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- The PCI Express Port Bus Driver Guide HOWTO
- Tom L Nguyen tom.l.nguyen@intel.com
- 11/03/2004
-
-1. About this guide
-
-This guide describes the basics of the PCI Express Port Bus driver
-and provides information on how to enable the service drivers to
-register/unregister with the PCI Express Port Bus Driver.
-
-2. Copyright 2004 Intel Corporation
-
-3. What is the PCI Express Port Bus Driver
-
-A PCI Express Port is a logical PCI-PCI Bridge structure. There
-are two types of PCI Express Port: the Root Port and the Switch
-Port. The Root Port originates a PCI Express link from a PCI Express
-Root Complex and the Switch Port connects PCI Express links to
-internal logical PCI buses. The Switch Port, which has its secondary
-bus representing the switch's internal routing logic, is called the
-switch's Upstream Port. The switch's Downstream Port is bridging from
-switch's internal routing bus to a bus representing the downstream
-PCI Express link from the PCI Express Switch.
-
-A PCI Express Port can provide up to four distinct functions,
-referred to in this document as services, depending on its port type.
-PCI Express Port's services include native hotplug support (HP),
-power management event support (PME), advanced error reporting
-support (AER), and virtual channel support (VC). These services may
-be handled by a single complex driver or be individually distributed
-and handled by corresponding service drivers.
-
-4. Why use the PCI Express Port Bus Driver?
-
-In existing Linux kernels, the Linux Device Driver Model allows a
-physical device to be handled by only a single driver. The PCI
-Express Port is a PCI-PCI Bridge device with multiple distinct
-services. To maintain a clean and simple solution each service
-may have its own software service driver. In this case several
-service drivers will compete for a single PCI-PCI Bridge device.
-For example, if the PCI Express Root Port native hotplug service
-driver is loaded first, it claims a PCI-PCI Bridge Root Port. The
-kernel therefore does not load other service drivers for that Root
-Port. In other words, it is impossible to have multiple service
-drivers load and run on a PCI-PCI Bridge device simultaneously
-using the current driver model.
-
-To enable multiple service drivers running simultaneously requires
-having a PCI Express Port Bus driver, which manages all populated
-PCI Express Ports and distributes all provided service requests
-to the corresponding service drivers as required. Some key
-advantages of using the PCI Express Port Bus driver are listed below:
-
- - Allow multiple service drivers to run simultaneously on
- a PCI-PCI Bridge Port device.
-
- - Allow service drivers implemented in an independent
- staged approach.
-
- - Allow one service driver to run on multiple PCI-PCI Bridge
- Port devices.
-
- - Manage and distribute resources of a PCI-PCI Bridge Port
- device to requested service drivers.
-
-5. Configuring the PCI Express Port Bus Driver vs. Service Drivers
-
-5.1 Including the PCI Express Port Bus Driver Support into the Kernel
-
-Including the PCI Express Port Bus driver depends on whether the PCI
-Express support is included in the kernel config. The kernel will
-automatically include the PCI Express Port Bus driver as a kernel
-driver when the PCI Express support is enabled in the kernel.
-
-5.2 Enabling Service Driver Support
-
-PCI device drivers are implemented based on Linux Device Driver Model.
-All service drivers are PCI device drivers. As discussed above, it is
-impossible to load any service driver once the kernel has loaded the
-PCI Express Port Bus Driver. To meet the PCI Express Port Bus Driver
-Model requires some minimal changes on existing service drivers that
-imposes no impact on the functionality of existing service drivers.
-
-A service driver is required to use the two APIs shown below to
-register its service with the PCI Express Port Bus driver (see
-section 5.2.1 & 5.2.2). It is important that a service driver
-initializes the pcie_port_service_driver data structure, included in
-header file /include/linux/pcieport_if.h, before calling these APIs.
-Failure to do so will result an identity mismatch, which prevents
-the PCI Express Port Bus driver from loading a service driver.
-
-5.2.1 pcie_port_service_register
-
-int pcie_port_service_register(struct pcie_port_service_driver *new)
-
-This API replaces the Linux Driver Model's pci_register_driver API. A
-service driver should always calls pcie_port_service_register at
-module init. Note that after service driver being loaded, calls
-such as pci_enable_device(dev) and pci_set_master(dev) are no longer
-necessary since these calls are executed by the PCI Port Bus driver.
-
-5.2.2 pcie_port_service_unregister
-
-void pcie_port_service_unregister(struct pcie_port_service_driver *new)
-
-pcie_port_service_unregister replaces the Linux Driver Model's
-pci_unregister_driver. It's always called by service driver when a
-module exits.
-
-5.2.3 Sample Code
-
-Below is sample service driver code to initialize the port service
-driver data structure.
-
-static struct pcie_port_service_id service_id[] = { {
- .vendor = PCI_ANY_ID,
- .device = PCI_ANY_ID,
- .port_type = PCIE_RC_PORT,
- .service_type = PCIE_PORT_SERVICE_AER,
- }, { /* end: all zeroes */ }
-};
-
-static struct pcie_port_service_driver root_aerdrv = {
- .name = (char *)device_name,
- .id_table = &service_id[0],
-
- .probe = aerdrv_load,
- .remove = aerdrv_unload,
-
- .suspend = aerdrv_suspend,
- .resume = aerdrv_resume,
-};
-
-Below is a sample code for registering/unregistering a service
-driver.
-
-static int __init aerdrv_service_init(void)
-{
- int retval = 0;
-
- retval = pcie_port_service_register(&root_aerdrv);
- if (!retval) {
- /*
- * FIX ME
- */
- }
- return retval;
-}
-
-static void __exit aerdrv_service_exit(void)
-{
- pcie_port_service_unregister(&root_aerdrv);
-}
-
-module_init(aerdrv_service_init);
-module_exit(aerdrv_service_exit);
-
-6. Possible Resource Conflicts
-
-Since all service drivers of a PCI-PCI Bridge Port device are
-allowed to run simultaneously, below lists a few of possible resource
-conflicts with proposed solutions.
-
-6.1 MSI Vector Resource
-
-The MSI capability structure enables a device software driver to call
-pci_enable_msi to request MSI based interrupts. Once MSI interrupts
-are enabled on a device, it stays in this mode until a device driver
-calls pci_disable_msi to disable MSI interrupts and revert back to
-INTx emulation mode. Since service drivers of the same PCI-PCI Bridge
-port share the same physical device, if an individual service driver
-calls pci_enable_msi/pci_disable_msi it may result unpredictable
-behavior. For example, two service drivers run simultaneously on the
-same physical Root Port. Both service drivers call pci_enable_msi to
-request MSI based interrupts. A service driver may not know whether
-any other service drivers have run on this Root Port. If either one
-of them calls pci_disable_msi, it puts the other service driver
-in a wrong interrupt mode.
-
-To avoid this situation all service drivers are not permitted to
-switch interrupt mode on its device. The PCI Express Port Bus driver
-is responsible for determining the interrupt mode and this should be
-transparent to service drivers. Service drivers need to know only
-the vector IRQ assigned to the field irq of struct pcie_device, which
-is passed in when the PCI Express Port Bus driver probes each service
-driver. Service drivers should use (struct pcie_device*)dev->irq to
-call request_irq/free_irq. In addition, the interrupt mode is stored
-in the field interrupt_mode of struct pcie_device.
-
-6.2 MSI-X Vector Resources
-
-Similar to the MSI a device driver for an MSI-X capable device can
-call pci_enable_msix to request MSI-X interrupts. All service drivers
-are not permitted to switch interrupt mode on its device. The PCI
-Express Port Bus driver is responsible for determining the interrupt
-mode and this should be transparent to service drivers. Any attempt
-by service driver to call pci_enable_msix/pci_disable_msix may
-result unpredictable behavior. Service drivers should use
-(struct pcie_device*)dev->irq and call request_irq/free_irq.
-
-6.3 PCI Memory/IO Mapped Regions
-
-Service drivers for PCI Express Power Management (PME), Advanced
-Error Reporting (AER), Hot-Plug (HP) and Virtual Channel (VC) access
-PCI configuration space on the PCI Express port. In all cases the
-registers accessed are independent of each other. This patch assumes
-that all service drivers will be well behaved and not overwrite
-other service driver's configuration settings.
-
-6.4 PCI Config Registers
-
-Each service driver runs its PCI config operations on its own
-capability structure except the PCI Express capability structure, in
-which Root Control register and Device Control register are shared
-between PME and AER. This patch assumes that all service drivers
-will be well behaved and not overwrite other service driver's
-configuration settings.