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-Intro
-=====
-
-This document is designed to provide a list of the minimum levels of
-software necessary to run the 3.0 kernels.
-
-This document is originally based on my "Changes" file for 2.0.x kernels
-and therefore owes credit to the same people as that file (Jared Mauch,
-Axel Boldt, Alessandro Sigala, and countless other users all over the
-'net).
-
-Current Minimal Requirements
-============================
-
-Upgrade to at *least* these software revisions before thinking you've
-encountered a bug! If you're unsure what version you're currently
-running, the suggested command should tell you.
-
-Again, keep in mind that this list assumes you are already functionally
-running a Linux kernel. Also, not all tools are necessary on all
-systems; obviously, if you don't have any ISDN hardware, for example,
-you probably needn't concern yourself with isdn4k-utils.
-
-o Gnu C 3.2 # gcc --version
-o Gnu make 3.80 # make --version
-o binutils 2.12 # ld -v
-o util-linux 2.10o # fdformat --version
-o module-init-tools 0.9.10 # depmod -V
-o e2fsprogs 1.41.4 # e2fsck -V
-o jfsutils 1.1.3 # fsck.jfs -V
-o reiserfsprogs 3.6.3 # reiserfsck -V
-o xfsprogs 2.6.0 # xfs_db -V
-o squashfs-tools 4.0 # mksquashfs -version
-o btrfs-progs 0.18 # btrfsck
-o pcmciautils 004 # pccardctl -V
-o quota-tools 3.09 # quota -V
-o PPP 2.4.0 # pppd --version
-o isdn4k-utils 3.1pre1 # isdnctrl 2>&1|grep version
-o nfs-utils 1.0.5 # showmount --version
-o procps 3.2.0 # ps --version
-o oprofile 0.9 # oprofiled --version
-o udev 081 # udevd --version
-o grub 0.93 # grub --version || grub-install --version
-o mcelog 0.6 # mcelog --version
-o iptables 1.4.2 # iptables -V
-
-
-Kernel compilation
-==================
-
-GCC
----
-
-The gcc version requirements may vary depending on the type of CPU in your
-computer.
-
-Make
-----
-
-You will need Gnu make 3.80 or later to build the kernel.
-
-Binutils
---------
-
-Linux on IA-32 has recently switched from using as86 to using gas for
-assembling the 16-bit boot code, removing the need for as86 to compile
-your kernel. This change does, however, mean that you need a recent
-release of binutils.
-
-Perl
-----
-
-You will need perl 5 and the following modules: Getopt::Long, Getopt::Std,
-File::Basename, and File::Find to build the kernel.
-
-
-System utilities
-================
-
-Architectural changes
----------------------
-
-DevFS has been obsoleted in favour of udev
-(http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/hotplug/)
-
-32-bit UID support is now in place. Have fun!
-
-Linux documentation for functions is transitioning to inline
-documentation via specially-formatted comments near their
-definitions in the source. These comments can be combined with the
-SGML templates in the Documentation/DocBook directory to make DocBook
-files, which can then be converted by DocBook stylesheets to PostScript,
-HTML, PDF files, and several other formats. In order to convert from
-DocBook format to a format of your choice, you'll need to install Jade as
-well as the desired DocBook stylesheets.
-
-Util-linux
-----------
-
-New versions of util-linux provide *fdisk support for larger disks,
-support new options to mount, recognize more supported partition
-types, have a fdformat which works with 2.4 kernels, and similar goodies.
-You'll probably want to upgrade.
-
-Ksymoops
---------
-
-If the unthinkable happens and your kernel oopses, you may need the
-ksymoops tool to decode it, but in most cases you don't.
-It is generally preferred to build the kernel with CONFIG_KALLSYMS so
-that it produces readable dumps that can be used as-is (this also
-produces better output than ksymoops). If for some reason your kernel
-is not build with CONFIG_KALLSYMS and you have no way to rebuild and
-reproduce the Oops with that option, then you can still decode that Oops
-with ksymoops.
-
-Module-Init-Tools
------------------
-
-A new module loader is now in the kernel that requires module-init-tools
-to use. It is backward compatible with the 2.4.x series kernels.
-
-Mkinitrd
---------
-
-These changes to the /lib/modules file tree layout also require that
-mkinitrd be upgraded.
-
-E2fsprogs
----------
-
-The latest version of e2fsprogs fixes several bugs in fsck and
-debugfs. Obviously, it's a good idea to upgrade.
-
-JFSutils
---------
-
-The jfsutils package contains the utilities for the file system.
-The following utilities are available:
-o fsck.jfs - initiate replay of the transaction log, and check
- and repair a JFS formatted partition.
-o mkfs.jfs - create a JFS formatted partition.
-o other file system utilities are also available in this package.
-
-Reiserfsprogs
--------------
-
-The reiserfsprogs package should be used for reiserfs-3.6.x
-(Linux kernels 2.4.x). It is a combined package and contains working
-versions of mkreiserfs, resize_reiserfs, debugreiserfs and
-reiserfsck. These utils work on both i386 and alpha platforms.
-
-Xfsprogs
---------
-
-The latest version of xfsprogs contains mkfs.xfs, xfs_db, and the
-xfs_repair utilities, among others, for the XFS filesystem. It is
-architecture independent and any version from 2.0.0 onward should
-work correctly with this version of the XFS kernel code (2.6.0 or
-later is recommended, due to some significant improvements).
-
-PCMCIAutils
------------
-
-PCMCIAutils replaces pcmcia-cs (see below). It properly sets up
-PCMCIA sockets at system startup and loads the appropriate modules
-for 16-bit PCMCIA devices if the kernel is modularized and the hotplug
-subsystem is used.
-
-Pcmcia-cs
----------
-
-PCMCIA (PC Card) support is now partially implemented in the main
-kernel source. The "pcmciautils" package (see above) replaces pcmcia-cs
-for newest kernels.
-
-Quota-tools
------------
-
-Support for 32 bit uid's and gid's is required if you want to use
-the newer version 2 quota format. Quota-tools version 3.07 and
-newer has this support. Use the recommended version or newer
-from the table above.
-
-Intel IA32 microcode
---------------------
-
-A driver has been added to allow updating of Intel IA32 microcode,
-accessible as a normal (misc) character device. If you are not using
-udev you may need to:
-
-mkdir /dev/cpu
-mknod /dev/cpu/microcode c 10 184
-chmod 0644 /dev/cpu/microcode
-
-as root before you can use this. You'll probably also want to
-get the user-space microcode_ctl utility to use with this.
-
-Powertweak
-----------
-
-If you are running v0.1.17 or earlier, you should upgrade to
-version v0.99.0 or higher. Running old versions may cause problems
-with programs using shared memory.
-
-udev
-----
-udev is a userspace application for populating /dev dynamically with
-only entries for devices actually present. udev replaces the basic
-functionality of devfs, while allowing persistent device naming for
-devices.
-
-FUSE
-----
-
-Needs libfuse 2.4.0 or later. Absolute minimum is 2.3.0 but mount
-options 'direct_io' and 'kernel_cache' won't work.
-
-Networking
-==========
-
-General changes
----------------
-
-If you have advanced network configuration needs, you should probably
-consider using the network tools from ip-route2.
-
-Packet Filter / NAT
--------------------
-The packet filtering and NAT code uses the same tools like the previous 2.4.x
-kernel series (iptables). It still includes backwards-compatibility modules
-for 2.2.x-style ipchains and 2.0.x-style ipfwadm.
-
-PPP
----
-
-The PPP driver has been restructured to support multilink and to
-enable it to operate over diverse media layers. If you use PPP,
-upgrade pppd to at least 2.4.0.
-
-If you are not using udev, you must have the device file /dev/ppp
-which can be made by:
-
-mknod /dev/ppp c 108 0
-
-as root.
-
-Isdn4k-utils
-------------
-
-Due to changes in the length of the phone number field, isdn4k-utils
-needs to be recompiled or (preferably) upgraded.
-
-NFS-utils
----------
-
-In ancient (2.4 and earlier) kernels, the nfs server needed to know
-about any client that expected to be able to access files via NFS. This
-information would be given to the kernel by "mountd" when the client
-mounted the filesystem, or by "exportfs" at system startup. exportfs
-would take information about active clients from /var/lib/nfs/rmtab.
-
-This approach is quite fragile as it depends on rmtab being correct
-which is not always easy, particularly when trying to implement
-fail-over. Even when the system is working well, rmtab suffers from
-getting lots of old entries that never get removed.
-
-With modern kernels we have the option of having the kernel tell mountd
-when it gets a request from an unknown host, and mountd can give
-appropriate export information to the kernel. This removes the
-dependency on rmtab and means that the kernel only needs to know about
-currently active clients.
-
-To enable this new functionality, you need to:
-
- mount -t nfsd nfsd /proc/fs/nfsd
-
-before running exportfs or mountd. It is recommended that all NFS
-services be protected from the internet-at-large by a firewall where
-that is possible.
-
-mcelog
-------
-
-In Linux 2.6.31+ the i386 kernel needs to run the mcelog utility
-as a regular cronjob similar to the x86-64 kernel to process and log
-machine check events when CONFIG_X86_NEW_MCE is enabled. Machine check
-events are errors reported by the CPU. Processing them is strongly encouraged.
-All x86-64 kernels since 2.6.4 require the mcelog utility to
-process machine checks.
-
-Getting updated software
-========================
-
-Kernel compilation
-******************
-
-gcc
----
-o <ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gcc/>
-
-Make
-----
-o <ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/make/>
-
-Binutils
---------
-o <ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/devel/binutils/>
-
-System utilities
-****************
-
-Util-linux
-----------
-o <ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/util-linux/>
-
-Ksymoops
---------
-o <ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/ksymoops/v2.4/>
-
-Module-Init-Tools
------------------
-o <ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/people/rusty/modules/>
-
-Mkinitrd
---------
-o <https://code.launchpad.net/initrd-tools/main>
-
-E2fsprogs
----------
-o <http://prdownloads.sourceforge.net/e2fsprogs/e2fsprogs-1.29.tar.gz>
-
-JFSutils
---------
-o <http://jfs.sourceforge.net/>
-
-Reiserfsprogs
--------------
-o <http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/fs/reiserfs/>
-
-Xfsprogs
---------
-o <ftp://oss.sgi.com/projects/xfs/>
-
-Pcmciautils
------------
-o <ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/pcmcia/>
-
-Pcmcia-cs
----------
-o <http://pcmcia-cs.sourceforge.net/>
-
-Quota-tools
-----------
-o <http://sourceforge.net/projects/linuxquota/>
-
-DocBook Stylesheets
--------------------
-o <http://nwalsh.com/docbook/dsssl/>
-
-XMLTO XSLT Frontend
--------------------
-o <http://cyberelk.net/tim/xmlto/>
-
-Intel P6 microcode
-------------------
-o <http://www.urbanmyth.org/microcode/>
-
-Powertweak
-----------
-o <http://powertweak.sourceforge.net/>
-
-udev
-----
-o <http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/hotplug/udev.html>
-
-FUSE
-----
-o <http://sourceforge.net/projects/fuse>
-
-mcelog
-------
-o <ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/cpu/mce/>
-
-Networking
-**********
-
-PPP
----
-o <ftp://ftp.samba.org/pub/ppp/>
-
-Isdn4k-utils
-------------
-o <ftp://ftp.isdn4linux.de/pub/isdn4linux/utils/>
-
-NFS-utils
----------
-o <http://sourceforge.net/project/showfiles.php?group_id=14>
-
-Iptables
---------
-o <http://www.iptables.org/downloads.html>
-
-Ip-route2
----------
-o <ftp://ftp.tux.org/pub/net/ip-routing/iproute2-2.2.4-now-ss991023.tar.gz>
-
-OProfile
---------
-o <http://oprofile.sf.net/download/>
-
-NFS-Utils
----------
-o <http://nfs.sourceforge.net/>
-