM disk is to be loaded.
-The command line equivalent is: "load_ramdisk=1"
-
-You want bit 15 as one, indicating that you want a prompt/keypress
-sequence so that you have a chance to switch floppy disks.
-The command line equivalent is: "prompt_ramdisk=1"
-
-Putting that together gives 2^15 + 2^14 + 0 = 49152 for an rdev word.
-So to create disk one of the set, you would do:
-
- /usr/src/linux# cat arch/x86/boot/zImage > /dev/fd0
- /usr/src/linux# rdev /dev/fd0 /dev/fd0
- /usr/src/linux# rdev -r /dev/fd0 49152
-
-If you make a boot disk that has LILO, then for the above, you would use:
- append = "ramdisk_start=0 load_ramdisk=1 prompt_ramdisk=1"
-Since the default start = 0 and the default prompt = 1, you could use:
- append = "load_ramdisk=1"
-
-
-4) An Example of Creating a Compressed RAM Disk
-----------------------------------------------
-
-To create a RAM disk image, you will need a spare block device to
-construct it on. This can be the RAM disk device itself, or an
-unused disk partition (such as an unmounted swap partition). For this
-example, we will use the RAM disk device, "/dev/ram0".
-
-Note: This technique should not be done on a machine with less than 8 MB
-of RAM. If using a spare disk partition instead of /dev/ram0, then this
-restriction does not apply.
-
-a) Decide on the RAM disk size that you want. Say 2 MB for this example.
- Create it by writing to the RAM disk device. (This step is not currently
- required, but may be in the future.) It is wise to zero out the
- area (esp. for disks) so that maximal compression is achieved for
- the unused blocks of the image that you are about to create.
-
- dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/ram0 bs=1k count=2048
-
-b) Make a filesystem on it. Say ext2fs for this example.
-
- mke2fs -vm0 /dev/ram0 2048
-
-c) Mount it, copy the files you want to it (eg: /etc/* /dev/* ...)
- and unmount it again.
-
-d) Compress the contents of the RAM disk. The level of compression
- will be approximately 50% of the space used by the files. Unused
- space on the RAM disk will compress to almost nothing.
-
- dd if=/dev/ram0 bs=1k count=2048 | gzip -v9 > /tmp/ram_image.gz
-
-e) Put the kernel onto the floppy
-
- dd if=zImage of=/dev/fd0 bs=1k
-
-f) Put the RAM disk image onto the floppy, after the kernel. Use an offset
- that is slightly larger than the kernel, so that you can put another
- (possibly larger) kernel onto the same floppy later without overlapping
- the RAM disk image. An offset of 400 kB for kernels about 350 kB in
- size would be reasonable. Make sure offset+size of ram_image.gz is
- not larger than the total space on your floppy (usually 1440 kB).
-
- dd if=/tmp/ram_image.gz of=/dev/fd0 bs=1k seek=400
-
-g) Use "rdev" to set the boot device, RAM disk offset, prompt flag, etc.
- For prompt_ramdisk=1, load_ramdisk=1, ramdisk_start=400, one would
- have 2^15 + 2^14 + 400 = 49552.
-
- rdev /dev/fd0 /dev/fd0
- rdev -r /dev/fd0 49552
-
-That is it. You now have your boot/root compressed RAM disk floppy. Some
-users may wish to combine steps (d) and (f) by using a pipe.
-
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
- Paul Gortmaker 12/95
-
-Changelog:
-----------
-
-10-22-04 : Updated to reflect changes in command line options, remove
- obsolete references, general cleanup.
- James Nelson (james4765@gmail.com)
-
-
-12-95 : Original Document