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-
- Linux and parallel port IDE devices
-
-PARIDE v1.03 (c) 1997-8 Grant Guenther <grant@torque.net>
-
-1. Introduction
-
-Owing to the simplicity and near universality of the parallel port interface
-to personal computers, many external devices such as portable hard-disk,
-CD-ROM, LS-120 and tape drives use the parallel port to connect to their
-host computer. While some devices (notably scanners) use ad-hoc methods
-to pass commands and data through the parallel port interface, most
-external devices are actually identical to an internal model, but with
-a parallel-port adapter chip added in. Some of the original parallel port
-adapters were little more than mechanisms for multiplexing a SCSI bus.
-(The Iomega PPA-3 adapter used in the ZIP drives is an example of this
-approach). Most current designs, however, take a different approach.
-The adapter chip reproduces a small ISA or IDE bus in the external device
-and the communication protocol provides operations for reading and writing
-device registers, as well as data block transfer functions. Sometimes,
-the device being addressed via the parallel cable is a standard SCSI
-controller like an NCR 5380. The "ditto" family of external tape
-drives use the ISA replicator to interface a floppy disk controller,
-which is then connected to a floppy-tape mechanism. The vast majority
-of external parallel port devices, however, are now based on standard
-IDE type devices, which require no intermediate controller. If one
-were to open up a parallel port CD-ROM drive, for instance, one would
-find a standard ATAPI CD-ROM drive, a power supply, and a single adapter
-that interconnected a standard PC parallel port cable and a standard
-IDE cable. It is usually possible to exchange the CD-ROM device with
-any other device using the IDE interface.
-
-The document describes the support in Linux for parallel port IDE
-devices. It does not cover parallel port SCSI devices, "ditto" tape
-drives or scanners. Many different devices are supported by the
-parallel port IDE subsystem, including:
-
- MicroSolutions backpack CD-ROM
- MicroSolutions backpack PD/CD
- MicroSolutions backpack hard-drives
- MicroSolutions backpack 8000t tape drive
- SyQuest EZ-135, EZ-230 & SparQ drives
- Avatar Shark
- Imation Superdisk LS-120
- Maxell Superdisk LS-120
- FreeCom Power CD
- Hewlett-Packard 5GB and 8GB tape drives
- Hewlett-Packard 7100 and 7200 CD-RW drives
-
-as well as most of the clone and no-name products on the market.
-
-To support such a wide range of devices, PARIDE, the parallel port IDE
-subsystem, is actually structured in three parts. There is a base
-paride module which provides a registry and some common methods for
-accessing the parallel ports. The second component is a set of
-high-level drivers for each of the different types of supported devices:
-
- pd IDE disk
- pcd ATAPI CD-ROM
- pf ATAPI disk
- pt ATAPI tape
- pg ATAPI generic
-
-(Currently, the pg driver is only used with CD-R drives).
-
-The high-level drivers function according to the relevant standards.
-The third component of PARIDE is a set of low-level protocol drivers
-for each of the parallel port IDE adapter chips. Thanks to the interest
-and encouragement of Linux users from many parts of the world,
-support is available for almost all known adapter protocols:
-
- aten ATEN EH-100 (HK)
- bpck Microsolutions backpack (US)
- comm DataStor (old-type) "commuter" adapter (TW)
- dstr DataStor EP-2000 (TW)
- epat Shuttle EPAT (UK)
- epia Shuttle EPIA (UK)
- fit2 FIT TD-2000 (US)
- fit3 FIT TD-3000 (US)
- friq Freecom IQ cable (DE)
- frpw Freecom Power (DE)
- kbic KingByte KBIC-951A and KBIC-971A (TW)
- ktti KT Technology PHd adapter (SG)
- on20 OnSpec 90c20 (US)
- on26 OnSpec 90c26 (US)
-
-
-2. Using the PARIDE subsystem
-
-While configuring the Linux kernel, you may choose either to build
-the PARIDE drivers into your kernel, or to build them as modules.
-
-In either case, you will need to select "Parallel port IDE device support"
-as well as at least one of the high-level drivers and at least one
-of the parallel port communication protocols. If you do not know
-what kind of parallel port adapter is used in your drive, you could
-begin by checking the file names and any text files on your DOS
-installation floppy. Alternatively, you can look at the markings on
-the adapter chip itself. That's usually sufficient to identify the
-correct device.
-
-You can actually select all the protocol modules, and allow the PARIDE
-subsystem to try them all for you.
-
-For the "brand-name" products listed above, here are the protocol
-and high-level drivers that you would use:
-
- Manufacturer Model Driver Protocol
-
- MicroSolutions CD-ROM pcd bpck
- MicroSolutions PD drive pf bpck
- MicroSolutions hard-drive pd bpck
- MicroSolutions 8000t tape pt bpck
- SyQuest EZ, SparQ pd epat
- Imation Superdisk pf epat
- Maxell Superdisk pf friq
- Avatar Shark pd epat
- FreeCom CD-ROM pcd frpw
- Hewlett-Packard 5GB Tape pt epat
- Hewlett-Packard 7200e (CD) pcd epat
- Hewlett-Packard 7200e (CD-R) pg epat
-
-2.1 Configuring built-in drivers
-
-We recommend that you get to know how the drivers work and how to
-configure them as loadable modules, before attempting to compile a
-kernel with the drivers built-in.
-
-If you built all of your PARIDE support directly into your kernel,
-and you have just a single parallel port IDE device, your kernel should
-locate it automatically for you. If you have more than one device,
-you may need to give some command line options to your bootloader
-(eg: LILO), how to do that is beyond the scope of this document.
-
-The high-level drivers accept a number of command line parameters, all
-of which are documented in the source files in linux/drivers/block/paride.
-By default, each driver will automatically try all parallel ports it
-can find, and all protocol types that have been installed, until it finds
-a parallel port IDE adapter. Once it finds one, the probe stops. So,
-if you have more than one device, you will need to tell the drivers
-how to identify them. This requires specifying the port address, the
-protocol identification number and, for some devices, the drive's
-chain ID. While your system is booting, a number of messages are
-displayed on the console. Like all such messages, they can be
-reviewed with the 'dmesg' command. Among those messages will be
-some lines like:
-
- paride: bpck registered as protocol 0
- paride: epat registered as protocol 1
-
-The numbers will always be the same until you build a new kernel with
-different protocol selections. You should note these numbers as you
-will need them to identify the devices.
-
-If you happen to be using a MicroSolutions backpack device, you will
-also need to know the unit ID number for each drive. This is usually
-the last two digits of the drive's serial number (but read MicroSolutions'
-documentation about this).
-
-As an example, let's assume that you have a MicroSolutions PD/CD drive
-with unit ID number 36 connected to the parallel port at 0x378, a SyQuest
-EZ-135 connected to the chained port on the PD/CD drive and also an
-Imation Superdisk connected to port 0x278. You could give the following
-options on your boot command:
-
- pd.drive0=0x378,1 pf.drive0=0x278,1 pf.drive1=0x378,0,36
-
-In the last option, pf.drive1 configures device /dev/pf1, the 0x378
-is the parallel port base address, the 0 is the protocol registration
-number and 36 is the chain ID.
-
-Please note: while PARIDE will work both with and without the
-PARPORT parallel port sharing system that is included by the
-"Parallel port support" option, PARPORT must be included and enabled
-if you want to use chains of devices on the same parallel port.
-
-2.2 Loading and configuring PARIDE as modules
-
-It is much faster and simpler to get to understand the PARIDE drivers
-if you use them as loadable kernel modules.
-
-Note 1: using these drivers with the "kerneld" automatic module loading
-system is not recommended for beginners, and is not documented here.
-
-Note 2: if you build PARPORT support as a loadable module, PARIDE must
-also be built as loadable modules, and PARPORT must be loaded before the
-PARIDE modules.
-
-To use PARIDE, you must begin by
-
- insmod paride
-
-this loads a base module which provides a registry for the protocols,
-among other tasks.
-
-Then, load as many of the protocol modules as you think you might need.
-As you load each module, it will register the protocols that it supports,
-and print a log message to your kernel log file and your console. For
-example:
-
- # insmod epat
- paride: epat registered as protocol 0
- # insmod kbic
- paride: k951 registered as protocol 1
- paride: k971 registered as protocol 2
-
-Finally, you can load high-level drivers for each kind of device that
-you have connected. By default, each driver will autoprobe for a single
-device, but you can support up to four similar devices by giving their
-individual co-ordinates when you load the driver.
-
-For example, if you had two no-name CD-ROM drives both using the
-KingByte KBIC-951A adapter, one on port 0x378 and the other on 0x3bc
-you could give the following command:
-
- # insmod pcd drive0=0x378,1 drive1=0x3bc,1
-
-For most adapters, giving a port address and protocol number is sufficient,
-but check the source files in linux/drivers/block/paride for more
-information. (Hopefully someone will write some man pages one day !).
-
-As another example, here's what happens when PARPORT is installed, and
-a SyQuest EZ-135 is attached to port 0x378:
-
- # insmod paride
- paride: version 1.0 installed
- # insmod epat
- paride: epat registered as protocol 0
- # insmod pd
- pd: pd version 1.0, major 45, cluster 64, nice 0
- pda: Sharing parport1 at 0x378
- pda: epat 1.0, Shuttle EPAT chip c3 at 0x378, mode 5 (EPP-32), delay 1
- pda: SyQuest EZ135A, 262144 blocks [128M], (512/16/32), removable media
- pda: pda1
-
-Note that the last line is the output from the generic partition table
-scanner - in this case it reports that it has found a disk with one partition.
-
-2.3 Using a PARIDE device
-
-Once the drivers have been loaded, you can access PARIDE devices in the
-same way as their traditional counterparts. You will probably need to
-create the device "special files". Here is a simple script that you can
-cut to a file and execute:
-
-#!/bin/bash
-#
-# mkd -- a script to create the device special files for the PARIDE subsystem
-#
-function mkdev {
- mknod $1 $2 $3 $4 ; chmod 0660 $1 ; chown root:disk $1
-}
-#
-function pd {
- D=$( printf \\$( printf "x%03x" $[ $1 + 97 ] ) )
- mkdev pd$D b 45 $[ $1 * 16 ]
- for P in 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
- do mkdev pd$D$P b 45 $[ $1 * 16 + $P ]
- done
-}
-#
-cd /dev
-#
-for u in 0 1 2 3 ; do pd $u ; done
-for u in 0 1 2 3 ; do mkdev pcd$u b 46 $u ; done
-for u in 0 1 2 3 ; do mkdev pf$u b 47 $u ; done
-for u in 0 1 2 3 ; do mkdev pt$u c 96 $u ; done
-for u in 0 1 2 3 ; do mkdev npt$u c 96 $[ $u + 128 ] ; done
-for u in 0 1 2 3 ; do mkdev pg$u c 97 $u ; done
-#
-# end of mkd
-
-With the device files and drivers in place, you can access PARIDE devices
-like any other Linux device. For example, to mount a CD-ROM in pcd0, use:
-
- mount /dev/pcd0 /cdrom
-
-If you have a fresh Avatar Shark cartridge, and the drive is pda, you
-might do something like:
-
- fdisk /dev/pda -- make a new partition table with
- partition 1 of type 83
-
- mke2fs /dev/pda1 -- to build the file system
-
- mkdir /shark -- make a place to mount the disk
-
- mount /dev/pda1 /shark
-
-Devices like the Imation superdisk work in the same way, except that
-they do not have a partition table. For example to make a 120MB
-floppy that you could share with a DOS system:
-
- mkdosfs /dev/pf0
- mount /dev/pf0 /mnt
-
-
-2.4 The pf driver
-
-The pf driver is intended for use with parallel port ATAPI disk
-devices. The most common devices in this category are PD drives
-and LS-120 drives. Traditionally, media for these devices are not
-partitioned. Consequently, the pf driver does not support partitioned
-media. This may be changed in a future version of the driver.
-
-2.5 Using the pt driver
-
-The pt driver for parallel port ATAPI tape drives is a minimal driver.
-It does not yet support many of the standard tape ioctl operations.
-For best performance, a block size of 32KB should be used. You will
-probably want to set the parallel port delay to 0, if you can.
-
-2.6 Using the pg driver
-
-The pg driver can be used in conjunction with the cdrecord program
-to create CD-ROMs. Please get cdrecord version 1.6.1 or later
-from ftp://ftp.fokus.gmd.de/pub/unix/cdrecord/ . To record CD-R media
-your parallel port should ideally be set to EPP mode, and the "port delay"
-should be set to 0. With those settings it is possible to record at 2x
-speed without any buffer underruns. If you cannot get the driver to work
-in EPP mode, try to use "bidirectional" or "PS/2" mode and 1x speeds only.
-
-
-3. Troubleshooting
-
-3.1 Use EPP mode if you can
-
-The most common problems that people report with the PARIDE drivers
-concern the parallel port CMOS settings. At this time, none of the
-PARIDE protocol modules support ECP mode, or any ECP combination modes.
-If you are able to do so, please set your parallel port into EPP mode
-using your CMOS setup procedure.
-
-3.2 Check the port delay
-
-Some parallel ports cannot reliably transfer data at full speed. To
-offset the errors, the PARIDE protocol modules introduce a "port
-delay" between each access to the i/o ports. Each protocol sets
-a default value for this delay. In most cases, the user can override
-the default and set it to 0 - resulting in somewhat higher transfer
-rates. In some rare cases (especially with older 486 systems) the
-default delays are not long enough. if you experience corrupt data
-transfers, or unexpected failures, you may wish to increase the
-port delay. The delay can be programmed using the "driveN" parameters
-to each of the high-level drivers. Please see the notes above, or
-read the comments at the beginning of the driver source files in
-linux/drivers/block/paride.
-
-3.3 Some drives need a printer reset
-
-There appear to be a number of "noname" external drives on the market
-that do not always power up correctly. We have noticed this with some
-drives based on OnSpec and older Freecom adapters. In these rare cases,
-the adapter can often be reinitialised by issuing a "printer reset" on
-the parallel port. As the reset operation is potentially disruptive in
-multiple device environments, the PARIDE drivers will not do it
-automatically. You can however, force a printer reset by doing:
-
- insmod lp reset=1
- rmmod lp
-
-If you have one of these marginal cases, you should probably build
-your paride drivers as modules, and arrange to do the printer reset
-before loading the PARIDE drivers.
-
-3.4 Use the verbose option and dmesg if you need help
-
-While a lot of testing has gone into these drivers to make them work
-as smoothly as possible, problems will arise. If you do have problems,
-please check all the obvious things first: does the drive work in
-DOS with the manufacturer's drivers ? If that doesn't yield any useful
-clues, then please make sure that only one drive is hooked to your system,
-and that either (a) PARPORT is enabled or (b) no other device driver
-is using your parallel port (check in /proc/ioports). Then, load the
-appropriate drivers (you can load several protocol modules if you want)
-as in:
-
- # insmod paride
- # insmod epat
- # insmod bpck
- # insmod kbic
- ...
- # insmod pd verbose=1
-
-(using the correct driver for the type of device you have, of course).
-The verbose=1 parameter will cause the drivers to log a trace of their
-activity as they attempt to locate your drive.
-
-Use 'dmesg' to capture a log of all the PARIDE messages (any messages
-beginning with paride:, a protocol module's name or a driver's name) and
-include that with your bug report. You can submit a bug report in one
-of two ways. Either send it directly to the author of the PARIDE suite,
-by e-mail to grant@torque.net, or join the linux-parport mailing list
-and post your report there.
-
-3.5 For more information or help
-
-You can join the linux-parport mailing list by sending a mail message
-to
- linux-parport-request@torque.net
-
-with the single word
-
- subscribe
-
-in the body of the mail message (not in the subject line). Please be
-sure that your mail program is correctly set up when you do this, as
-the list manager is a robot that will subscribe you using the reply
-address in your mail headers. REMOVE any anti-spam gimmicks you may
-have in your mail headers, when sending mail to the list server.
-
-You might also find some useful information on the linux-parport
-web pages (although they are not always up to date) at
-
- http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://www.torque.net/parport/
-
-