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-Linux IOMMU Support
-===================
-
-The architecture spec can be obtained from the below location.
-
-http://www.intel.com/technology/virtualization/
-
-This guide gives a quick cheat sheet for some basic understanding.
-
-Some Keywords
-
-DMAR - DMA remapping
-DRHD - DMA Engine Reporting Structure
-RMRR - Reserved memory Region Reporting Structure
-ZLR - Zero length reads from PCI devices
-IOVA - IO Virtual address.
-
-Basic stuff
------------
-
-ACPI enumerates and lists the different DMA engines in the platform, and
-device scope relationships between PCI devices and which DMA engine controls
-them.
-
-What is RMRR?
--------------
-
-There are some devices the BIOS controls, for e.g USB devices to perform
-PS2 emulation. The regions of memory used for these devices are marked
-reserved in the e820 map. When we turn on DMA translation, DMA to those
-regions will fail. Hence BIOS uses RMRR to specify these regions along with
-devices that need to access these regions. OS is expected to setup
-unity mappings for these regions for these devices to access these regions.
-
-How is IOVA generated?
----------------------
-
-Well behaved drivers call pci_map_*() calls before sending command to device
-that needs to perform DMA. Once DMA is completed and mapping is no longer
-required, device performs a pci_unmap_*() calls to unmap the region.
-
-The Intel IOMMU driver allocates a virtual address per domain. Each PCIE
-device has its own domain (hence protection). Devices under p2p bridges
-share the virtual address with all devices under the p2p bridge due to
-transaction id aliasing for p2p bridges.
-
-IOVA generation is pretty generic. We used the same technique as vmalloc()
-but these are not global address spaces, but separate for each domain.
-Different DMA engines may support different number of domains.
-
-We also allocate guard pages with each mapping, so we can attempt to catch
-any overflow that might happen.
-
-
-Graphics Problems?
-------------------
-If you encounter issues with graphics devices, you can try adding
-option intel_iommu=igfx_off to turn off the integrated graphics engine.
-If this fixes anything, please ensure you file a bug reporting the problem.
-
-Some exceptions to IOVA
------------------------
-Interrupt ranges are not address translated, (0xfee00000 - 0xfeefffff).
-The same is true for peer to peer transactions. Hence we reserve the
-address from PCI MMIO ranges so they are not allocated for IOVA addresses.
-
-
-Fault reporting
----------------
-When errors are reported, the DMA engine signals via an interrupt. The fault
-reason and device that caused it with fault reason is printed on console.
-
-See below for sample.
-
-
-Boot Message Sample
--------------------
-
-Something like this gets printed indicating presence of DMAR tables
-in ACPI.
-
-ACPI: DMAR (v001 A M I OEMDMAR 0x00000001 MSFT 0x00000097) @ 0x000000007f5b5ef0
-
-When DMAR is being processed and initialized by ACPI, prints DMAR locations
-and any RMRR's processed.
-
-ACPI DMAR:Host address width 36
-ACPI DMAR:DRHD (flags: 0x00000000)base: 0x00000000fed90000
-ACPI DMAR:DRHD (flags: 0x00000000)base: 0x00000000fed91000
-ACPI DMAR:DRHD (flags: 0x00000001)base: 0x00000000fed93000
-ACPI DMAR:RMRR base: 0x00000000000ed000 end: 0x00000000000effff
-ACPI DMAR:RMRR base: 0x000000007f600000 end: 0x000000007fffffff
-
-When DMAR is enabled for use, you will notice..
-
-PCI-DMA: Using DMAR IOMMU
-
-Fault reporting
----------------
-
-DMAR:[DMA Write] Request device [00:02.0] fault addr 6df084000
-DMAR:[fault reason 05] PTE Write access is not set
-DMAR:[DMA Write] Request device [00:02.0] fault addr 6df084000
-DMAR:[fault reason 05] PTE Write access is not set
-
-TBD
-----
-
-- For compatibility testing, could use unity map domain for all devices, just
- provide a 1-1 for all useful memory under a single domain for all devices.
-- API for paravirt ops for abstracting functionality for VMM folks.