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-<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
-<!DOCTYPE book PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.1.2//EN"
- "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.1.2/docbookx.dtd" []>
-
-<book id="Linux-filesystems-API">
- <bookinfo>
- <title>Linux Filesystems API</title>
-
- <legalnotice>
- <para>
- This documentation is free software; you can redistribute
- it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public
- License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
- version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later
- version.
- </para>
-
- <para>
- This program is distributed in the hope that it will be
- useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied
- warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
- See the GNU General Public License for more details.
- </para>
-
- <para>
- You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public
- License along with this program; if not, write to the Free
- Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston,
- MA 02111-1307 USA
- </para>
-
- <para>
- For more details see the file COPYING in the source
- distribution of Linux.
- </para>
- </legalnotice>
- </bookinfo>
-
-<toc></toc>
-
- <chapter id="vfs">
- <title>The Linux VFS</title>
- <sect1 id="the_filesystem_types"><title>The Filesystem types</title>
-!Iinclude/linux/fs.h
- </sect1>
- <sect1 id="the_directory_cache"><title>The Directory Cache</title>
-!Efs/dcache.c
-!Iinclude/linux/dcache.h
- </sect1>
- <sect1 id="inode_handling"><title>Inode Handling</title>
-!Efs/inode.c
-!Efs/bad_inode.c
- </sect1>
- <sect1 id="registration_and_superblocks"><title>Registration and Superblocks</title>
-!Efs/super.c
- </sect1>
- <sect1 id="file_locks"><title>File Locks</title>
-!Efs/locks.c
-!Ifs/locks.c
- </sect1>
- <sect1 id="other_functions"><title>Other Functions</title>
-!Efs/mpage.c
-!Efs/namei.c
-!Efs/buffer.c
-!Efs/bio.c
-!Efs/seq_file.c
-!Efs/filesystems.c
-!Efs/fs-writeback.c
-!Efs/block_dev.c
- </sect1>
- </chapter>
-
- <chapter id="proc">
- <title>The proc filesystem</title>
-
- <sect1 id="sysctl_interface"><title>sysctl interface</title>
-!Ekernel/sysctl.c
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 id="proc_filesystem_interface"><title>proc filesystem interface</title>
-!Ifs/proc/base.c
- </sect1>
- </chapter>
-
- <chapter id="fs_events">
- <title>Events based on file descriptors</title>
-!Efs/eventfd.c
- </chapter>
-
- <chapter id="sysfs">
- <title>The Filesystem for Exporting Kernel Objects</title>
-!Efs/sysfs/file.c
-!Efs/sysfs/symlink.c
-!Efs/sysfs/bin.c
- </chapter>
-
- <chapter id="debugfs">
- <title>The debugfs filesystem</title>
-
- <sect1 id="debugfs_interface"><title>debugfs interface</title>
-!Efs/debugfs/inode.c
-!Efs/debugfs/file.c
- </sect1>
- </chapter>
-
- <chapter id="LinuxJDBAPI">
- <chapterinfo>
- <title>The Linux Journalling API</title>
-
- <authorgroup>
- <author>
- <firstname>Roger</firstname>
- <surname>Gammans</surname>
- <affiliation>
- <address>
- <email>rgammans@computer-surgery.co.uk</email>
- </address>
- </affiliation>
- </author>
- </authorgroup>
-
- <authorgroup>
- <author>
- <firstname>Stephen</firstname>
- <surname>Tweedie</surname>
- <affiliation>
- <address>
- <email>sct@redhat.com</email>
- </address>
- </affiliation>
- </author>
- </authorgroup>
-
- <copyright>
- <year>2002</year>
- <holder>Roger Gammans</holder>
- </copyright>
- </chapterinfo>
-
- <title>The Linux Journalling API</title>
-
- <sect1 id="journaling_overview">
- <title>Overview</title>
- <sect2 id="journaling_details">
- <title>Details</title>
-<para>
-The journalling layer is easy to use. You need to
-first of all create a journal_t data structure. There are
-two calls to do this dependent on how you decide to allocate the physical
-media on which the journal resides. The journal_init_inode() call
-is for journals stored in filesystem inodes, or the journal_init_dev()
-call can be use for journal stored on a raw device (in a continuous range
-of blocks). A journal_t is a typedef for a struct pointer, so when
-you are finally finished make sure you call journal_destroy() on it
-to free up any used kernel memory.
-</para>
-
-<para>
-Once you have got your journal_t object you need to 'mount' or load the journal
-file, unless of course you haven't initialised it yet - in which case you
-need to call journal_create().
-</para>
-
-<para>
-Most of the time however your journal file will already have been created, but
-before you load it you must call journal_wipe() to empty the journal file.
-Hang on, you say , what if the filesystem wasn't cleanly umount()'d . Well, it is the
-job of the client file system to detect this and skip the call to journal_wipe().
-</para>
-
-<para>
-In either case the next call should be to journal_load() which prepares the
-journal file for use. Note that journal_wipe(..,0) calls journal_skip_recovery()
-for you if it detects any outstanding transactions in the journal and similarly
-journal_load() will call journal_recover() if necessary.
-I would advise reading fs/ext3/super.c for examples on this stage.
-[RGG: Why is the journal_wipe() call necessary - doesn't this needlessly
-complicate the API. Or isn't a good idea for the journal layer to hide
-dirty mounts from the client fs]
-</para>
-
-<para>
-Now you can go ahead and start modifying the underlying
-filesystem. Almost.
-</para>
-
-<para>
-
-You still need to actually journal your filesystem changes, this
-is done by wrapping them into transactions. Additionally you
-also need to wrap the modification of each of the buffers
-with calls to the journal layer, so it knows what the modifications
-you are actually making are. To do this use journal_start() which
-returns a transaction handle.
-</para>
-
-<para>
-journal_start()
-and its counterpart journal_stop(), which indicates the end of a transaction
-are nestable calls, so you can reenter a transaction if necessary,
-but remember you must call journal_stop() the same number of times as
-journal_start() before the transaction is completed (or more accurately
-leaves the update phase). Ext3/VFS makes use of this feature to simplify
-quota support.
-</para>
-
-<para>
-Inside each transaction you need to wrap the modifications to the
-individual buffers (blocks). Before you start to modify a buffer you
-need to call journal_get_{create,write,undo}_access() as appropriate,
-this allows the journalling layer to copy the unmodified data if it
-needs to. After all the buffer may be part of a previously uncommitted
-transaction.
-At this point you are at last ready to modify a buffer, and once
-you are have done so you need to call journal_dirty_{meta,}data().
-Or if you've asked for access to a buffer you now know is now longer
-required to be pushed back on the device you can call journal_forget()
-in much the same way as you might have used bforget() in the past.
-</para>
-
-<para>
-A journal_flush() may be called at any time to commit and checkpoint
-all your transactions.
-</para>
-
-<para>
-Then at umount time , in your put_super() (2.4) or write_super() (2.5)
-you can then call journal_destroy() to clean up your in-core journal object.
-</para>
-
-<para>
-Unfortunately there a couple of ways the journal layer can cause a deadlock.
-The first thing to note is that each task can only have
-a single outstanding transaction at any one time, remember nothing
-commits until the outermost journal_stop(). This means
-you must complete the transaction at the end of each file/inode/address
-etc. operation you perform, so that the journalling system isn't re-entered
-on another journal. Since transactions can't be nested/batched
-across differing journals, and another filesystem other than
-yours (say ext3) may be modified in a later syscall.
-</para>
-
-<para>
-The second case to bear in mind is that journal_start() can
-block if there isn't enough space in the journal for your transaction
-(based on the passed nblocks param) - when it blocks it merely(!) needs to
-wait for transactions to complete and be committed from other tasks,
-so essentially we are waiting for journal_stop(). So to avoid
-deadlocks you must treat journal_start/stop() as if they
-were semaphores and include them in your semaphore ordering rules to prevent
-deadlocks. Note that journal_extend() has similar blocking behaviour to
-journal_start() so you can deadlock here just as easily as on journal_start().
-</para>
-
-<para>
-Try to reserve the right number of blocks the first time. ;-). This will
-be the maximum number of blocks you are going to touch in this transaction.
-I advise having a look at at least ext3_jbd.h to see the basis on which
-ext3 uses to make these decisions.
-</para>
-
-<para>
-Another wriggle to watch out for is your on-disk block allocation strategy.
-why? Because, if you undo a delete, you need to ensure you haven't reused any
-of the freed blocks in a later transaction. One simple way of doing this
-is make sure any blocks you allocate only have checkpointed transactions
-listed against them. Ext3 does this in ext3_test_allocatable().
-</para>
-
-<para>
-Lock is also providing through journal_{un,}lock_updates(),
-ext3 uses this when it wants a window with a clean and stable fs for a moment.
-eg.
-</para>
-
-<programlisting>
-
- journal_lock_updates() //stop new stuff happening..
- journal_flush() // checkpoint everything.
- ..do stuff on stable fs
- journal_unlock_updates() // carry on with filesystem use.
-</programlisting>
-
-<para>
-The opportunities for abuse and DOS attacks with this should be obvious,
-if you allow unprivileged userspace to trigger codepaths containing these
-calls.
-</para>
-
-<para>
-A new feature of jbd since 2.5.25 is commit callbacks with the new
-journal_callback_set() function you can now ask the journalling layer
-to call you back when the transaction is finally committed to disk, so that
-you can do some of your own management. The key to this is the journal_callback
-struct, this maintains the internal callback information but you can
-extend it like this:-
-</para>
-<programlisting>
- struct myfs_callback_s {
- //Data structure element required by jbd..
- struct journal_callback for_jbd;
- // Stuff for myfs allocated together.
- myfs_inode* i_commited;
-
- }
-</programlisting>
-
-<para>
-this would be useful if you needed to know when data was committed to a
-particular inode.
-</para>
-
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 id="jbd_summary">
- <title>Summary</title>
-<para>
-Using the journal is a matter of wrapping the different context changes,
-being each mount, each modification (transaction) and each changed buffer
-to tell the journalling layer about them.
-</para>
-
-<para>
-Here is a some pseudo code to give you an idea of how it works, as
-an example.
-</para>
-
-<programlisting>
- journal_t* my_jnrl = journal_create();
- journal_init_{dev,inode}(jnrl,...)
- if (clean) journal_wipe();
- journal_load();
-
- foreach(transaction) { /*transactions must be
- completed before
- a syscall returns to
- userspace*/
-
- handle_t * xct=journal_start(my_jnrl);
- foreach(bh) {
- journal_get_{create,write,undo}_access(xact,bh);
- if ( myfs_modify(bh) ) { /* returns true
- if makes changes */
- journal_dirty_{meta,}data(xact,bh);
- } else {
- journal_forget(bh);
- }
- }
- journal_stop(xct);
- }
- journal_destroy(my_jrnl);
-</programlisting>
- </sect2>
-
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 id="data_types">
- <title>Data Types</title>
- <para>
- The journalling layer uses typedefs to 'hide' the concrete definitions
- of the structures used. As a client of the JBD layer you can
- just rely on the using the pointer as a magic cookie of some sort.
-
- Obviously the hiding is not enforced as this is 'C'.
- </para>
- <sect2 id="structures"><title>Structures</title>
-!Iinclude/linux/jbd.h
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 id="functions">
- <title>Functions</title>
- <para>
- The functions here are split into two groups those that
- affect a journal as a whole, and those which are used to
- manage transactions
- </para>
- <sect2 id="journal_level"><title>Journal Level</title>
-!Efs/jbd/journal.c
-!Ifs/jbd/recovery.c
- </sect2>
- <sect2 id="transaction_level"><title>Transasction Level</title>
-!Efs/jbd/transaction.c
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
- <sect1 id="see_also">
- <title>See also</title>
- <para>
- <citation>
- <ulink url="http://kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/people/sct/ext3/journal-design.ps.gz">
- Journaling the Linux ext2fs Filesystem, LinuxExpo 98, Stephen Tweedie
- </ulink>
- </citation>
- </para>
- <para>
- <citation>
- <ulink url="http://olstrans.sourceforge.net/release/OLS2000-ext3/OLS2000-ext3.html">
- Ext3 Journalling FileSystem, OLS 2000, Dr. Stephen Tweedie
- </ulink>
- </citation>
- </para>
- </sect1>
-
- </chapter>
-
- <chapter id="splice">
- <title>splice API</title>
- <para>
- splice is a method for moving blocks of data around inside the
- kernel, without continually transferring them between the kernel
- and user space.
- </para>
-!Ffs/splice.c
- </chapter>
-
- <chapter id="pipes">
- <title>pipes API</title>
- <para>
- Pipe interfaces are all for in-kernel (builtin image) use.
- They are not exported for use by modules.
- </para>
-!Iinclude/linux/pipe_fs_i.h
-!Ffs/pipe.c
- </chapter>
-
-</book>