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-<title>Introduction</title>
-
-<section id="requisites">
-<title>What you need to know</title>
-
-<para>The reader of this document is required to have some knowledge in
-the area of digital video broadcasting (DVB) and should be familiar with
-part I of the MPEG2 specification ISO/IEC 13818 (aka ITU-T H.222), i.e
-you should know what a program/transport stream (PS/TS) is and what is
-meant by a packetized elementary stream (PES) or an I-frame.</para>
-
-<para>Various DVB standards documents are available from
-<ulink url="http://www.dvb.org" /> and/or
-<ulink url="http://www.etsi.org" />.</para>
-
-<para>It is also necessary to know how to access unix/linux devices and
-how to use ioctl calls. This also includes the knowledge of C or C++.
-</para>
-</section>
-
-<section id="history">
-<title>History</title>
-
-<para>The first API for DVB cards we used at Convergence in late 1999
-was an extension of the Video4Linux API which was primarily developed
-for frame grabber cards. As such it was not really well suited to be
-used for DVB cards and their new features like recording MPEG streams
-and filtering several section and PES data streams at the same time.
-</para>
-
-<para>In early 2000, we were approached by Nokia with a proposal for a
-new standard Linux DVB API. As a commitment to the development of
-terminals based on open standards, Nokia and Convergence made it
-available to all Linux developers and published it on
-<ulink url="http://www.linuxtv.org/" /> in September 2000.
-Convergence is the maintainer of the Linux DVB API. Together with the
-LinuxTV community (i.e. you, the reader of this document), the Linux DVB
-API will be constantly reviewed and improved. With the Linux driver for
-the Siemens/Hauppauge DVB PCI card Convergence provides a first
-implementation of the Linux DVB API.</para>
-</section>
-
-<section id="overview">
-<title>Overview</title>
-
-<figure id="stb_components">
-<title>Components of a DVB card/STB</title>
-<mediaobject>
-<imageobject>
-<imagedata fileref="dvbstb.pdf" format="PS" />
-</imageobject>
-<imageobject>
-<imagedata fileref="dvbstb.png" format="PNG" />
-</imageobject>
-</mediaobject>
-</figure>
-
-<para>A DVB PCI card or DVB set-top-box (STB) usually consists of the
-following main hardware components: </para>
-
-<itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
-
-<para>Frontend consisting of tuner and DVB demodulator</para>
-
-<para>Here the raw signal reaches the DVB hardware from a satellite dish
-or antenna or directly from cable. The frontend down-converts and
-demodulates this signal into an MPEG transport stream (TS). In case of a
-satellite frontend, this includes a facility for satellite equipment
-control (SEC), which allows control of LNB polarization, multi feed
-switches or dish rotors.</para>
-
-</listitem>
- <listitem>
-
-<para>Conditional Access (CA) hardware like CI adapters and smartcard slots
-</para>
-
-<para>The complete TS is passed through the CA hardware. Programs to
-which the user has access (controlled by the smart card) are decoded in
-real time and re-inserted into the TS.</para>
-
-</listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para>Demultiplexer which filters the incoming DVB stream</para>
-
-<para>The demultiplexer splits the TS into its components like audio and
-video streams. Besides usually several of such audio and video streams
-it also contains data streams with information about the programs
-offered in this or other streams of the same provider.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-<listitem>
-
-<para>MPEG2 audio and video decoder</para>
-
-<para>The main targets of the demultiplexer are the MPEG2 audio and
-video decoders. After decoding they pass on the uncompressed audio and
-video to the computer screen or (through a PAL/NTSC encoder) to a TV
-set.</para>
-
-
-</listitem>
-</itemizedlist>
-
-<para><xref linkend="stb_components" /> shows a crude schematic of the control and data flow
-between those components.</para>
-
-<para>On a DVB PCI card not all of these have to be present since some
-functionality can be provided by the main CPU of the PC (e.g. MPEG
-picture and sound decoding) or is not needed (e.g. for data-only uses
-like &#8220;internet over satellite&#8221;). Also not every card or STB
-provides conditional access hardware.</para>
-
-</section>
-
-<section id="dvb_devices">
-<title>Linux DVB Devices</title>
-
-<para>The Linux DVB API lets you control these hardware components
-through currently six Unix-style character devices for video, audio,
-frontend, demux, CA and IP-over-DVB networking. The video and audio
-devices control the MPEG2 decoder hardware, the frontend device the
-tuner and the DVB demodulator. The demux device gives you control over
-the PES and section filters of the hardware. If the hardware does not
-support filtering these filters can be implemented in software. Finally,
-the CA device controls all the conditional access capabilities of the
-hardware. It can depend on the individual security requirements of the
-platform, if and how many of the CA functions are made available to the
-application through this device.</para>
-
-<para>All devices can be found in the <emphasis role="tt">/dev</emphasis>
-tree under <emphasis role="tt">/dev/dvb</emphasis>. The individual devices
-are called:</para>
-
-<itemizedlist>
-<listitem>
-
-<para><emphasis role="tt">/dev/dvb/adapterN/audioM</emphasis>,</para>
-</listitem>
-<listitem>
-<para><emphasis role="tt">/dev/dvb/adapterN/videoM</emphasis>,</para>
-</listitem>
-<listitem>
-<para><emphasis role="tt">/dev/dvb/adapterN/frontendM</emphasis>,</para>
-</listitem>
- <listitem>
-
-<para><emphasis role="tt">/dev/dvb/adapterN/netM</emphasis>,</para>
-</listitem>
- <listitem>
-
-<para><emphasis role="tt">/dev/dvb/adapterN/demuxM</emphasis>,</para>
-</listitem>
- <listitem>
-
-<para><emphasis role="tt">/dev/dvb/adapterN/dvrM</emphasis>,</para>
-</listitem>
- <listitem>
-
-<para><emphasis role="tt">/dev/dvb/adapterN/caM</emphasis>,</para></listitem></itemizedlist>
-
-<para>where N enumerates the DVB PCI cards in a system starting
-from&#x00A0;0, and M enumerates the devices of each type within each
-adapter, starting from&#x00A0;0, too. We will omit the &#8220;<emphasis
-role="tt">/dev/dvb/adapterN/</emphasis>&#8221; in the further dicussion
-of these devices. The naming scheme for the devices is the same wheter
-devfs is used or not.</para>
-
-<para>More details about the data structures and function calls of all
-the devices are described in the following chapters.</para>
-
-</section>
-
-<section id="include_files">
-<title>API include files</title>
-
-<para>For each of the DVB devices a corresponding include file exists.
-The DVB API include files should be included in application sources with
-a partial path like:</para>
-
-<programlisting>
- #include &#x003C;linux/dvb/audio.h&#x003E;
-</programlisting>
-<programlisting>
- #include &#x003C;linux/dvb/ca.h&#x003E;
-</programlisting>
-<programlisting>
- #include &#x003C;linux/dvb/dmx.h&#x003E;
-</programlisting>
-<programlisting>
- #include &#x003C;linux/dvb/frontend.h&#x003E;
-</programlisting>
-<programlisting>
- #include &#x003C;linux/dvb/net.h&#x003E;
-</programlisting>
-<programlisting>
- #include &#x003C;linux/dvb/osd.h&#x003E;
-</programlisting>
-<programlisting>
- #include &#x003C;linux/dvb/video.h&#x003E;
-</programlisting>
-
-<para>To enable applications to support different API version, an
-additional include file <emphasis
-role="tt">linux/dvb/version.h</emphasis> exists, which defines the
-constant <emphasis role="tt">DVB_API_VERSION</emphasis>. This document
-describes <emphasis role="tt">DVB_API_VERSION 5.4</emphasis>.
-</para>
-
-</section>
-