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-<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
-<!DOCTYPE book PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.1.2//EN"
- "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.1.2/docbookx.dtd" []>
-
-<book id="LinuxKernelAPI">
- <bookinfo>
- <title>The Linux Kernel API</title>
-
- <legalnotice>
- <para>
- This documentation is free software; you can redistribute
- it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public
- License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
- version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later
- version.
- </para>
-
- <para>
- This program is distributed in the hope that it will be
- useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied
- warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
- See the GNU General Public License for more details.
- </para>
-
- <para>
- You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public
- License along with this program; if not, write to the Free
- Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston,
- MA 02111-1307 USA
- </para>
-
- <para>
- For more details see the file COPYING in the source
- distribution of Linux.
- </para>
- </legalnotice>
- </bookinfo>
-
-<toc></toc>
-
- <chapter id="adt">
- <title>Data Types</title>
- <sect1><title>Doubly Linked Lists</title>
-!Iinclude/linux/list.h
- </sect1>
- </chapter>
-
- <chapter id="libc">
- <title>Basic C Library Functions</title>
-
- <para>
- When writing drivers, you cannot in general use routines which are
- from the C Library. Some of the functions have been found generally
- useful and they are listed below. The behaviour of these functions
- may vary slightly from those defined by ANSI, and these deviations
- are noted in the text.
- </para>
-
- <sect1><title>String Conversions</title>
-!Elib/vsprintf.c
- </sect1>
- <sect1><title>String Manipulation</title>
-<!-- All functions are exported at now
-X!Ilib/string.c
- -->
-!Elib/string.c
- </sect1>
- <sect1><title>Bit Operations</title>
-!Iarch/x86/include/asm/bitops.h
- </sect1>
- </chapter>
-
- <chapter id="kernel-lib">
- <title>Basic Kernel Library Functions</title>
-
- <para>
- The Linux kernel provides more basic utility functions.
- </para>
-
- <sect1><title>Bitmap Operations</title>
-!Elib/bitmap.c
-!Ilib/bitmap.c
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1><title>Command-line Parsing</title>
-!Elib/cmdline.c
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 id="crc"><title>CRC Functions</title>
-!Elib/crc7.c
-!Elib/crc16.c
-!Elib/crc-itu-t.c
-!Elib/crc32.c
-!Elib/crc-ccitt.c
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 id="idr"><title>idr/ida Functions</title>
-!Pinclude/linux/idr.h idr sync
-!Plib/idr.c IDA description
-!Elib/idr.c
- </sect1>
- </chapter>
-
- <chapter id="mm">
- <title>Memory Management in Linux</title>
- <sect1><title>The Slab Cache</title>
-!Iinclude/linux/slab.h
-!Emm/slab.c
- </sect1>
- <sect1><title>User Space Memory Access</title>
-!Iarch/x86/include/asm/uaccess_32.h
-!Earch/x86/lib/usercopy_32.c
- </sect1>
- <sect1><title>More Memory Management Functions</title>
-!Emm/readahead.c
-!Emm/filemap.c
-!Emm/memory.c
-!Emm/vmalloc.c
-!Imm/page_alloc.c
-!Emm/mempool.c
-!Emm/dmapool.c
-!Emm/page-writeback.c
-!Emm/truncate.c
- </sect1>
- </chapter>
-
-
- <chapter id="ipc">
- <title>Kernel IPC facilities</title>
-
- <sect1><title>IPC utilities</title>
-!Iipc/util.c
- </sect1>
- </chapter>
-
- <chapter id="kfifo">
- <title>FIFO Buffer</title>
- <sect1><title>kfifo interface</title>
-!Iinclude/linux/kfifo.h
- </sect1>
- </chapter>
-
- <chapter id="relayfs">
- <title>relay interface support</title>
-
- <para>
- Relay interface support
- is designed to provide an efficient mechanism for tools and
- facilities to relay large amounts of data from kernel space to
- user space.
- </para>
-
- <sect1><title>relay interface</title>
-!Ekernel/relay.c
-!Ikernel/relay.c
- </sect1>
- </chapter>
-
- <chapter id="modload">
- <title>Module Support</title>
- <sect1><title>Module Loading</title>
-!Ekernel/kmod.c
- </sect1>
- <sect1><title>Inter Module support</title>
- <para>
- Refer to the file kernel/module.c for more information.
- </para>
-<!-- FIXME: Removed for now since no structured comments in source
-X!Ekernel/module.c
--->
- </sect1>
- </chapter>
-
- <chapter id="hardware">
- <title>Hardware Interfaces</title>
- <sect1><title>Interrupt Handling</title>
-!Ekernel/irq/manage.c
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1><title>DMA Channels</title>
-!Ekernel/dma.c
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1><title>Resources Management</title>
-!Ikernel/resource.c
-!Ekernel/resource.c
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1><title>MTRR Handling</title>
-!Earch/x86/kernel/cpu/mtrr/main.c
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1><title>PCI Support Library</title>
-!Edrivers/pci/pci.c
-!Edrivers/pci/pci-driver.c
-!Edrivers/pci/remove.c
-!Edrivers/pci/search.c
-!Edrivers/pci/msi.c
-!Edrivers/pci/bus.c
-!Edrivers/pci/access.c
-!Edrivers/pci/irq.c
-!Edrivers/pci/htirq.c
-<!-- FIXME: Removed for now since no structured comments in source
-X!Edrivers/pci/hotplug.c
--->
-!Edrivers/pci/probe.c
-!Edrivers/pci/slot.c
-!Edrivers/pci/rom.c
-!Edrivers/pci/iov.c
-!Idrivers/pci/pci-sysfs.c
- </sect1>
- <sect1><title>PCI Hotplug Support Library</title>
-!Edrivers/pci/hotplug/pci_hotplug_core.c
- </sect1>
- </chapter>
-
- <chapter id="firmware">
- <title>Firmware Interfaces</title>
- <sect1><title>DMI Interfaces</title>
-!Edrivers/firmware/dmi_scan.c
- </sect1>
- <sect1><title>EDD Interfaces</title>
-!Idrivers/firmware/edd.c
- </sect1>
- </chapter>
-
- <chapter id="security">
- <title>Security Framework</title>
-!Isecurity/security.c
-!Esecurity/inode.c
- </chapter>
-
- <chapter id="audit">
- <title>Audit Interfaces</title>
-!Ekernel/audit.c
-!Ikernel/auditsc.c
-!Ikernel/auditfilter.c
- </chapter>
-
- <chapter id="accounting">
- <title>Accounting Framework</title>
-!Ikernel/acct.c
- </chapter>
-
- <chapter id="blkdev">
- <title>Block Devices</title>
-!Eblock/blk-core.c
-!Iblock/blk-core.c
-!Eblock/blk-map.c
-!Iblock/blk-sysfs.c
-!Eblock/blk-settings.c
-!Eblock/blk-exec.c
-!Eblock/blk-flush.c
-!Eblock/blk-lib.c
-!Eblock/blk-tag.c
-!Iblock/blk-tag.c
-!Eblock/blk-integrity.c
-!Ikernel/trace/blktrace.c
-!Iblock/genhd.c
-!Eblock/genhd.c
- </chapter>
-
- <chapter id="chrdev">
- <title>Char devices</title>
-!Efs/char_dev.c
- </chapter>
-
- <chapter id="miscdev">
- <title>Miscellaneous Devices</title>
-!Edrivers/char/misc.c
- </chapter>
-
- <chapter id="clk">
- <title>Clock Framework</title>
-
- <para>
- The clock framework defines programming interfaces to support
- software management of the system clock tree.
- This framework is widely used with System-On-Chip (SOC) platforms
- to support power management and various devices which may need
- custom clock rates.
- Note that these "clocks" don't relate to timekeeping or real
- time clocks (RTCs), each of which have separate frameworks.
- These <structname>struct clk</structname> instances may be used
- to manage for example a 96 MHz signal that is used to shift bits
- into and out of peripherals or busses, or otherwise trigger
- synchronous state machine transitions in system hardware.
- </para>
-
- <para>
- Power management is supported by explicit software clock gating:
- unused clocks are disabled, so the system doesn't waste power
- changing the state of transistors that aren't in active use.
- On some systems this may be backed by hardware clock gating,
- where clocks are gated without being disabled in software.
- Sections of chips that are powered but not clocked may be able
- to retain their last state.
- This low power state is often called a <emphasis>retention
- mode</emphasis>.
- This mode still incurs leakage currents, especially with finer
- circuit geometries, but for CMOS circuits power is mostly used
- by clocked state changes.
- </para>
-
- <para>
- Power-aware drivers only enable their clocks when the device
- they manage is in active use. Also, system sleep states often
- differ according to which clock domains are active: while a
- "standby" state may allow wakeup from several active domains, a
- "mem" (suspend-to-RAM) state may require a more wholesale shutdown
- of clocks derived from higher speed PLLs and oscillators, limiting
- the number of possible wakeup event sources. A driver's suspend
- method may need to be aware of system-specific clock constraints
- on the target sleep state.
- </para>
-
- <para>
- Some platforms support programmable clock generators. These
- can be used by external chips of various kinds, such as other
- CPUs, multimedia codecs, and devices with strict requirements
- for interface clocking.
- </para>
-
-!Iinclude/linux/clk.h
- </chapter>
-
-</book>