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authorAnton Arapov <anton@redhat.com>2012-04-16 10:05:28 +0200
committerAnton Arapov <anton@redhat.com>2012-04-16 10:05:28 +0200
commitb4b6116a13633898cf868f2f103c96a90c4c20f8 (patch)
tree93d1b7e2cfcdf473d8d4ff3ad141fa864f8491f6 /Documentation/sysctl
parentedd4be777c953e5faafc80d091d3084b4343f5d3 (diff)
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fedora kernel: d9aad82f3319f3cfd1aebc01234254ef0c37ad84v3.3.2-1
Signed-off-by: Anton Arapov <anton@redhat.com>
Diffstat (limited to 'Documentation/sysctl')
-rw-r--r--Documentation/sysctl/00-INDEX16
-rw-r--r--Documentation/sysctl/README75
-rw-r--r--Documentation/sysctl/abi.txt54
-rw-r--r--Documentation/sysctl/fs.txt245
-rw-r--r--Documentation/sysctl/kernel.txt616
-rw-r--r--Documentation/sysctl/net.txt196
-rw-r--r--Documentation/sysctl/sunrpc.txt20
-rw-r--r--Documentation/sysctl/vm.txt701
8 files changed, 1923 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/sysctl/00-INDEX b/Documentation/sysctl/00-INDEX
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..8cf5d493fd0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/sysctl/00-INDEX
@@ -0,0 +1,16 @@
+00-INDEX
+ - this file.
+README
+ - general information about /proc/sys/ sysctl files.
+abi.txt
+ - documentation for /proc/sys/abi/*.
+fs.txt
+ - documentation for /proc/sys/fs/*.
+kernel.txt
+ - documentation for /proc/sys/kernel/*.
+net.txt
+ - documentation for /proc/sys/net/*.
+sunrpc.txt
+ - documentation for /proc/sys/sunrpc/*.
+vm.txt
+ - documentation for /proc/sys/vm/*.
diff --git a/Documentation/sysctl/README b/Documentation/sysctl/README
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..8c3306e01d5
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/sysctl/README
@@ -0,0 +1,75 @@
+Documentation for /proc/sys/ kernel version 2.2.10
+ (c) 1998, 1999, Rik van Riel <riel@nl.linux.org>
+
+'Why', I hear you ask, 'would anyone even _want_ documentation
+for them sysctl files? If anybody really needs it, it's all in
+the source...'
+
+Well, this documentation is written because some people either
+don't know they need to tweak something, or because they don't
+have the time or knowledge to read the source code.
+
+Furthermore, the programmers who built sysctl have built it to
+be actually used, not just for the fun of programming it :-)
+
+==============================================================
+
+Legal blurb:
+
+As usual, there are two main things to consider:
+1. you get what you pay for
+2. it's free
+
+The consequences are that I won't guarantee the correctness of
+this document, and if you come to me complaining about how you
+screwed up your system because of wrong documentation, I won't
+feel sorry for you. I might even laugh at you...
+
+But of course, if you _do_ manage to screw up your system using
+only the sysctl options used in this file, I'd like to hear of
+it. Not only to have a great laugh, but also to make sure that
+you're the last RTFMing person to screw up.
+
+In short, e-mail your suggestions, corrections and / or horror
+stories to: <riel@nl.linux.org>
+
+Rik van Riel.
+
+==============================================================
+
+Introduction:
+
+Sysctl is a means of configuring certain aspects of the kernel
+at run-time, and the /proc/sys/ directory is there so that you
+don't even need special tools to do it!
+In fact, there are only four things needed to use these config
+facilities:
+- a running Linux system
+- root access
+- common sense (this is especially hard to come by these days)
+- knowledge of what all those values mean
+
+As a quick 'ls /proc/sys' will show, the directory consists of
+several (arch-dependent?) subdirs. Each subdir is mainly about
+one part of the kernel, so you can do configuration on a piece
+by piece basis, or just some 'thematic frobbing'.
+
+The subdirs are about:
+abi/ execution domains & personalities
+debug/ <empty>
+dev/ device specific information (eg dev/cdrom/info)
+fs/ specific filesystems
+ filehandle, inode, dentry and quota tuning
+ binfmt_misc <Documentation/binfmt_misc.txt>
+kernel/ global kernel info / tuning
+ miscellaneous stuff
+net/ networking stuff, for documentation look in:
+ <Documentation/networking/>
+proc/ <empty>
+sunrpc/ SUN Remote Procedure Call (NFS)
+vm/ memory management tuning
+ buffer and cache management
+
+These are the subdirs I have on my system. There might be more
+or other subdirs in another setup. If you see another dir, I'd
+really like to hear about it :-)
diff --git a/Documentation/sysctl/abi.txt b/Documentation/sysctl/abi.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..63f4ebcf652
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/sysctl/abi.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,54 @@
+Documentation for /proc/sys/abi/* kernel version 2.6.0.test2
+ (c) 2003, Fabian Frederick <ffrederick@users.sourceforge.net>
+
+For general info : README.
+
+==============================================================
+
+This path is binary emulation relevant aka personality types aka abi.
+When a process is executed, it's linked to an exec_domain whose
+personality is defined using values available from /proc/sys/abi.
+You can find further details about abi in include/linux/personality.h.
+
+Here are the files featuring in 2.6 kernel :
+
+- defhandler_coff
+- defhandler_elf
+- defhandler_lcall7
+- defhandler_libcso
+- fake_utsname
+- trace
+
+===========================================================
+defhandler_coff:
+defined value :
+PER_SCOSVR3
+0x0003 | STICKY_TIMEOUTS | WHOLE_SECONDS | SHORT_INODE
+
+===========================================================
+defhandler_elf:
+defined value :
+PER_LINUX
+0
+
+===========================================================
+defhandler_lcall7:
+defined value :
+PER_SVR4
+0x0001 | STICKY_TIMEOUTS | MMAP_PAGE_ZERO,
+
+===========================================================
+defhandler_libsco:
+defined value:
+PER_SVR4
+0x0001 | STICKY_TIMEOUTS | MMAP_PAGE_ZERO,
+
+===========================================================
+fake_utsname:
+Unused
+
+===========================================================
+trace:
+Unused
+
+===========================================================
diff --git a/Documentation/sysctl/fs.txt b/Documentation/sysctl/fs.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..88fd7f5c8dc
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/sysctl/fs.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,245 @@
+Documentation for /proc/sys/fs/* kernel version 2.2.10
+ (c) 1998, 1999, Rik van Riel <riel@nl.linux.org>
+ (c) 2009, Shen Feng<shen@cn.fujitsu.com>
+
+For general info and legal blurb, please look in README.
+
+==============================================================
+
+This file contains documentation for the sysctl files in
+/proc/sys/fs/ and is valid for Linux kernel version 2.2.
+
+The files in this directory can be used to tune and monitor
+miscellaneous and general things in the operation of the Linux
+kernel. Since some of the files _can_ be used to screw up your
+system, it is advisable to read both documentation and source
+before actually making adjustments.
+
+1. /proc/sys/fs
+----------------------------------------------------------
+
+Currently, these files are in /proc/sys/fs:
+- aio-max-nr
+- aio-nr
+- dentry-state
+- dquot-max
+- dquot-nr
+- file-max
+- file-nr
+- inode-max
+- inode-nr
+- inode-state
+- nr_open
+- overflowuid
+- overflowgid
+- suid_dumpable
+- super-max
+- super-nr
+
+==============================================================
+
+aio-nr & aio-max-nr:
+
+aio-nr is the running total of the number of events specified on the
+io_setup system call for all currently active aio contexts. If aio-nr
+reaches aio-max-nr then io_setup will fail with EAGAIN. Note that
+raising aio-max-nr does not result in the pre-allocation or re-sizing
+of any kernel data structures.
+
+==============================================================
+
+dentry-state:
+
+From linux/fs/dentry.c:
+--------------------------------------------------------------
+struct {
+ int nr_dentry;
+ int nr_unused;
+ int age_limit; /* age in seconds */
+ int want_pages; /* pages requested by system */
+ int dummy[2];
+} dentry_stat = {0, 0, 45, 0,};
+--------------------------------------------------------------
+
+Dentries are dynamically allocated and deallocated, and
+nr_dentry seems to be 0 all the time. Hence it's safe to
+assume that only nr_unused, age_limit and want_pages are
+used. Nr_unused seems to be exactly what its name says.
+Age_limit is the age in seconds after which dcache entries
+can be reclaimed when memory is short and want_pages is
+nonzero when shrink_dcache_pages() has been called and the
+dcache isn't pruned yet.
+
+==============================================================
+
+dquot-max & dquot-nr:
+
+The file dquot-max shows the maximum number of cached disk
+quota entries.
+
+The file dquot-nr shows the number of allocated disk quota
+entries and the number of free disk quota entries.
+
+If the number of free cached disk quotas is very low and
+you have some awesome number of simultaneous system users,
+you might want to raise the limit.
+
+==============================================================
+
+file-max & file-nr:
+
+The value in file-max denotes the maximum number of file-
+handles that the Linux kernel will allocate. When you get lots
+of error messages about running out of file handles, you might
+want to increase this limit.
+
+Historically,the kernel was able to allocate file handles
+dynamically, but not to free them again. The three values in
+file-nr denote the number of allocated file handles, the number
+of allocated but unused file handles, and the maximum number of
+file handles. Linux 2.6 always reports 0 as the number of free
+file handles -- this is not an error, it just means that the
+number of allocated file handles exactly matches the number of
+used file handles.
+
+Attempts to allocate more file descriptors than file-max are
+reported with printk, look for "VFS: file-max limit <number>
+reached".
+==============================================================
+
+nr_open:
+
+This denotes the maximum number of file-handles a process can
+allocate. Default value is 1024*1024 (1048576) which should be
+enough for most machines. Actual limit depends on RLIMIT_NOFILE
+resource limit.
+
+==============================================================
+
+inode-max, inode-nr & inode-state:
+
+As with file handles, the kernel allocates the inode structures
+dynamically, but can't free them yet.
+
+The value in inode-max denotes the maximum number of inode
+handlers. This value should be 3-4 times larger than the value
+in file-max, since stdin, stdout and network sockets also
+need an inode struct to handle them. When you regularly run
+out of inodes, you need to increase this value.
+
+The file inode-nr contains the first two items from
+inode-state, so we'll skip to that file...
+
+Inode-state contains three actual numbers and four dummies.
+The actual numbers are, in order of appearance, nr_inodes,
+nr_free_inodes and preshrink.
+
+Nr_inodes stands for the number of inodes the system has
+allocated, this can be slightly more than inode-max because
+Linux allocates them one pageful at a time.
+
+Nr_free_inodes represents the number of free inodes (?) and
+preshrink is nonzero when the nr_inodes > inode-max and the
+system needs to prune the inode list instead of allocating
+more.
+
+==============================================================
+
+overflowgid & overflowuid:
+
+Some filesystems only support 16-bit UIDs and GIDs, although in Linux
+UIDs and GIDs are 32 bits. When one of these filesystems is mounted
+with writes enabled, any UID or GID that would exceed 65535 is translated
+to a fixed value before being written to disk.
+
+These sysctls allow you to change the value of the fixed UID and GID.
+The default is 65534.
+
+==============================================================
+
+suid_dumpable:
+
+This value can be used to query and set the core dump mode for setuid
+or otherwise protected/tainted binaries. The modes are
+
+0 - (default) - traditional behaviour. Any process which has changed
+ privilege levels or is execute only will not be dumped
+1 - (debug) - all processes dump core when possible. The core dump is
+ owned by the current user and no security is applied. This is
+ intended for system debugging situations only. Ptrace is unchecked.
+2 - (suidsafe) - any binary which normally would not be dumped is dumped
+ readable by root only. This allows the end user to remove
+ such a dump but not access it directly. For security reasons
+ core dumps in this mode will not overwrite one another or
+ other files. This mode is appropriate when administrators are
+ attempting to debug problems in a normal environment.
+
+==============================================================
+
+super-max & super-nr:
+
+These numbers control the maximum number of superblocks, and
+thus the maximum number of mounted filesystems the kernel
+can have. You only need to increase super-max if you need to
+mount more filesystems than the current value in super-max
+allows you to.
+
+==============================================================
+
+aio-nr & aio-max-nr:
+
+aio-nr shows the current system-wide number of asynchronous io
+requests. aio-max-nr allows you to change the maximum value
+aio-nr can grow to.
+
+==============================================================
+
+
+2. /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc
+----------------------------------------------------------
+
+Documentation for the files in /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc is
+in Documentation/binfmt_misc.txt.
+
+
+3. /proc/sys/fs/mqueue - POSIX message queues filesystem
+----------------------------------------------------------
+
+The "mqueue" filesystem provides the necessary kernel features to enable the
+creation of a user space library that implements the POSIX message queues
+API (as noted by the MSG tag in the POSIX 1003.1-2001 version of the System
+Interfaces specification.)
+
+The "mqueue" filesystem contains values for determining/setting the amount of
+resources used by the file system.
+
+/proc/sys/fs/mqueue/queues_max is a read/write file for setting/getting the
+maximum number of message queues allowed on the system.
+
+/proc/sys/fs/mqueue/msg_max is a read/write file for setting/getting the
+maximum number of messages in a queue value. In fact it is the limiting value
+for another (user) limit which is set in mq_open invocation. This attribute of
+a queue must be less or equal then msg_max.
+
+/proc/sys/fs/mqueue/msgsize_max is a read/write file for setting/getting the
+maximum message size value (it is every message queue's attribute set during
+its creation).
+
+
+4. /proc/sys/fs/epoll - Configuration options for the epoll interface
+--------------------------------------------------------
+
+This directory contains configuration options for the epoll(7) interface.
+
+max_user_watches
+----------------
+
+Every epoll file descriptor can store a number of files to be monitored
+for event readiness. Each one of these monitored files constitutes a "watch".
+This configuration option sets the maximum number of "watches" that are
+allowed for each user.
+Each "watch" costs roughly 90 bytes on a 32bit kernel, and roughly 160 bytes
+on a 64bit one.
+The current default value for max_user_watches is the 1/32 of the available
+low memory, divided for the "watch" cost in bytes.
+
diff --git a/Documentation/sysctl/kernel.txt b/Documentation/sysctl/kernel.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..6d78841fd41
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/sysctl/kernel.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,616 @@
+Documentation for /proc/sys/kernel/* kernel version 2.2.10
+ (c) 1998, 1999, Rik van Riel <riel@nl.linux.org>
+ (c) 2009, Shen Feng<shen@cn.fujitsu.com>
+
+For general info and legal blurb, please look in README.
+
+==============================================================
+
+This file contains documentation for the sysctl files in
+/proc/sys/kernel/ and is valid for Linux kernel version 2.2.
+
+The files in this directory can be used to tune and monitor
+miscellaneous and general things in the operation of the Linux
+kernel. Since some of the files _can_ be used to screw up your
+system, it is advisable to read both documentation and source
+before actually making adjustments.
+
+Currently, these files might (depending on your configuration)
+show up in /proc/sys/kernel:
+
+- acct
+- acpi_video_flags
+- auto_msgmni
+- bootloader_type [ X86 only ]
+- bootloader_version [ X86 only ]
+- callhome [ S390 only ]
+- cap_last_cap
+- core_pattern
+- core_pipe_limit
+- core_uses_pid
+- ctrl-alt-del
+- dmesg_restrict
+- domainname
+- hostname
+- hotplug
+- kptr_restrict
+- kstack_depth_to_print [ X86 only ]
+- l2cr [ PPC only ]
+- modprobe ==> Documentation/debugging-modules.txt
+- modules_disabled
+- msgmax
+- msgmnb
+- msgmni
+- nmi_watchdog
+- osrelease
+- ostype
+- overflowgid
+- overflowuid
+- panic
+- panic_on_oops
+- panic_on_unrecovered_nmi
+- panic_on_stackoverflow
+- pid_max
+- powersave-nap [ PPC only ]
+- printk
+- printk_delay
+- printk_ratelimit
+- printk_ratelimit_burst
+- randomize_va_space
+- real-root-dev ==> Documentation/initrd.txt
+- reboot-cmd [ SPARC only ]
+- rtsig-max
+- rtsig-nr
+- sem
+- sg-big-buff [ generic SCSI device (sg) ]
+- shm_rmid_forced
+- shmall
+- shmmax [ sysv ipc ]
+- shmmni
+- softlockup_thresh
+- stop-a [ SPARC only ]
+- sysrq ==> Documentation/sysrq.txt
+- tainted
+- threads-max
+- unknown_nmi_panic
+- version
+
+==============================================================
+
+acct:
+
+highwater lowwater frequency
+
+If BSD-style process accounting is enabled these values control
+its behaviour. If free space on filesystem where the log lives
+goes below <lowwater>% accounting suspends. If free space gets
+above <highwater>% accounting resumes. <Frequency> determines
+how often do we check the amount of free space (value is in
+seconds). Default:
+4 2 30
+That is, suspend accounting if there left <= 2% free; resume it
+if we got >=4%; consider information about amount of free space
+valid for 30 seconds.
+
+==============================================================
+
+acpi_video_flags:
+
+flags
+
+See Doc*/kernel/power/video.txt, it allows mode of video boot to be
+set during run time.
+
+==============================================================
+
+auto_msgmni:
+
+Enables/Disables automatic recomputing of msgmni upon memory add/remove
+or upon ipc namespace creation/removal (see the msgmni description
+above). Echoing "1" into this file enables msgmni automatic recomputing.
+Echoing "0" turns it off. auto_msgmni default value is 1.
+
+
+==============================================================
+
+bootloader_type:
+
+x86 bootloader identification
+
+This gives the bootloader type number as indicated by the bootloader,
+shifted left by 4, and OR'd with the low four bits of the bootloader
+version. The reason for this encoding is that this used to match the
+type_of_loader field in the kernel header; the encoding is kept for
+backwards compatibility. That is, if the full bootloader type number
+is 0x15 and the full version number is 0x234, this file will contain
+the value 340 = 0x154.
+
+See the type_of_loader and ext_loader_type fields in
+Documentation/x86/boot.txt for additional information.
+
+==============================================================
+
+bootloader_version:
+
+x86 bootloader version
+
+The complete bootloader version number. In the example above, this
+file will contain the value 564 = 0x234.
+
+See the type_of_loader and ext_loader_ver fields in
+Documentation/x86/boot.txt for additional information.
+
+==============================================================
+
+callhome:
+
+Controls the kernel's callhome behavior in case of a kernel panic.
+
+The s390 hardware allows an operating system to send a notification
+to a service organization (callhome) in case of an operating system panic.
+
+When the value in this file is 0 (which is the default behavior)
+nothing happens in case of a kernel panic. If this value is set to "1"
+the complete kernel oops message is send to the IBM customer service
+organization in case the mainframe the Linux operating system is running
+on has a service contract with IBM.
+
+==============================================================
+
+cap_last_cap
+
+Highest valid capability of the running kernel. Exports
+CAP_LAST_CAP from the kernel.
+
+==============================================================
+
+core_pattern:
+
+core_pattern is used to specify a core dumpfile pattern name.
+. max length 128 characters; default value is "core"
+. core_pattern is used as a pattern template for the output filename;
+ certain string patterns (beginning with '%') are substituted with
+ their actual values.
+. backward compatibility with core_uses_pid:
+ If core_pattern does not include "%p" (default does not)
+ and core_uses_pid is set, then .PID will be appended to
+ the filename.
+. corename format specifiers:
+ %<NUL> '%' is dropped
+ %% output one '%'
+ %p pid
+ %u uid
+ %g gid
+ %s signal number
+ %t UNIX time of dump
+ %h hostname
+ %e executable filename (may be shortened)
+ %E executable path
+ %<OTHER> both are dropped
+. If the first character of the pattern is a '|', the kernel will treat
+ the rest of the pattern as a command to run. The core dump will be
+ written to the standard input of that program instead of to a file.
+
+==============================================================
+
+core_pipe_limit:
+
+This sysctl is only applicable when core_pattern is configured to pipe
+core files to a user space helper (when the first character of
+core_pattern is a '|', see above). When collecting cores via a pipe
+to an application, it is occasionally useful for the collecting
+application to gather data about the crashing process from its
+/proc/pid directory. In order to do this safely, the kernel must wait
+for the collecting process to exit, so as not to remove the crashing
+processes proc files prematurely. This in turn creates the
+possibility that a misbehaving userspace collecting process can block
+the reaping of a crashed process simply by never exiting. This sysctl
+defends against that. It defines how many concurrent crashing
+processes may be piped to user space applications in parallel. If
+this value is exceeded, then those crashing processes above that value
+are noted via the kernel log and their cores are skipped. 0 is a
+special value, indicating that unlimited processes may be captured in
+parallel, but that no waiting will take place (i.e. the collecting
+process is not guaranteed access to /proc/<crashing pid>/). This
+value defaults to 0.
+
+==============================================================
+
+core_uses_pid:
+
+The default coredump filename is "core". By setting
+core_uses_pid to 1, the coredump filename becomes core.PID.
+If core_pattern does not include "%p" (default does not)
+and core_uses_pid is set, then .PID will be appended to
+the filename.
+
+==============================================================
+
+ctrl-alt-del:
+
+When the value in this file is 0, ctrl-alt-del is trapped and
+sent to the init(1) program to handle a graceful restart.
+When, however, the value is > 0, Linux's reaction to a Vulcan
+Nerve Pinch (tm) will be an immediate reboot, without even
+syncing its dirty buffers.
+
+Note: when a program (like dosemu) has the keyboard in 'raw'
+mode, the ctrl-alt-del is intercepted by the program before it
+ever reaches the kernel tty layer, and it's up to the program
+to decide what to do with it.
+
+==============================================================
+
+dmesg_restrict:
+
+This toggle indicates whether unprivileged users are prevented
+from using dmesg(8) to view messages from the kernel's log buffer.
+When dmesg_restrict is set to (0) there are no restrictions. When
+dmesg_restrict is set set to (1), users must have CAP_SYSLOG to use
+dmesg(8).
+
+The kernel config option CONFIG_SECURITY_DMESG_RESTRICT sets the
+default value of dmesg_restrict.
+
+==============================================================
+
+domainname & hostname:
+
+These files can be used to set the NIS/YP domainname and the
+hostname of your box in exactly the same way as the commands
+domainname and hostname, i.e.:
+# echo "darkstar" > /proc/sys/kernel/hostname
+# echo "mydomain" > /proc/sys/kernel/domainname
+has the same effect as
+# hostname "darkstar"
+# domainname "mydomain"
+
+Note, however, that the classic darkstar.frop.org has the
+hostname "darkstar" and DNS (Internet Domain Name Server)
+domainname "frop.org", not to be confused with the NIS (Network
+Information Service) or YP (Yellow Pages) domainname. These two
+domain names are in general different. For a detailed discussion
+see the hostname(1) man page.
+
+==============================================================
+
+hotplug:
+
+Path for the hotplug policy agent.
+Default value is "/sbin/hotplug".
+
+==============================================================
+
+kptr_restrict:
+
+This toggle indicates whether restrictions are placed on
+exposing kernel addresses via /proc and other interfaces. When
+kptr_restrict is set to (0), there are no restrictions. When
+kptr_restrict is set to (1), the default, kernel pointers
+printed using the %pK format specifier will be replaced with 0's
+unless the user has CAP_SYSLOG. When kptr_restrict is set to
+(2), kernel pointers printed using %pK will be replaced with 0's
+regardless of privileges.
+
+==============================================================
+
+kstack_depth_to_print: (X86 only)
+
+Controls the number of words to print when dumping the raw
+kernel stack.
+
+==============================================================
+
+l2cr: (PPC only)
+
+This flag controls the L2 cache of G3 processor boards. If
+0, the cache is disabled. Enabled if nonzero.
+
+==============================================================
+
+modules_disabled:
+
+A toggle value indicating if modules are allowed to be loaded
+in an otherwise modular kernel. This toggle defaults to off
+(0), but can be set true (1). Once true, modules can be
+neither loaded nor unloaded, and the toggle cannot be set back
+to false.
+
+==============================================================
+
+nmi_watchdog:
+
+Enables/Disables the NMI watchdog on x86 systems. When the value is
+non-zero the NMI watchdog is enabled and will continuously test all
+online cpus to determine whether or not they are still functioning
+properly. Currently, passing "nmi_watchdog=" parameter at boot time is
+required for this function to work.
+
+If LAPIC NMI watchdog method is in use (nmi_watchdog=2 kernel
+parameter), the NMI watchdog shares registers with oprofile. By
+disabling the NMI watchdog, oprofile may have more registers to
+utilize.
+
+==============================================================
+
+osrelease, ostype & version:
+
+# cat osrelease
+2.1.88
+# cat ostype
+Linux
+# cat version
+#5 Wed Feb 25 21:49:24 MET 1998
+
+The files osrelease and ostype should be clear enough. Version
+needs a little more clarification however. The '#5' means that
+this is the fifth kernel built from this source base and the
+date behind it indicates the time the kernel was built.
+The only way to tune these values is to rebuild the kernel :-)
+
+==============================================================
+
+overflowgid & overflowuid:
+
+if your architecture did not always support 32-bit UIDs (i.e. arm,
+i386, m68k, sh, and sparc32), a fixed UID and GID will be returned to
+applications that use the old 16-bit UID/GID system calls, if the
+actual UID or GID would exceed 65535.
+
+These sysctls allow you to change the value of the fixed UID and GID.
+The default is 65534.
+
+==============================================================
+
+panic:
+
+The value in this file represents the number of seconds the kernel
+waits before rebooting on a panic. When you use the software watchdog,
+the recommended setting is 60.
+
+==============================================================
+
+panic_on_unrecovered_nmi:
+
+The default Linux behaviour on an NMI of either memory or unknown is
+to continue operation. For many environments such as scientific
+computing it is preferable that the box is taken out and the error
+dealt with than an uncorrected parity/ECC error get propagated.
+
+A small number of systems do generate NMI's for bizarre random reasons
+such as power management so the default is off. That sysctl works like
+the existing panic controls already in that directory.
+
+==============================================================
+
+panic_on_oops:
+
+Controls the kernel's behaviour when an oops or BUG is encountered.
+
+0: try to continue operation
+
+1: panic immediately. If the `panic' sysctl is also non-zero then the
+ machine will be rebooted.
+
+==============================================================
+
+panic_on_stackoverflow:
+
+Controls the kernel's behavior when detecting the overflows of
+kernel, IRQ and exception stacks except a user stack.
+This file shows up if CONFIG_DEBUG_STACKOVERFLOW is enabled.
+
+0: try to continue operation.
+
+1: panic immediately.
+
+==============================================================
+
+
+pid_max:
+
+PID allocation wrap value. When the kernel's next PID value
+reaches this value, it wraps back to a minimum PID value.
+PIDs of value pid_max or larger are not allocated.
+
+==============================================================
+
+ns_last_pid:
+
+The last pid allocated in the current (the one task using this sysctl
+lives in) pid namespace. When selecting a pid for a next task on fork
+kernel tries to allocate a number starting from this one.
+
+==============================================================
+
+powersave-nap: (PPC only)
+
+If set, Linux-PPC will use the 'nap' mode of powersaving,
+otherwise the 'doze' mode will be used.
+
+==============================================================
+
+printk:
+
+The four values in printk denote: console_loglevel,
+default_message_loglevel, minimum_console_loglevel and
+default_console_loglevel respectively.
+
+These values influence printk() behavior when printing or
+logging error messages. See 'man 2 syslog' for more info on
+the different loglevels.
+
+- console_loglevel: messages with a higher priority than
+ this will be printed to the console
+- default_message_loglevel: messages without an explicit priority
+ will be printed with this priority
+- minimum_console_loglevel: minimum (highest) value to which
+ console_loglevel can be set
+- default_console_loglevel: default value for console_loglevel
+
+==============================================================
+
+printk_delay:
+
+Delay each printk message in printk_delay milliseconds
+
+Value from 0 - 10000 is allowed.
+
+==============================================================
+
+printk_ratelimit:
+
+Some warning messages are rate limited. printk_ratelimit specifies
+the minimum length of time between these messages (in jiffies), by
+default we allow one every 5 seconds.
+
+A value of 0 will disable rate limiting.
+
+==============================================================
+
+printk_ratelimit_burst:
+
+While long term we enforce one message per printk_ratelimit
+seconds, we do allow a burst of messages to pass through.
+printk_ratelimit_burst specifies the number of messages we can
+send before ratelimiting kicks in.
+
+==============================================================
+
+randomize_va_space:
+
+This option can be used to select the type of process address
+space randomization that is used in the system, for architectures
+that support this feature.
+
+0 - Turn the process address space randomization off. This is the
+ default for architectures that do not support this feature anyways,
+ and kernels that are booted with the "norandmaps" parameter.
+
+1 - Make the addresses of mmap base, stack and VDSO page randomized.
+ This, among other things, implies that shared libraries will be
+ loaded to random addresses. Also for PIE-linked binaries, the
+ location of code start is randomized. This is the default if the
+ CONFIG_COMPAT_BRK option is enabled.
+
+2 - Additionally enable heap randomization. This is the default if
+ CONFIG_COMPAT_BRK is disabled.
+
+ There are a few legacy applications out there (such as some ancient
+ versions of libc.so.5 from 1996) that assume that brk area starts
+ just after the end of the code+bss. These applications break when
+ start of the brk area is randomized. There are however no known
+ non-legacy applications that would be broken this way, so for most
+ systems it is safe to choose full randomization.
+
+ Systems with ancient and/or broken binaries should be configured
+ with CONFIG_COMPAT_BRK enabled, which excludes the heap from process
+ address space randomization.
+
+==============================================================
+
+reboot-cmd: (Sparc only)
+
+??? This seems to be a way to give an argument to the Sparc
+ROM/Flash boot loader. Maybe to tell it what to do after
+rebooting. ???
+
+==============================================================
+
+rtsig-max & rtsig-nr:
+
+The file rtsig-max can be used to tune the maximum number
+of POSIX realtime (queued) signals that can be outstanding
+in the system.
+
+rtsig-nr shows the number of RT signals currently queued.
+
+==============================================================
+
+sg-big-buff:
+
+This file shows the size of the generic SCSI (sg) buffer.
+You can't tune it just yet, but you could change it on
+compile time by editing include/scsi/sg.h and changing
+the value of SG_BIG_BUFF.
+
+There shouldn't be any reason to change this value. If
+you can come up with one, you probably know what you
+are doing anyway :)
+
+==============================================================
+
+shmmax:
+
+This value can be used to query and set the run time limit
+on the maximum shared memory segment size that can be created.
+Shared memory segments up to 1Gb are now supported in the
+kernel. This value defaults to SHMMAX.
+
+==============================================================
+
+shm_rmid_forced:
+
+Linux lets you set resource limits, including how much memory one
+process can consume, via setrlimit(2). Unfortunately, shared memory
+segments are allowed to exist without association with any process, and
+thus might not be counted against any resource limits. If enabled,
+shared memory segments are automatically destroyed when their attach
+count becomes zero after a detach or a process termination. It will
+also destroy segments that were created, but never attached to, on exit
+from the process. The only use left for IPC_RMID is to immediately
+destroy an unattached segment. Of course, this breaks the way things are
+defined, so some applications might stop working. Note that this
+feature will do you no good unless you also configure your resource
+limits (in particular, RLIMIT_AS and RLIMIT_NPROC). Most systems don't
+need this.
+
+Note that if you change this from 0 to 1, already created segments
+without users and with a dead originative process will be destroyed.
+
+==============================================================
+
+softlockup_thresh:
+
+This value can be used to lower the softlockup tolerance threshold. The
+default threshold is 60 seconds. If a cpu is locked up for 60 seconds,
+the kernel complains. Valid values are 1-60 seconds. Setting this
+tunable to zero will disable the softlockup detection altogether.
+
+==============================================================
+
+tainted:
+
+Non-zero if the kernel has been tainted. Numeric values, which
+can be ORed together:
+
+ 1 - A module with a non-GPL license has been loaded, this
+ includes modules with no license.
+ Set by modutils >= 2.4.9 and module-init-tools.
+ 2 - A module was force loaded by insmod -f.
+ Set by modutils >= 2.4.9 and module-init-tools.
+ 4 - Unsafe SMP processors: SMP with CPUs not designed for SMP.
+ 8 - A module was forcibly unloaded from the system by rmmod -f.
+ 16 - A hardware machine check error occurred on the system.
+ 32 - A bad page was discovered on the system.
+ 64 - The user has asked that the system be marked "tainted". This
+ could be because they are running software that directly modifies
+ the hardware, or for other reasons.
+ 128 - The system has died.
+ 256 - The ACPI DSDT has been overridden with one supplied by the user
+ instead of using the one provided by the hardware.
+ 512 - A kernel warning has occurred.
+1024 - A module from drivers/staging was loaded.
+2048 - The system is working around a severe firmware bug.
+4096 - An out-of-tree module has been loaded.
+
+==============================================================
+
+unknown_nmi_panic:
+
+The value in this file affects behavior of handling NMI. When the
+value is non-zero, unknown NMI is trapped and then panic occurs. At
+that time, kernel debugging information is displayed on console.
+
+NMI switch that most IA32 servers have fires unknown NMI up, for
+example. If a system hangs up, try pressing the NMI switch.
diff --git a/Documentation/sysctl/net.txt b/Documentation/sysctl/net.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..3201a7097e4
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/sysctl/net.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,196 @@
+Documentation for /proc/sys/net/* kernel version 2.4.0-test11-pre4
+ (c) 1999 Terrehon Bowden <terrehon@pacbell.net>
+ Bodo Bauer <bb@ricochet.net>
+ (c) 2000 Jorge Nerin <comandante@zaralinux.com>
+ (c) 2009 Shen Feng <shen@cn.fujitsu.com>
+
+For general info and legal blurb, please look in README.
+
+==============================================================
+
+This file contains the documentation for the sysctl files in
+/proc/sys/net and is valid for Linux kernel version 2.4.0-test11-pre4.
+
+The interface to the networking parts of the kernel is located in
+/proc/sys/net. The following table shows all possible subdirectories.You may
+see only some of them, depending on your kernel's configuration.
+
+
+Table : Subdirectories in /proc/sys/net
+..............................................................................
+ Directory Content Directory Content
+ core General parameter appletalk Appletalk protocol
+ unix Unix domain sockets netrom NET/ROM
+ 802 E802 protocol ax25 AX25
+ ethernet Ethernet protocol rose X.25 PLP layer
+ ipv4 IP version 4 x25 X.25 protocol
+ ipx IPX token-ring IBM token ring
+ bridge Bridging decnet DEC net
+ ipv6 IP version 6
+..............................................................................
+
+1. /proc/sys/net/core - Network core options
+-------------------------------------------------------
+
+bpf_jit_enable
+--------------
+
+This enables Berkeley Packet Filter Just in Time compiler.
+Currently supported on x86_64 architecture, bpf_jit provides a framework
+to speed packet filtering, the one used by tcpdump/libpcap for example.
+Values :
+ 0 - disable the JIT (default value)
+ 1 - enable the JIT
+ 2 - enable the JIT and ask the compiler to emit traces on kernel log.
+
+rmem_default
+------------
+
+The default setting of the socket receive buffer in bytes.
+
+rmem_max
+--------
+
+The maximum receive socket buffer size in bytes.
+
+wmem_default
+------------
+
+The default setting (in bytes) of the socket send buffer.
+
+wmem_max
+--------
+
+The maximum send socket buffer size in bytes.
+
+message_burst and message_cost
+------------------------------
+
+These parameters are used to limit the warning messages written to the kernel
+log from the networking code. They enforce a rate limit to make a
+denial-of-service attack impossible. A higher message_cost factor, results in
+fewer messages that will be written. Message_burst controls when messages will
+be dropped. The default settings limit warning messages to one every five
+seconds.
+
+warnings
+--------
+
+This controls console messages from the networking stack that can occur because
+of problems on the network like duplicate address or bad checksums. Normally,
+this should be enabled, but if the problem persists the messages can be
+disabled.
+
+netdev_budget
+-------------
+
+Maximum number of packets taken from all interfaces in one polling cycle (NAPI
+poll). In one polling cycle interfaces which are registered to polling are
+probed in a round-robin manner. The limit of packets in one such probe can be
+set per-device via sysfs class/net/<device>/weight .
+
+netdev_max_backlog
+------------------
+
+Maximum number of packets, queued on the INPUT side, when the interface
+receives packets faster than kernel can process them.
+
+netdev_tstamp_prequeue
+----------------------
+
+If set to 0, RX packet timestamps can be sampled after RPS processing, when
+the target CPU processes packets. It might give some delay on timestamps, but
+permit to distribute the load on several cpus.
+
+If set to 1 (default), timestamps are sampled as soon as possible, before
+queueing.
+
+optmem_max
+----------
+
+Maximum ancillary buffer size allowed per socket. Ancillary data is a sequence
+of struct cmsghdr structures with appended data.
+
+2. /proc/sys/net/unix - Parameters for Unix domain sockets
+-------------------------------------------------------
+
+There is only one file in this directory.
+unix_dgram_qlen limits the max number of datagrams queued in Unix domain
+socket's buffer. It will not take effect unless PF_UNIX flag is specified.
+
+
+3. /proc/sys/net/ipv4 - IPV4 settings
+-------------------------------------------------------
+Please see: Documentation/networking/ip-sysctl.txt and ipvs-sysctl.txt for
+descriptions of these entries.
+
+
+4. Appletalk
+-------------------------------------------------------
+
+The /proc/sys/net/appletalk directory holds the Appletalk configuration data
+when Appletalk is loaded. The configurable parameters are:
+
+aarp-expiry-time
+----------------
+
+The amount of time we keep an ARP entry before expiring it. Used to age out
+old hosts.
+
+aarp-resolve-time
+-----------------
+
+The amount of time we will spend trying to resolve an Appletalk address.
+
+aarp-retransmit-limit
+---------------------
+
+The number of times we will retransmit a query before giving up.
+
+aarp-tick-time
+--------------
+
+Controls the rate at which expires are checked.
+
+The directory /proc/net/appletalk holds the list of active Appletalk sockets
+on a machine.
+
+The fields indicate the DDP type, the local address (in network:node format)
+the remote address, the size of the transmit pending queue, the size of the
+received queue (bytes waiting for applications to read) the state and the uid
+owning the socket.
+
+/proc/net/atalk_iface lists all the interfaces configured for appletalk.It
+shows the name of the interface, its Appletalk address, the network range on
+that address (or network number for phase 1 networks), and the status of the
+interface.
+
+/proc/net/atalk_route lists each known network route. It lists the target
+(network) that the route leads to, the router (may be directly connected), the
+route flags, and the device the route is using.
+
+
+5. IPX
+-------------------------------------------------------
+
+The IPX protocol has no tunable values in proc/sys/net.
+
+The IPX protocol does, however, provide proc/net/ipx. This lists each IPX
+socket giving the local and remote addresses in Novell format (that is
+network:node:port). In accordance with the strange Novell tradition,
+everything but the port is in hex. Not_Connected is displayed for sockets that
+are not tied to a specific remote address. The Tx and Rx queue sizes indicate
+the number of bytes pending for transmission and reception. The state
+indicates the state the socket is in and the uid is the owning uid of the
+socket.
+
+The /proc/net/ipx_interface file lists all IPX interfaces. For each interface
+it gives the network number, the node number, and indicates if the network is
+the primary network. It also indicates which device it is bound to (or
+Internal for internal networks) and the Frame Type if appropriate. Linux
+supports 802.3, 802.2, 802.2 SNAP and DIX (Blue Book) ethernet framing for
+IPX.
+
+The /proc/net/ipx_route table holds a list of IPX routes. For each route it
+gives the destination network, the router node (or Directly) and the network
+address of the router (or Connected) for internal networks.
diff --git a/Documentation/sysctl/sunrpc.txt b/Documentation/sysctl/sunrpc.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..ae1ecac6f85
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/sysctl/sunrpc.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,20 @@
+Documentation for /proc/sys/sunrpc/* kernel version 2.2.10
+ (c) 1998, 1999, Rik van Riel <riel@nl.linux.org>
+
+For general info and legal blurb, please look in README.
+
+==============================================================
+
+This file contains the documentation for the sysctl files in
+/proc/sys/sunrpc and is valid for Linux kernel version 2.2.
+
+The files in this directory can be used to (re)set the debug
+flags of the SUN Remote Procedure Call (RPC) subsystem in
+the Linux kernel. This stuff is used for NFS, KNFSD and
+maybe a few other things as well.
+
+The files in there are used to control the debugging flags:
+rpc_debug, nfs_debug, nfsd_debug and nlm_debug.
+
+These flags are for kernel hackers only. You should read the
+source code in net/sunrpc/ for more information.
diff --git a/Documentation/sysctl/vm.txt b/Documentation/sysctl/vm.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..96f0ee825be
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/sysctl/vm.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,701 @@
+Documentation for /proc/sys/vm/* kernel version 2.6.29
+ (c) 1998, 1999, Rik van Riel <riel@nl.linux.org>
+ (c) 2008 Peter W. Morreale <pmorreale@novell.com>
+
+For general info and legal blurb, please look in README.
+
+==============================================================
+
+This file contains the documentation for the sysctl files in
+/proc/sys/vm and is valid for Linux kernel version 2.6.29.
+
+The files in this directory can be used to tune the operation
+of the virtual memory (VM) subsystem of the Linux kernel and
+the writeout of dirty data to disk.
+
+Default values and initialization routines for most of these
+files can be found in mm/swap.c.
+
+Currently, these files are in /proc/sys/vm:
+
+- block_dump
+- compact_memory
+- dirty_background_bytes
+- dirty_background_ratio
+- dirty_bytes
+- dirty_expire_centisecs
+- dirty_ratio
+- dirty_writeback_centisecs
+- drop_caches
+- extfrag_threshold
+- hugepages_treat_as_movable
+- hugetlb_shm_group
+- laptop_mode
+- legacy_va_layout
+- lowmem_reserve_ratio
+- max_map_count
+- memory_failure_early_kill
+- memory_failure_recovery
+- min_free_kbytes
+- min_slab_ratio
+- min_unmapped_ratio
+- mmap_min_addr
+- nr_hugepages
+- nr_overcommit_hugepages
+- nr_pdflush_threads
+- nr_trim_pages (only if CONFIG_MMU=n)
+- numa_zonelist_order
+- oom_dump_tasks
+- oom_kill_allocating_task
+- overcommit_memory
+- overcommit_ratio
+- page-cluster
+- panic_on_oom
+- percpu_pagelist_fraction
+- stat_interval
+- swappiness
+- vfs_cache_pressure
+- zone_reclaim_mode
+
+==============================================================
+
+block_dump
+
+block_dump enables block I/O debugging when set to a nonzero value. More
+information on block I/O debugging is in Documentation/laptops/laptop-mode.txt.
+
+==============================================================
+
+compact_memory
+
+Available only when CONFIG_COMPACTION is set. When 1 is written to the file,
+all zones are compacted such that free memory is available in contiguous
+blocks where possible. This can be important for example in the allocation of
+huge pages although processes will also directly compact memory as required.
+
+==============================================================
+
+dirty_background_bytes
+
+Contains the amount of dirty memory at which the pdflush background writeback
+daemon will start writeback.
+
+Note: dirty_background_bytes is the counterpart of dirty_background_ratio. Only
+one of them may be specified at a time. When one sysctl is written it is
+immediately taken into account to evaluate the dirty memory limits and the
+other appears as 0 when read.
+
+==============================================================
+
+dirty_background_ratio
+
+Contains, as a percentage of total system memory, the number of pages at which
+the pdflush background writeback daemon will start writing out dirty data.
+
+==============================================================
+
+dirty_bytes
+
+Contains the amount of dirty memory at which a process generating disk writes
+will itself start writeback.
+
+Note: dirty_bytes is the counterpart of dirty_ratio. Only one of them may be
+specified at a time. When one sysctl is written it is immediately taken into
+account to evaluate the dirty memory limits and the other appears as 0 when
+read.
+
+Note: the minimum value allowed for dirty_bytes is two pages (in bytes); any
+value lower than this limit will be ignored and the old configuration will be
+retained.
+
+==============================================================
+
+dirty_expire_centisecs
+
+This tunable is used to define when dirty data is old enough to be eligible
+for writeout by the pdflush daemons. It is expressed in 100'ths of a second.
+Data which has been dirty in-memory for longer than this interval will be
+written out next time a pdflush daemon wakes up.
+
+==============================================================
+
+dirty_ratio
+
+Contains, as a percentage of total system memory, the number of pages at which
+a process which is generating disk writes will itself start writing out dirty
+data.
+
+==============================================================
+
+dirty_writeback_centisecs
+
+The pdflush writeback daemons will periodically wake up and write `old' data
+out to disk. This tunable expresses the interval between those wakeups, in
+100'ths of a second.
+
+Setting this to zero disables periodic writeback altogether.
+
+==============================================================
+
+drop_caches
+
+Writing to this will cause the kernel to drop clean caches, dentries and
+inodes from memory, causing that memory to become free.
+
+To free pagecache:
+ echo 1 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches
+To free dentries and inodes:
+ echo 2 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches
+To free pagecache, dentries and inodes:
+ echo 3 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches
+
+As this is a non-destructive operation and dirty objects are not freeable, the
+user should run `sync' first.
+
+==============================================================
+
+extfrag_threshold
+
+This parameter affects whether the kernel will compact memory or direct
+reclaim to satisfy a high-order allocation. /proc/extfrag_index shows what
+the fragmentation index for each order is in each zone in the system. Values
+tending towards 0 imply allocations would fail due to lack of memory,
+values towards 1000 imply failures are due to fragmentation and -1 implies
+that the allocation will succeed as long as watermarks are met.
+
+The kernel will not compact memory in a zone if the
+fragmentation index is <= extfrag_threshold. The default value is 500.
+
+==============================================================
+
+hugepages_treat_as_movable
+
+This parameter is only useful when kernelcore= is specified at boot time to
+create ZONE_MOVABLE for pages that may be reclaimed or migrated. Huge pages
+are not movable so are not normally allocated from ZONE_MOVABLE. A non-zero
+value written to hugepages_treat_as_movable allows huge pages to be allocated
+from ZONE_MOVABLE.
+
+Once enabled, the ZONE_MOVABLE is treated as an area of memory the huge
+pages pool can easily grow or shrink within. Assuming that applications are
+not running that mlock() a lot of memory, it is likely the huge pages pool
+can grow to the size of ZONE_MOVABLE by repeatedly entering the desired value
+into nr_hugepages and triggering page reclaim.
+
+==============================================================
+
+hugetlb_shm_group
+
+hugetlb_shm_group contains group id that is allowed to create SysV
+shared memory segment using hugetlb page.
+
+==============================================================
+
+laptop_mode
+
+laptop_mode is a knob that controls "laptop mode". All the things that are
+controlled by this knob are discussed in Documentation/laptops/laptop-mode.txt.
+
+==============================================================
+
+legacy_va_layout
+
+If non-zero, this sysctl disables the new 32-bit mmap layout - the kernel
+will use the legacy (2.4) layout for all processes.
+
+==============================================================
+
+lowmem_reserve_ratio
+
+For some specialised workloads on highmem machines it is dangerous for
+the kernel to allow process memory to be allocated from the "lowmem"
+zone. This is because that memory could then be pinned via the mlock()
+system call, or by unavailability of swapspace.
+
+And on large highmem machines this lack of reclaimable lowmem memory
+can be fatal.
+
+So the Linux page allocator has a mechanism which prevents allocations
+which _could_ use highmem from using too much lowmem. This means that
+a certain amount of lowmem is defended from the possibility of being
+captured into pinned user memory.
+
+(The same argument applies to the old 16 megabyte ISA DMA region. This
+mechanism will also defend that region from allocations which could use
+highmem or lowmem).
+
+The `lowmem_reserve_ratio' tunable determines how aggressive the kernel is
+in defending these lower zones.
+
+If you have a machine which uses highmem or ISA DMA and your
+applications are using mlock(), or if you are running with no swap then
+you probably should change the lowmem_reserve_ratio setting.
+
+The lowmem_reserve_ratio is an array. You can see them by reading this file.
+-
+% cat /proc/sys/vm/lowmem_reserve_ratio
+256 256 32
+-
+Note: # of this elements is one fewer than number of zones. Because the highest
+ zone's value is not necessary for following calculation.
+
+But, these values are not used directly. The kernel calculates # of protection
+pages for each zones from them. These are shown as array of protection pages
+in /proc/zoneinfo like followings. (This is an example of x86-64 box).
+Each zone has an array of protection pages like this.
+
+-
+Node 0, zone DMA
+ pages free 1355
+ min 3
+ low 3
+ high 4
+ :
+ :
+ numa_other 0
+ protection: (0, 2004, 2004, 2004)
+ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+ pagesets
+ cpu: 0 pcp: 0
+ :
+-
+These protections are added to score to judge whether this zone should be used
+for page allocation or should be reclaimed.
+
+In this example, if normal pages (index=2) are required to this DMA zone and
+watermark[WMARK_HIGH] is used for watermark, the kernel judges this zone should
+not be used because pages_free(1355) is smaller than watermark + protection[2]
+(4 + 2004 = 2008). If this protection value is 0, this zone would be used for
+normal page requirement. If requirement is DMA zone(index=0), protection[0]
+(=0) is used.
+
+zone[i]'s protection[j] is calculated by following expression.
+
+(i < j):
+ zone[i]->protection[j]
+ = (total sums of present_pages from zone[i+1] to zone[j] on the node)
+ / lowmem_reserve_ratio[i];
+(i = j):
+ (should not be protected. = 0;
+(i > j):
+ (not necessary, but looks 0)
+
+The default values of lowmem_reserve_ratio[i] are
+ 256 (if zone[i] means DMA or DMA32 zone)
+ 32 (others).
+As above expression, they are reciprocal number of ratio.
+256 means 1/256. # of protection pages becomes about "0.39%" of total present
+pages of higher zones on the node.
+
+If you would like to protect more pages, smaller values are effective.
+The minimum value is 1 (1/1 -> 100%).
+
+==============================================================
+
+max_map_count:
+
+This file contains the maximum number of memory map areas a process
+may have. Memory map areas are used as a side-effect of calling
+malloc, directly by mmap and mprotect, and also when loading shared
+libraries.
+
+While most applications need less than a thousand maps, certain
+programs, particularly malloc debuggers, may consume lots of them,
+e.g., up to one or two maps per allocation.
+
+The default value is 65536.
+
+=============================================================
+
+memory_failure_early_kill:
+
+Control how to kill processes when uncorrected memory error (typically
+a 2bit error in a memory module) is detected in the background by hardware
+that cannot be handled by the kernel. In some cases (like the page
+still having a valid copy on disk) the kernel will handle the failure
+transparently without affecting any applications. But if there is
+no other uptodate copy of the data it will kill to prevent any data
+corruptions from propagating.
+
+1: Kill all processes that have the corrupted and not reloadable page mapped
+as soon as the corruption is detected. Note this is not supported
+for a few types of pages, like kernel internally allocated data or
+the swap cache, but works for the majority of user pages.
+
+0: Only unmap the corrupted page from all processes and only kill a process
+who tries to access it.
+
+The kill is done using a catchable SIGBUS with BUS_MCEERR_AO, so processes can
+handle this if they want to.
+
+This is only active on architectures/platforms with advanced machine
+check handling and depends on the hardware capabilities.
+
+Applications can override this setting individually with the PR_MCE_KILL prctl
+
+==============================================================
+
+memory_failure_recovery
+
+Enable memory failure recovery (when supported by the platform)
+
+1: Attempt recovery.
+
+0: Always panic on a memory failure.
+
+==============================================================
+
+min_free_kbytes:
+
+This is used to force the Linux VM to keep a minimum number
+of kilobytes free. The VM uses this number to compute a
+watermark[WMARK_MIN] value for each lowmem zone in the system.
+Each lowmem zone gets a number of reserved free pages based
+proportionally on its size.
+
+Some minimal amount of memory is needed to satisfy PF_MEMALLOC
+allocations; if you set this to lower than 1024KB, your system will
+become subtly broken, and prone to deadlock under high loads.
+
+Setting this too high will OOM your machine instantly.
+
+=============================================================
+
+min_slab_ratio:
+
+This is available only on NUMA kernels.
+
+A percentage of the total pages in each zone. On Zone reclaim
+(fallback from the local zone occurs) slabs will be reclaimed if more
+than this percentage of pages in a zone are reclaimable slab pages.
+This insures that the slab growth stays under control even in NUMA
+systems that rarely perform global reclaim.
+
+The default is 5 percent.
+
+Note that slab reclaim is triggered in a per zone / node fashion.
+The process of reclaiming slab memory is currently not node specific
+and may not be fast.
+
+=============================================================
+
+min_unmapped_ratio:
+
+This is available only on NUMA kernels.
+
+This is a percentage of the total pages in each zone. Zone reclaim will
+only occur if more than this percentage of pages are in a state that
+zone_reclaim_mode allows to be reclaimed.
+
+If zone_reclaim_mode has the value 4 OR'd, then the percentage is compared
+against all file-backed unmapped pages including swapcache pages and tmpfs
+files. Otherwise, only unmapped pages backed by normal files but not tmpfs
+files and similar are considered.
+
+The default is 1 percent.
+
+==============================================================
+
+mmap_min_addr
+
+This file indicates the amount of address space which a user process will
+be restricted from mmapping. Since kernel null dereference bugs could
+accidentally operate based on the information in the first couple of pages
+of memory userspace processes should not be allowed to write to them. By
+default this value is set to 0 and no protections will be enforced by the
+security module. Setting this value to something like 64k will allow the
+vast majority of applications to work correctly and provide defense in depth
+against future potential kernel bugs.
+
+==============================================================
+
+nr_hugepages
+
+Change the minimum size of the hugepage pool.
+
+See Documentation/vm/hugetlbpage.txt
+
+==============================================================
+
+nr_overcommit_hugepages
+
+Change the maximum size of the hugepage pool. The maximum is
+nr_hugepages + nr_overcommit_hugepages.
+
+See Documentation/vm/hugetlbpage.txt
+
+==============================================================
+
+nr_pdflush_threads
+
+The current number of pdflush threads. This value is read-only.
+The value changes according to the number of dirty pages in the system.
+
+When necessary, additional pdflush threads are created, one per second, up to
+nr_pdflush_threads_max.
+
+==============================================================
+
+nr_trim_pages
+
+This is available only on NOMMU kernels.
+
+This value adjusts the excess page trimming behaviour of power-of-2 aligned
+NOMMU mmap allocations.
+
+A value of 0 disables trimming of allocations entirely, while a value of 1
+trims excess pages aggressively. Any value >= 1 acts as the watermark where
+trimming of allocations is initiated.
+
+The default value is 1.
+
+See Documentation/nommu-mmap.txt for more information.
+
+==============================================================
+
+numa_zonelist_order
+
+This sysctl is only for NUMA.
+'where the memory is allocated from' is controlled by zonelists.
+(This documentation ignores ZONE_HIGHMEM/ZONE_DMA32 for simple explanation.
+ you may be able to read ZONE_DMA as ZONE_DMA32...)
+
+In non-NUMA case, a zonelist for GFP_KERNEL is ordered as following.
+ZONE_NORMAL -> ZONE_DMA
+This means that a memory allocation request for GFP_KERNEL will
+get memory from ZONE_DMA only when ZONE_NORMAL is not available.
+
+In NUMA case, you can think of following 2 types of order.
+Assume 2 node NUMA and below is zonelist of Node(0)'s GFP_KERNEL
+
+(A) Node(0) ZONE_NORMAL -> Node(0) ZONE_DMA -> Node(1) ZONE_NORMAL
+(B) Node(0) ZONE_NORMAL -> Node(1) ZONE_NORMAL -> Node(0) ZONE_DMA.
+
+Type(A) offers the best locality for processes on Node(0), but ZONE_DMA
+will be used before ZONE_NORMAL exhaustion. This increases possibility of
+out-of-memory(OOM) of ZONE_DMA because ZONE_DMA is tend to be small.
+
+Type(B) cannot offer the best locality but is more robust against OOM of
+the DMA zone.
+
+Type(A) is called as "Node" order. Type (B) is "Zone" order.
+
+"Node order" orders the zonelists by node, then by zone within each node.
+Specify "[Nn]ode" for node order
+
+"Zone Order" orders the zonelists by zone type, then by node within each
+zone. Specify "[Zz]one" for zone order.
+
+Specify "[Dd]efault" to request automatic configuration. Autoconfiguration
+will select "node" order in following case.
+(1) if the DMA zone does not exist or
+(2) if the DMA zone comprises greater than 50% of the available memory or
+(3) if any node's DMA zone comprises greater than 60% of its local memory and
+ the amount of local memory is big enough.
+
+Otherwise, "zone" order will be selected. Default order is recommended unless
+this is causing problems for your system/application.
+
+==============================================================
+
+oom_dump_tasks
+
+Enables a system-wide task dump (excluding kernel threads) to be
+produced when the kernel performs an OOM-killing and includes such
+information as pid, uid, tgid, vm size, rss, cpu, oom_adj score, and
+name. This is helpful to determine why the OOM killer was invoked
+and to identify the rogue task that caused it.
+
+If this is set to zero, this information is suppressed. On very
+large systems with thousands of tasks it may not be feasible to dump
+the memory state information for each one. Such systems should not
+be forced to incur a performance penalty in OOM conditions when the
+information may not be desired.
+
+If this is set to non-zero, this information is shown whenever the
+OOM killer actually kills a memory-hogging task.
+
+The default value is 1 (enabled).
+
+==============================================================
+
+oom_kill_allocating_task
+
+This enables or disables killing the OOM-triggering task in
+out-of-memory situations.
+
+If this is set to zero, the OOM killer will scan through the entire
+tasklist and select a task based on heuristics to kill. This normally
+selects a rogue memory-hogging task that frees up a large amount of
+memory when killed.
+
+If this is set to non-zero, the OOM killer simply kills the task that
+triggered the out-of-memory condition. This avoids the expensive
+tasklist scan.
+
+If panic_on_oom is selected, it takes precedence over whatever value
+is used in oom_kill_allocating_task.
+
+The default value is 0.
+
+==============================================================
+
+overcommit_memory:
+
+This value contains a flag that enables memory overcommitment.
+
+When this flag is 0, the kernel attempts to estimate the amount
+of free memory left when userspace requests more memory.
+
+When this flag is 1, the kernel pretends there is always enough
+memory until it actually runs out.
+
+When this flag is 2, the kernel uses a "never overcommit"
+policy that attempts to prevent any overcommit of memory.
+
+This feature can be very useful because there are a lot of
+programs that malloc() huge amounts of memory "just-in-case"
+and don't use much of it.
+
+The default value is 0.
+
+See Documentation/vm/overcommit-accounting and
+security/commoncap.c::cap_vm_enough_memory() for more information.
+
+==============================================================
+
+overcommit_ratio:
+
+When overcommit_memory is set to 2, the committed address
+space is not permitted to exceed swap plus this percentage
+of physical RAM. See above.
+
+==============================================================
+
+page-cluster
+
+page-cluster controls the number of pages which are written to swap in
+a single attempt. The swap I/O size.
+
+It is a logarithmic value - setting it to zero means "1 page", setting
+it to 1 means "2 pages", setting it to 2 means "4 pages", etc.
+
+The default value is three (eight pages at a time). There may be some
+small benefits in tuning this to a different value if your workload is
+swap-intensive.
+
+=============================================================
+
+panic_on_oom
+
+This enables or disables panic on out-of-memory feature.
+
+If this is set to 0, the kernel will kill some rogue process,
+called oom_killer. Usually, oom_killer can kill rogue processes and
+system will survive.
+
+If this is set to 1, the kernel panics when out-of-memory happens.
+However, if a process limits using nodes by mempolicy/cpusets,
+and those nodes become memory exhaustion status, one process
+may be killed by oom-killer. No panic occurs in this case.
+Because other nodes' memory may be free. This means system total status
+may be not fatal yet.
+
+If this is set to 2, the kernel panics compulsorily even on the
+above-mentioned. Even oom happens under memory cgroup, the whole
+system panics.
+
+The default value is 0.
+1 and 2 are for failover of clustering. Please select either
+according to your policy of failover.
+panic_on_oom=2+kdump gives you very strong tool to investigate
+why oom happens. You can get snapshot.
+
+=============================================================
+
+percpu_pagelist_fraction
+
+This is the fraction of pages at most (high mark pcp->high) in each zone that
+are allocated for each per cpu page list. The min value for this is 8. It
+means that we don't allow more than 1/8th of pages in each zone to be
+allocated in any single per_cpu_pagelist. This entry only changes the value
+of hot per cpu pagelists. User can specify a number like 100 to allocate
+1/100th of each zone to each per cpu page list.
+
+The batch value of each per cpu pagelist is also updated as a result. It is
+set to pcp->high/4. The upper limit of batch is (PAGE_SHIFT * 8)
+
+The initial value is zero. Kernel does not use this value at boot time to set
+the high water marks for each per cpu page list.
+
+==============================================================
+
+stat_interval
+
+The time interval between which vm statistics are updated. The default
+is 1 second.
+
+==============================================================
+
+swappiness
+
+This control is used to define how aggressive the kernel will swap
+memory pages. Higher values will increase agressiveness, lower values
+decrease the amount of swap.
+
+The default value is 60.
+
+==============================================================
+
+vfs_cache_pressure
+------------------
+
+Controls the tendency of the kernel to reclaim the memory which is used for
+caching of directory and inode objects.
+
+At the default value of vfs_cache_pressure=100 the kernel will attempt to
+reclaim dentries and inodes at a "fair" rate with respect to pagecache and
+swapcache reclaim. Decreasing vfs_cache_pressure causes the kernel to prefer
+to retain dentry and inode caches. When vfs_cache_pressure=0, the kernel will
+never reclaim dentries and inodes due to memory pressure and this can easily
+lead to out-of-memory conditions. Increasing vfs_cache_pressure beyond 100
+causes the kernel to prefer to reclaim dentries and inodes.
+
+==============================================================
+
+zone_reclaim_mode:
+
+Zone_reclaim_mode allows someone to set more or less aggressive approaches to
+reclaim memory when a zone runs out of memory. If it is set to zero then no
+zone reclaim occurs. Allocations will be satisfied from other zones / nodes
+in the system.
+
+This is value ORed together of
+
+1 = Zone reclaim on
+2 = Zone reclaim writes dirty pages out
+4 = Zone reclaim swaps pages
+
+zone_reclaim_mode is set during bootup to 1 if it is determined that pages
+from remote zones will cause a measurable performance reduction. The
+page allocator will then reclaim easily reusable pages (those page
+cache pages that are currently not used) before allocating off node pages.
+
+It may be beneficial to switch off zone reclaim if the system is
+used for a file server and all of memory should be used for caching files
+from disk. In that case the caching effect is more important than
+data locality.
+
+Allowing zone reclaim to write out pages stops processes that are
+writing large amounts of data from dirtying pages on other nodes. Zone
+reclaim will write out dirty pages if a zone fills up and so effectively
+throttle the process. This may decrease the performance of a single process
+since it cannot use all of system memory to buffer the outgoing writes
+anymore but it preserve the memory on other nodes so that the performance
+of other processes running on other nodes will not be affected.
+
+Allowing regular swap effectively restricts allocations to the local
+node unless explicitly overridden by memory policies or cpuset
+configurations.
+
+============ End of Document =================================